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Introduction to MIS

Chapter 12 Systems Development

Copyright © 1998-2002 by Jerry Post

Introduction to MIS


Systems Development

Prototyping Tactics


Systems development life cycle

End user development

Introduction to MIS


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Challenges in Building Information Systems Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Alternatives to SDLC
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Prototyping Teamwork Extreme Programming End-User Development

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Analyzing Systems Process Analysis Object-Oriented Design Cases: Government Agencies Appendix: Visual Basic

Introduction to MIS

Runaway Projects

Technical measures
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$ 2 - 5 times over budget 2 - 5 times behind schedule Missing technical objectives
Duplication of efforts Incompatibilities User/designer conflicts

Design problems
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Introduction to MIS


Success & Failure

Reasons for Success
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Reasons for Failure
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User Involvement Executive management support Clear requirements Proper planning Realistic expectations

Lack of user input Incomplete requirements Changing requirements and specifications Lack of executive support Lack of technical skills

Cafasso 1994

Introduction to MIS


Systems Development Life Cycle Feasibility & Planning Goals & plans Systems Analysis Business requirements Proposal Problems & Improvements Systems Design Technical Design Systems Implementation New System Existing System problems revisions problems revisions Systems Maintenance: Incremental changes Introduction to MIS 8 .

Development Controls     Detailed work plan Performance targets Practices & procedures User input & control Blue Print/Planning Introduction to MIS 9 .

Customer Order Entry Enter Salesperson Data Design Tools Visual Table of Contents Enter/Change Customer Data Look up Item Numbers Enter Items Ordered Check Inventory Status Special Orders Customer Order Copy Review and Print Forms Shipping List Back Order List Introduction to MIS 10 .

Comparison of Diagrams  Data Flow Diagram      Entity Relationship Diagram     Show process and flow of data. Yes By entities or object inheritance. Process No Increasingly detailed levels of process. Module structure No By program structure or usage steps.  Structure Chart or VTOC     Show modules and usage flow. Purpose. Classification. Decomposition Introduction to MIS 11 . Describe Data structures. Object Orientation.

Of Effort Analysis Feasibility Requirements Conceptual Design Physical Design Programming Procedure Develop. Conversion Review Maintenance 5 15 5 20 25 10 15 5 not included Design Implementation Maintenance & Review G. Introduction to MIS 12 . Davis and M.SDLC Effort Stage Procedure Approx. Pct. Management Information Systems 1985. Olson.

Systems Implementation        Final testing Involve users Education and training Flexibility Recognize how the system will affect the business Encourage users to change Implementation plans Education and training Changing Business operations Introduction to MIS 13 .

Implementation Options Direct cutover old new Parallel old new Pilot store 1 store 2 store 3 store 4 dept or component 1 dept or component 2 dept or component 3 dept or component 4 new new new new old new Phased Introduction to MIS 14 .

System Evaluation F ea sibilit y Com pa r ison Cost & Bu dget Tim e E st im a t es Reven u e E ffect s Ma in t en a n ce Cost s P r oject Goa ls User Sa t isfa ct ion Syst em P er for m a n ce Syst em Relia bilit y Syst em Ava ila bilit y Syst em Secu r it y Com pa r e a ct u a l cost s t o bu dget est im a t es. Wa s pr oject com plet ed on t im e? Does syst em pr odu ce a ddit ion a l r even u e? H ow m u ch m on ey a n d t im e a r e spen t on ch a n ges? Does syst em m eet t h e in it ia l goa ls of t h e pr oject ? H ow do u ser s (a n d m a n a gem en t ) eva lu a t e t h e syst em ? Ar e t h e r esu lt s a ccu r a t e a n d on t im e? Is t h e syst em a va ila ble on a con t in u ou s a va ila bilit y? Does t h e syst em pr ovide a ccess t o a u t h or ized u ser s? Introduction to MIS 15 .

SDLC Advantages & Disadvantages  Advantages         Disadvantages      Control & targets Formality Financial controls User input Documentation Testing Ease of maintenance Increased costs Increased time Hard for DSS Requires definitions up front Rigid Introduction to MIS 16 .

