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Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

.  The wireless network operates in basically two modes: .Ad hoc Wireless Mode. .Infrastructured Wireless Mode.Introduction to Wireless Network  The wireless network can be defined as a collection of mobile nodes forming a network without the aid of any established infrastructure or any centralized administration.

 Generally the routing protocols are classified as:  Table-driven Routing Protocol (Proactive Protocol) DSDV.  On demand Routing Protocol (Reactive Protocol) AODV.Routing Protocol  Routing protocols use several metrics to calculate the best path for routing the packets to its destination. AOMDV. OLSR . .

 Inefficient energy consumption of the network can cause node failure and network partition. .Issues in Mobile Ad-hoc Network  Energy consumption is a crucial design concern in wireless networks since wireless nodes are typically battery limited.  Energy consumption is one of the most important performance metrics for wireless networks because it directly relates to the operational lifetime of the network.

Neural networks can build informative models where more conventional approaches fail. They are flexible in a changing environment. . Neural networks are trained to perform complex functions in various fields of application.Neural Network  Neural       networks are composed of simple elements operating in parallel. Neural networks now operate well with modest computer hardware. These elements are inspired by biological nervous systems. Advantages of using Neural Networks: The system is developed through learning rather than programming.

. in order to balance the traffic load among the different nodes according to their nodal residual battery and prolong the individual nodes life time and hence the entire system lifetime.  Use several criteria for routing to provide better network operation.Objective  Implementing a routing protocol MMRE-AOMDV [1] (a variant of AOMDV [2]). using Neural Network.

 A distributed protocol to find link-disjoint paths [2].  It is designed primarily for highly dynamic ad hoc networks where link failures and route breaks occur frequently.  The AOMDV protocol has two main components:  A route update rule to establish and maintain multiple loop-free paths at each node.AOMDV  Ad-hoc On-Demand Multi path Distance Vector Routing (AOMDV) [2] protocol is an extension to the AODV protocol [3]. .  A noteworthy feature of the AOMDV protocol is the use of routing information already available in the underlying AODV protocol as much as possible[2]. The main idea in AOMDV is to compute multiple paths during route discovery.

. maximum residual energy and the neural network based EE-AOMDV routing procedure.  OP-AOMDV considers shortest path.Approach for Energy Efficiency  Modify MMRE-AOMDV protocol[1] which includes Minimum Residual Energy of each route to develop EEAOMDV and OP-AOMDV.  EE-AOMDV protocol which integrates the effect of shortest path and maximal residual energy schemes using neural networks.

Determining the routing factor using Back Propagation Neural Network. 3. Determining the minimal residual energy for each route during the route discovery.  EE-AOMDV protocol possesses following fundamental elements: 1. Selecting the route with maximal routing factor from the available routes to forward the data packets. 2.EE-AOMDV Protocol  Uses the residual energy of the intermediate nodes for route selection. .

. Determining the minimal residual energy for each route during the route discovery.  Min-energy is updated at every intermediate node.  Min-energy is the ratio of the current residual energy of the node over the initial or the maximum energy of the node.1.  The RREQ and RREP packet include the minimum energy (min-energy).

NN network prefers route with higher residual energy and smaller hop count. Determining the routing factor using Back Propagation Neural Network  Input1     = Minimum Residual Energy of the route. This is the 3rd step. Output = Routing Factor. Route with maximum value of Routing factor is selected.2. Input2 = Hop Count for the route. .

. min-energyRE. maximum residual energy criteria and EEAOMDV respectively. minenergyEE represents minimum residual energy of route based on shortest path criteria.  It considers shortest path.OP-AOMDV Protocol  It uses the best available route on hop by hop basis and therefore provides highly adaptively efficient routing. maximum residual energy and the neural network based EE-AOMDV routing procedure. We have considered 1% as the leeway to select the optimum where 0.01 is the normalized energy.  min-energyMH.

EE-AOMDV and OP-AOMDV enhances the throughput of the data transfer compared to AOMDV.Results OP-AOMDV leads to a higher throughput as compared to EEAOMDV and AOMDV. At any given speed. .

the average end-to-end delay provided by OPAOMDV is less than the delay provided by EE-AOMDV and AOMDV. . The packet delivery ratio provided by EE-AOMDV and OP-AOMDV is higher than that of AOMDV.As the speed increases.

Features of EE-AOMDV and OP-AOMDV  Provides energy efficient routing using multiple criteria’s. reduced end-to-end delay and better packet delivery ratio compared to AOMDV [2]. .  Provides longer network lifetime.  Little increase in routing overhead due to an additional field in route discovery packet prolongs the individual node’s lifetime and hence the entire system lifetime. higher average throughput.

[3]C. “On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. 1999. 572 . 2008. Huizhu Ma.: 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. pp. pp. "Ad-Hoc Ondemand Distance Vector Routing". Marina. Tao Jiang. Das.References [1]Yumei Liu. . Perkins and E. IEEE.” in Proc. Royer. [2]M. 99 .100. M. Lili Guo.: International Conference for Network Protocols. E.R. “Energy Efficient on–demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks”. in Proc. IEEE.576. pp 14 – 23. IEEE. S. 2001.K.