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How to characterize a fractured reservoir?

Hydraulic characterization

Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

@Beicip-Franlab

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Hydraulic characterization
Conceptual model

HOW TO MODEL A FRACTURED RESERVOIR ?

DFN model (Discrete fracture model)

Locally connected fractures

Log-Log plot

Regional diffuse fractures

Static & dynamic calibration

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Transient well tests Core data Outcrops

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Fracture Up-scaling

Equivalent parameters (Kfx, Kfy, Kfz, a, b, c, ff)

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Flowmeter Image Logs Seismic facies analysis

Mud Losses

Production data Drilling reports, Pressure data, Tracer tests, etc

Full field simulation

Well data

Inter-well data
Dynamic analysis

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Static analysis

Simulation grid Block Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

@Beicip-Franlab

Wireline Logs

Curvature analysis

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Hydraulic characterization of fractures

 OBJECTIVES: • • • • Estimate the impact of natural fractures on fluid flow Validate the fracture network geometry Determine the distribution of fracture conductivities Estimate the fractures aperture

 APPROACHES: • Conventional dynamic data analysis • Flow simulation of well tests and/or flowmeters in the discrete fracture network models and comparison/tuning to actual well test results • History match using a full field model
@Beicip-Franlab

Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Useful data for hydraulic characterization
  Drilling reports: mud losses and rate of penetration Well testing:
• Drawdown, buildup: equivalent permeability, dual-medium parameters (l, w) • Interference: flow anisotropy • Tracer injection: main flow paths, block size (single well test)

Production logs (flowmeters, T°C):
• Location of conductive fractures, conductivity

Production history:
• Maps of PI and II: correlation with the density of conductive fractures • Pressure maps: idem + communication between panels (sealing faults)

• WOC maps (evolution): conductive sub-seismic faults and fracture swarms
• …
Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?
@Beicip-Franlab

• Individual wells water-cut/GOR evolution with time

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Fracture characterization using mud losses Example 1 Mud losses due to “conductive” joints “Conductive” or “resistive” joints Mud losses due to “resistive” joints Mud losses at a depth where GR is higher than 70° API Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? @Beicip-Franlab 5 .

Fracture characterization using mud losses Example 2 100% loss 1300 ft (400 m) 3% loss 100% loss 100% loss Highest fracture density 250 m Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? @Beicip-Franlab 6 .

Fracture characterization using well tests  Transient well test signature Specific signatures are expected in a fractured reservoir: large wellbore storage fracture corridor “hydraulic” fracture constant pressure boundary Dual porosity signature  Transient well test parameters: • • • • Equivalent permeability (KH) Dual-medium parameters (λ. ω) Conductivity of the fracture crossing the well Distance between the well and the fracture swarm / fracture network / fault @Beicip-Franlab Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 7 .

0 1 0 .Horner plot 10000 Log-log plot 1000 100 10 1 E -4 1 E -3 0 .Transient well tests analysis [psia] Build-up [ST B/D] 1E+5 History plot (Pressure [psia].1 1 10 100 1000 Semi-Log plot: p [psia] vs Superposition time Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? @Beicip-Franlab 8 . Liquid Rate [STB/D] vs Time [hr]) Semi-log plot .

ft History plot KH_2000 KH_500 (ref) KH_1000 KH_2000 KH_500 (ref) KH_1000 Semi-Log plot Log-Log plot Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? @Beicip-Franlab 9 .ft [psia] Kh = 1000 mD.ft [STB/D] Kh = 500 mD.KH impact on well test plots Kh = 2000 mD.

1 bbl/psi History plot Semi-Log plot Log-Log plot Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 10 @Beicip-Franlab .01 bbl/psi [STB/D] C = 0.Wellbore storage effect C = 0.001 bbl/psi [psia] C = 0.

H < Radial Flow Well Bore Storage K.H > K. wellbore volume) Small Storage Large Storage Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 11 @Beicip-Franlab Δt (log scale) . WBS + Skin Pressure (log scale) Pressure curve Small Skin Derivative curve Skin Horizontal Slope Large Skin K.The Log-log plot interpretation Homogeneous reservoir.H Log-Log plot C (= fluid in well compressibility .

. Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 12 @Beicip-Franlab Omega: storativity ratio  the fraction of the pore volume occupied by the fissures to the total interconnected pore volume.Transient well tests analysis Homogeneous reservoir Fractured reservoir Log-Log plot Log-Log plot w f f Ctf f f Ctf  fmCtm km 2 rw kf l  Lambda: interporosity flow parameter  the ability of the matrix to flow into the fissure network.

H fracture (End T1 1st R.F.) T2 Matrix starts flowing => Pressure support => Derivative curve decreases λ decreases (block size increases &/or km decreases &/or kf increases) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? @Beicip-Franlab 13 .F.Transient well tests in Fractured reservoir Dual porosity signature Second Radial Flow Final Steady state Flow in Matrix & Fractures K.) (Begining 2nd R.H (Matrix + Fracture) ~ K.H fracture (Φm &/or Ctm increases) (End WBS) TAft ω decreases First radial flow Fractures only K.

h w=0.1 l=10-6 l=10-7 Log-Log plot l=10-8 Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 14 @Beicip-Franlab .Transient well tests in Fractured reservoir Dual porosity signature f f Ctf w f f Ctf  fmCtm l  km 2 rw kf w=0.1 Kfrac.