Prototyping MIS Designer User Initial Interview Build Initial Prototype New Version Use Prototype Request changes Modify Prototype Process repeats until: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) User is satisfied User and designer give up Formal system is built from prototype Need for application is removed Process never ends Introduction to MIS 17 .

Prototyping Evaluation  Advantages     Best uses     Get a working system earlier User has more input Designed to be modified Single user Reports Input screens Self-contained applications  Problems      Need 4GL trained MIS staff Too many users Too many analysts Never finish "Loss" of management control Introduction to MIS 18 .

Object Orientation  Object Orientation     Properties Methods Inheritance Polymorphism  Business Objects and Processes Introduction to MIS 19 .

Object Example Object Classes Object Properties/ Attributes Methods/ Functions Customers Name Address Phone Change Address Add New Customer Delete Customer Individual Commercial Contact Account Representative Assign Account Rep Frequent Contact Account Representative Year Started Assign Account Rep Introduction to MIS 20 .

Object Oriented SDLC versus Object Oriented 60 50 40 SDLC Object Oriented % time 30 20 10 0 Requirements Analysis Design Implementation Introduction to MIS 21 .SDLC v.

Objects & Events Events Sale Methods Record Sale Update Inventory Notify Customer Service Objects Transaction Log Accounts & Ledgers Inventory Customers Employees (commissions) Inventory Order/JIT Notify Suppliers Schedule Payment Accounts & Ledgers Suppliers Shipping/Receiving Installation & Maintenance Introduction to MIS 22 .

End-user Development  Advantages    Faster Cheaper Get what you want  Disadvantages/Problems     Lack of documentation Individual/personal differences Pre-packaged software limitations Takes User time Introduction to MIS 25 .

End-user Development When to Call for Help  Many people use the system      Need to integrate    PC versus central computer Need documentation Individual user differences Need to train users Use corporate data Tie to existing software Connect to network Avoid duplicate data Changes to corporate data  Database Integrity      Commercial software limits User time is expensive Mission critical application    Additional testing Many modifications Need security & control Introduction to MIS 26 .

Who Should Develop Systems?  MIS     End User    Size: Many users Complexity: Different departments Long development time   One-time code Can purchase pre-packaged solutions Highly trained users SDLC large project controls Cost of user time  Critical Information   How Can MIS Help?       Major changes to central data base Formal testing Formal feasibility Compatibility  Expensive hardware   Easy access to data/database Advice and help Testing & quality control Training & tutorials Support/Help Center  Specialized knowledge Introduction to MIS 27 .

RAD MIS short few few both Objects standards any varies split both JAD joint Prototyping End User user user short one none DSS medium short few few DSS one or two one or two DSS Interface Document./DSS formal long many many Trans. & Training Integrity & Security Re-usability minimal vital minimal limited Windows in objects crucial limited crucial weak crucial none vital limited vital some in objects vital limited limited weak weak weak none Introduction to MIS 28 .Choosing Methodologies SDLC Control Time frame Users MIS staff Trans.

A Systems Approach to Process Analysis  Systems       Input. Output Divide and Conquer Goals and Objectives Control and Feedback Diagramming Systems Common Systems Problems Basic Systems Input Output Process Introduction to MIS 29 . Process.

System boundary: The Zoo Requests & Comments Suppliers Animal Feed Invoices The Zoo Education Visitor Counts Baby Animals Registration Papers Health Data Members Donors Visitors Money Other Zoos Educational Materials Introduction to MIS 30 .

Subsystems: The Zoo Donor & Public Relations Animal Care Manage Human Resources Produce Management Reports Manage Facilities Introduction to MIS 31 .

Goals and Feedback Input Process Output Goal Control Feedback Analyze Introduction to MIS 32 .

Data Flow Diagram Objects External Entity Process Data Store (file) Data Flow Feedback and Control Data Introduction to MIS 33 .

