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CHAPTER 1

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MOLECULES OF LIFE
1.1 WATER 1.2 CARBOHYDRATES 1.3 LIPIDS 1.4 PROTEINS 1.5 NUCLEIC ACIDS

. • Describe the properties of water and its importance.1 WATER OBJECTIVES • Explain the structure of water molecule.1.

ROLES OF WATER  medium for enzymatic reactions  solvent for polar molecules  medium for exchange of respiratory gases .

ROLES OF WATER  external media for aquatic organisms  locomotion secrete waste products food resources  external fertilization .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE  wide V-shaped structure  1 oxygen atom  2 hydrogen atoms  covalent bonds  bond angle: 104.5° .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE  Polar molecule  opposite ends of water molecule have opposite charges  oxygen: partial negative charge. –  hydrogen: partial positive charge. +  Polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE  Formation of hydrogen bond • hydrogen atoms of one water molecule • attracted to oxygen atoms of nearby water molecules • by hydrogen bonds .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE  Hydrogen bond • hydrogen bonds are weaker than covalent bonds • but strong enough to hold water molecules together • each molecule will form hydrogen bond to a maximum of four water molecules .

STRUCTURE OF WATER MOLECULE .

PROPERTIES OF WATER  As universal solvent  Has low viscosity  Has high specific heat capacity  Has high latent heat of vaporization  Has high surface tension  Has maximum density at 4°C .

1.g. AS UNIVERSAL SOLVENT due to its polarity: water as universal solvent for ions and polar molecules e. Na+ Cl–  oxygen regions are attracted to positively charged sodium  hydrogen regions are attracted to negatively charged chloride .

 surround sodium and chloride and avoid them from each other  separate .

in blood capillaries and xylem .BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  solvent for most solutes  provides an aqueous medium for biochemical reactions  serves as the body’s major transport medium e.g.

2. HAS LOW VISCOSITY  due to hydrogen bonds between water molecules continuously form. break and reform .

g: peristaltic movement of food bolus in esophagus Water molecules can moves easily and flow with less friction through narrow blood vessel .e. lubricates movement of substances e.BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  as lubricant i.

3. HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY DEFINITION  large amount of heat energy (in J @ cal)  that must be absorbed @ lost for 1g of substance (water molecule)  to change its temperature by 1°C  specific heat capacity for water = 4200 J kg-1°C-1 .

3. HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY  a lot of heat energy is required/ released to change the temperature of water bonds between water molecules to raise temperature of water molecule energy is absorbed to break all hydrogen energy is released as hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules to cool down temperature of water molecules .

BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  stabilize ocean temperature in the sea for aquatic organisms to live  act as heat buffer provide constant environment prevent large fluctuation in body temperature of terrestrial organisms .

HIGH LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION DEFINITION  large amount of heat energy must be absorbed by 1g of water molecule to turn liquid water into water vapour   caused by breakdown of hydrogen bond  latent heat of vaporization for water = 540 cal g-1  hydrogen bond between water molecules make it difficult for them to be separated and vaporized .4.

BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  evaporation of water in sweat on skin.  or in transpiration from green leaves  or panting in animals e.g. dog  causes the cooling effect  because the escaping molecules take a lot of energy with them .

between water molecules and wall of xylem vessels . between water molecules  adhesive force: force of attraction between water molecule with the other molecule  e.g.g.COHESIVE AND ADHESIVE FORCE  cohesive force: force of attraction between the same molecule  e.

cohesion of water within xylem vessel drawn upwards from roots  adhesion of water to wall of xylem vessel resist the downward pull of gravity .PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE #1  Upward movement of water from roots through xylem vessels  adhesion and cohesion creates capillary action  as water evaporates from leaves.

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HIGH SURFACE TENSION Surface tension is a measure of how forces between water molecules hard it is to break the surface of a liquid  Surface tension is related to cohesive .PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE #2 5.

 arrangement of water molecules on the surface bonded by hydrogen bond with water molecules underneath form a skin like layer at the surface  one molecule is p attracted by adjacent molecules .

g. water skater .BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  surface tension allows insects to walk on the water surface e.

6. liquid water transforms into ice (solid)  ice is less dense than liquid water at 4°C  Ice floats in liquid water because hydrogen bonds in ice are more “ordered”. making ice less dense . MAXIMUM DENSITY AT 4°C at 0°C.

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allow life to exist under the floating ice . lakes. act as insulator  to prevent ponds.BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE  ice floats. oceans from freezing  thus.

 CONCLUSION • All living organisms require WATER more than any other substance • Most cells are surrounded by water. and cells themselves are about 70-95% water .

. QUESTION • Give TWO significances of hydrogen bonding in water molecules.

 QUESTION • Why must water absorb relatively large quantity of heat in order to change its temperature? [1 mark] • To break hydrogen bond .