Transient well tests in Fractured reservoir Dual porosity signature l=10-7 f f Ctf w f f Ctf  fmCtm k 2 l   m rw kf w=0.1 w=0.01 w=0.1 w=0.01 w=0.5 Log-Log plot w=0.5 @Beicip-Franlab [STB/D] [psia] Semi-Log plot History plot Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 15 .

5’’/2=0.889 (1 fracture every 6 feet) Lambda = 1. l  km 2 rw kf Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 16 @Beicip-Franlab Lambda: • α is the Warren & Root shape factor (also called sigma) • Between 10-3 and 10-10.1 10-3 . If Lambda is higher.354 feet Km=10mD Kf=1. the level of heterogeneity is usually too small for the dual porosity effects to be of importance.Transient well tests in Fractured reservoir Dual porosity signature f f Ctf w f f Ctf  fmCtm Omega: if Ctf= Ctm. • Example: rw=8.0 D α = 32/L2 = 0. then Omega gives an estimation of the percentage of pore volume present in the fracture network.

sphere Infinite Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 17 @Beicip-Franlab Kh = 563 mD.ft Skin = 0 Kh = 292 mD.7 . several matched model Radial flow period Radial flow period Log-Log plot Log-Log plot Model : Well : Reservoir : Boundary : Storage + skin Homogeneous One sealing fault at 800 ft Model : Well : Reservoir : Boundary : Storage + skin Two porosity .One well test.ft Skin = -3.

117 Log-Log plot Wellbore storage can make the finding of the dual-porosity parameters a very difficult task! Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 18 @Beicip-Franlab .01 Log-Log plot Match obtained with l=8.10-8 & w=0.Transient well tests in Fractured reservoir Influence of wellbore storage Match obtained with l=10-7 & w=0.

0275 0.Well tests in Fractured reservoir Influence of Wellbore storage • Phase redistribution effect • Changing wellbore storage Log-Log plot Log-Log plot Dual media Omega Lambda 0.0693 Increasing wellbore storage Ci/Cf = 0.39 Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 19 @Beicip-Franlab .

5 (CDf = 0) and 1 Log-Log plot: dp and dp' [psi] vs dt [hr] ! The productivity of fractured wells is so high that wellbore storage isn’t seen in most cases. Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 20 @Beicip-Franlab .Well tests in Fractured reservoir Conductive fracture at well Slope between 0.

h Re .m m C 0.Constant P.No Flow 0.146 Lambda 0.555 0.Constant P.65 20 130 m3/bar ---md.Well tests in Fractured reservoir Hydraulically fractured well (gas field) Log-Log plot Log-Log plot Selected Model Model Option Well WBS Type Reservoir Boundary Standard Model Storage + Skin Changing Homogeneous Circle Selected Model Model Option Well Reservoir Boundary Standard Model Uniform Flux Two Porosity PSS Intersecting Faults Results Results C Ci/Cf Alpha Skin k.00656 L1 . N 2 m3/bar -m md.0612 Skin 0 Xf 12.m --18 30.189 214 -1. L2 .13 Omega 0.h 8.9 -- m m Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 21 @Beicip-Franlab .8 k.

16E-5 Re .25 Omega 0.h 6.26 k 1.28E-7 Ci/Cf 2.Well tests in Fractured reservoir Constant pressure boundary at 50 m Gas field .Europe Log-Log plot Selected Model Model Option Well WBS Type Reservoir Boundary Standard Model Storage + Skin Changing Two Porosity PSS Circle Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 22 @Beicip-Franlab Results C 2.33 Delta P Skin 30.0201 Lambda 1.Constant P.25 Alpha 8830 Skin 2. 52.4 m3/Pa ---bar bara md.m md --m .4574 Pi 387.101 k.

Transient well tests in fractured reservoirs  Comparison KHtest Vs KHmatrix • KHmatrix estimated from core or from synthetic permeability log • The principal difficulty is to estimate H 100000 KHtest (mD.m) from transient welltests interpertation 10000 1000 100 10 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 KHmatrix (mD.m) from synthetic permeability log Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 23 @Beicip-Franlab 1 .

Transient well tests in fractured reservoirs  Change of KHtest with stimulation • Can indicate the presence of nearby heterogeneities 2500 (mD.m) hydraulic after test KH 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 @Beicip-Franlab KH test before hydraulic fracture (mD.m) test KH after hydraulic stimulation fracture (mD.m) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 24 .