& building request maintenance schedule pay data. employees Management reports management 3 manage human resources specialist request employee schedule maint. benefits. etc. receipts zoo booster members donors money & requests The Zoo: Level 0 public requests 4 animal care other zoos & breeders 1 donor and public relations needs & budgets animal requests health research 2 produce mgt. requests Usage reports 5 manage facilities certification agencies Introduction to MIS 34 . reports emp. reports hours.public/ zoo visitors PR data receipts etc.

data. donors The Zoo: Level 1 money & requests zoo booster newsletter members notices.public/ zoo visitors receipts money & comments PR data receipts etc. donor requests plans visitor statistics lists public requests 1.2 handle donor requests Introduction to MIS .4 needs & track needs plans 1. money & suggestions 1.5 and donor produce programs needs & budgets accounting expenses & budget animal & reports public requests accounting needs reports adopt an animal files 35 1. etc. booster services & meetings donor booster needs & requests money.3 1.1 produce PR & outreach programs org.

..Systems: Data Dictionary  Processes    Animal Care Donor & Public Relations Employee Relations Certification Agencies Donors Accounting Reports Certification Reports Description . .. ..  Entities    Data   Introduction to MIS 36 . . ..........

mostly weekly Budgets and special requests from animal care Suggestions and comments from the public Introduction to MIS 37 . . planning Collect data and produce summary reports for management En titie s Cer t ifica t ion a gen cies Don or s E m ployees Ot h er zoos a n d br eeder s P u blic/zoo visit or s Zoo boost er m em ber s Government and private agencies that create rules and regulate zoos People and companies who donate money to the zoo Primary (paid) workers. r epor t s D e s crip tio n . clean.Data Dictionary P ro c e s s e s An im a l ca r e Don or & pu blic r ela t ion s E m ployee r ela t ion s F a cilit y m a n a gem en t P r odu ce m gt . and vet care Handle public requests and provide educational information Schedule employees. new construction. process benefits. produced annually Summaries of work done and plans. . we rarely keep data on individuals Members who donate money and time for minor benefits D a ta Accou n t in g r epor t s Cer t ifica t ion r epor t s F a cilit y r epor t s Needs a n d bu dgets P u blic r equ est s Standard (GAAS) accounting reports for management Reports for certification agencies. Feed. full-time and part-time Zoos we trade with and share data with Daily visits. handle government reports Handle maintenance.

System Problems Do not include data flows between external entities. warranty registration Manufacturer purchase orders Invoices orders Customer Sell Products sales receipt A process cannot invent data. Modify Reports Introduction to MIS 38 . Maybe it should be a file instead. Drop the line or make one of the entities internal. It must have a data flow coming in to it. weekly report daily sales Store reports Save Reports Inventory list A process cannot be a black hole--data must flow out of the process.

Visitors Zoo system boundary Boundaries Distribute Educational Materials Create Educational Materials Problem Boundary Problem: Shortages of Educational Materials Introduction to MIS 39 .

Common Systems Problems      Defective subsystems Wrong Data Errors in Data Missing feedback and control Not responding to environment Receive Orders Check Customer Credit Check Orders for Errors Introduction to MIS 40 .

4 donor requests Track needs & donor programs needs & budgets expenses & budget animal needs & plans Problems Some animal budgets have excess $ Some animal budgets have no money donor list & animal needs adopt an animal files Introduction to MIS 41 . & Effect booster requests public requests donor lists 1. money & suggestions zoo booster members money & requests 1. etc.2 Handle donor requests needs & needs & plans plans 1.donors PR data receipts etc. Cause notices.3 Booster services & meetings Identifying newsletter.

    Encapsulation Object Hierarchies Inheritance Polymorphism Object-Oriented Design Object name: Account Number Beginning Balance Name Ending Balance Client Current Balance Manager Interest Rate Date Opened Open Acct Close Acct Accept Deposits Withdrawal Pay Interest Object attributes/properties: Object functions/methods: Savings Interest Rate Monthly Fees Pay Interest Compute Charges Print Quarterly Statement Budget Saver Checking Lowest Balance in Month Bad Check Charges Authorized Signature Print Monthly Statement Send Bad Check Notice Pay Interest Volume Senior Citizen CD Fixed Fee Student Money Market Introduction to MIS 42 .

