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1925. 399) .Nuclear Families  Biological parents and their offspring are LEGALLY PROTECTED  The parents has the freedom “to direct the upbringing and education of children” (Meyer v. State of Nebraska. p.

.  Many homes headed by single mothers are economically poor.  Divorce is one of the main cause of having single – parent families.Single – Parent Families  There are more single mothers than fathers.

.Single – Parent Families  The lack or loss of income to a family affects where children live and go to school.

.Parent Families  Poverty’s most important effect on children is their status with peers.  Not only do they lack the advantages others assume as their rights but often they never even consider attending college because no one they know has considered it.Single .

. and less likely to be poor.Single – Parent Families  Single fathers are much fewer.  The fathers communicate MORE frequently with their children than did traditional fathers.

.  Children face a difficult situation as they learn to adapt to at least two systems of rules as well as a variety of roles.Post Divorce Families (bi-residential)  Where children must live in two households simultaneously.

co parenting succesful? 2. 2004) . biresidential. Maintaining mutual interest and mutual involvement in the child’s life. Continued communication of warmth towards the child. 5. 3. (Lewis. 4.Post Divorce Families parenting (bi-residential) Authoritative styles. 1. & Wallerstein. How to make postdivorce. Effective management of conflict. Responsiveness to the child’s growing needs. Johnson-Reitz.

2009) .Custodial Grandparenting  Grandparents provide much of the nurturance that parents would traditionally give. are reffered to as Boomerang Children (Vogl-Bauer.  Adults who return to their childhood homes. with or without their children.

 Grandparents who take on parenting role reported lower satisfaction with grandparenting and a reduced sense of well being. (Shore & Hayslip. 1995)  Most custodial grandparenting is in response to distress in the nuclear family.Custodial Grandparenting  Given recent increases in unemployment and home foreclosures. the numbers of boomerang children and their children are getting higher. .

Custodial Grandparenting  When triad of grandparent. parent and child are equally linked in these configurations. she expresses high satisfaction.  When grandmother is the link between child and parent. . then most parties are satisfied.

 If the appropriate authoritative party – the grandparent who is the caregiver – links the family triad. grandmother expresses lower satisfaction. .  What’s most important is that thismiddle position is unhealthy for the child.Custodial Grandparenting  When the child is the link between parent and grandparent. then outcomes are fairly positive.

.Custodial Grandparenting  Most grandparents would prefer simply to be GRANDPARENTS – to have freedom to spoil their grandchildren and still have their own adult lives.