Rolling Thunder Order Entry Process BikeSizes Order Entry Clerk Retail Store Bicycle Select BikeTubes Customer BikeParts Pricing Components Introduction to MIS 43 .

Rolling Thunder Manufacturing Process Frame Assembler Painter BikeTubes QOH TubeMaterial Bicycle Customer BikeParts QOH Components Customer Transaction Installer Introduction to MIS 44 .

Rolling Thunder Purchasing Process Purchase Order Purchase QOH Items Purchase Order Components Employee Receive Manufacturer Transaction Manufacturer Dock employee Introduction to MIS 45 .

Some Classes for Rolling Thunder Customer 1 CustomerID Phone FirstName LastName Address ZIPCode CityID BalanceDue Customer Bicycle BikeTubes Customer 1 * SerialNumber SerialNumber * CustomerID TubeName 1 ModelType TubeID PaintID Length FrameSize 1 BikeParts OrderDate StartDate SerialNumber * * ShipDate * ComponentID ShipEmployee SubstituteID FrameAssembler Location Painter Quantity Construction … WaterBottle… Manufacturer CustomName ManufacturerID LetterStyleID ManufacturerName 1 StoreID ContactName EmployeeID Phone … … Components ComponentID ManufacturerID ProductNumber Road Category Length Height Width Weight Description ListPrice EstimatedCost QuantityOnHand 46 Introduction to MIS .

Rolling Thunder Bicycle Class Diagram Introduction to MIS 47 .

Cases: Government Agencies Introduction to MIS 48 .

gov What is the company’s current status? What is the Internet strategy? How does the company use information technology? What are the prospects for the industry? Introduction to MIS 49 www.Cases: Federal Aviation Administration Internal Revenue Service www.

Right. 50 . Left. LTrim Mid. RTrim.Math functions Abs Absolute value Atn Arc Tangent Cos Cosine Exp Exponential Fix Returns integer portion Int Converts to integer Log Logarithm Rnd Random number Sgn Signum (-1. 0. UCase Len Format InStr. Trim Introduction to MIS Appendix: Visual Basic  Programming Logic  Computations   Variables Internal functions     Conditions Loops Input Output Compare two strings Convert to lowercase or uppercase Find length of a string Format a string Manipulate strings. 1) Sin Sine Sqr Square root Tan Tangent String functions StrComp LCase.

05 Case Customer = ‘Government’ Discount = 0.10 Case Else Discount = 0.VB: Conditions If (condition) Then statements if true Else statements if false End If Select Case Customer Case Customer = ‘Corporate’ If (Sales > 1000) Then Bonus = 100 Else Bonus = 0 Discount = 0.01 End Select End If Introduction to MIS 51 .

VB: Loops total = 0 For month = 1 To 12 total = total + SalesForMonth(month) Next month month = 1 sales = 0 Do Until (sales > 100000) sales = sales + SalesForMonth(month) month = month + 1 Loop Introduction to MIS 52 .

Introduction to MIS 53 .VB: Input and Output Could use: InputBox. the form collects the data and displays the result. MsgBox. In this example. and Printer object. Generally just use data in the application.

Sub Macro1() ' Keyboard Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+U For Each c In Selection c. i + 1. 1) = UCase(Mid(txt. 1.Value = PCase(c. 1)) i=2 Do While (i > 0) And (i < Len(txt)) i = InStr(i. " ") If (i > 0) And (i < Len(txt)) Then Mid(txt. 1) = UCase(Mid(txt. 1. i + 1. 1)) i=i+1 End If Loop PCase = txt End Function Introduction to MIS ALTA SNOWBASIN BRIGHTON PARK CITY DEER PARK SOLITUDE Alta Snowbasin Brighton Park City Deer Park Solitude 143 154 113 115 120 137 143 154 113 115 120 137 54 . txt.Value) Next c End Sub VBA: Excel Example Function PCase(txt) ' Convert a text value to proper case Dim i As Integer txt = LCase(txt) Mid(txt.