Transient well tests in fractured reservoirs  Comparision between KHtest and distance to nearby faults • Can indicate the presence of fracture corridors Vertical wells drilled in the area covered by the 3D seismic 100 KHtest / KHmatrix (mD.m) 10 1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0.1 Distance between wells and the closest fault / lineament (m) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 25 @Beicip-Franlab .

distance to this fault/swarm @Beicip-Franlab • No flow boundary: width of fractured zone.Hydraulic characterization of fractures What can be expected from well test analysis in a fractured reservoir ? • Skin: fracture connectivity. l • Direct measurement of fracture conductivity • Reservoir KH • Constant pressure boundary: presence of conductive fault/swarm. distance to this fault Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 26 . presence of a sealing fault. damage of mud losses • Dual porosity signature: w.

Fracture characterization using flowmeters • Correlation between fracture density and flowmeter data • Determination of conductivity using flowmeter data Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 27 @Beicip-Franlab .

Hydraulic characterization – use of flowmeter data Dynamic fracture characterisation – Qualitative estimation from PLT Well fracture log Well production log N60 Depth 1 Depth 2 Depth 3 N150 N100 N100 Depth 4 Depth 5 Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 28 @Beicip-Franlab .

Fault conductivity from flowmeter Presence of a fracture swarm Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 29 @Beicip-Franlab .

Fault conductivity from flowmeter sub-seismic fault (SSF) Fracture density log Facies (KM) 100 Flowmeter 0 QF QM + QF Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 30 @Beicip-Franlab QF cF  L   KM QM cF: fault conductivity L: length of measurement (homogeneous facies) KM: matrix permeability QM: matrix rate QF: fault rate .

Fault conductivity from flowmeter CF ~ 70 Darcy.m Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 31 @Beicip-Franlab .

Match of PLT using DFN simulation Dynamic fracture characterisation Quantitative estimation from PLT simulation with Fraca® DFN model used for the simulation Result of the simulation Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 32 @Beicip-Franlab .

Fracture characterization using history data Validation of a fracture network using: • well productivity data • water/gas production • breakthrough times • signature of water/gas production Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 33 @Beicip-Franlab .

ResPI = 79 Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 34 .Validation of fractures against dynamic data Seismic facies non fractured PI = 7 moderatly fractured PI = 22 High water cut highly fractured PI = 33 poorly fractured Water at the last 500ft highly fractured @Beicip-Franlab Up. Res PI = 78 Bot.

00 4.00 3247200 511500 512000 512500 513000 513500 3247200 514000 10.00 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Distance from the w ell to the lineam ent (m ) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 35 @Beicip-Franlab 0.00 6.00 8.00 .00 B84 3248400 N130 EW 3248400 16.00 2.00 14.Influence of faults on well productivity 511500 3249600 512000 B61 512500 513000 513500 514000 3249600 PRODU NO RES ABAND SHUT IN 3249000 Determination of the lineament influence zone in the WEST part of ZONE 1 3249000 18.00 3247800 3247800 PI/Length in Asmari (stb/d/psi/m) 12.

Validation of fractures: use of history data 31 6 103 18 91 1 34 88 22 1 11 124 96 17 1 10 125 135 99 1 36 21 126 89 20 137 1 00 127 150 97 129 31 3 31 1 300 308 330 Injectors 31 8 Dry 42 1 39 319 1 18 1 05 320 1 32 92 304 106 309 301 Wet 19 312 302 @Beicip-Franlab 321 1 07 140 78 Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 1 09 36 .

Fracture swarm and water breakthrough wcut wcut t Well Well t Increasing Rate Fracture swarm @Beicip-Franlab Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 37 .

Fracture swarm and water breakthrough Well far from a fracture swarm Well near a fracture swarm Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? Well on a fracture swarm 38 @Beicip-Franlab .

faults.) Advantages: a flow simulation model better constrained by the geology: . . ..possibility of evolution @Beicip-Franlab Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 39 ..Hydraulic characterization of fractures Simulation approach: • Simulate transient or steady-state well tests on the detailed geological model incorporating fracture and sedimentological data • Tune fracture flow properties (conductivities) to match the measured pressures (distribution of rates)  conductive sets • If major discrepancies remain: re-analyse/change the geological model (fracture attributes in relation with facies properties.higher reliability.. ..) with the help of other information (production history.

Well test simulation on a DFN  Single-phase compressible flow of oil to well-bore : • from the matrix to the nearest fracture • through the fracture network to the well The simulation model:    Explicit discretization of the fracture network (nodes and cells) A specific matrix block assigned to each fracture cell Pseudo steady-state M-F exchanges Ref. 2001 (to be published in SPEFE) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 40 @Beicip-Franlab . L. R. Symp." S. Sim. Bourbiaux. Res. Jeannin.:"Hydraulic Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs: Simulation on Discrete Fracture Models. SPE 66398. Basquet and B. Sarda.

mid points between two intersections .fracture extremities .Fracture cell definition Fracture cell Computation nodes (intersections) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 41 @Beicip-Franlab Fracture cell limits placed at: .

Matrix block determination Matrix block Fracture cell Fracture nodes XY Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 42 @Beicip-Franlab .

@Beicip-Franlab Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 43 .Matrix-fracture flow transfers  Pseudo-steady-state approach: flux is proportional to pressure drop Tm f Fm f   Pm  Pf ) μ  M-F transmissivity Tmf: • no time dependence • dependence on the matrix block geometry  Assumption: the local matrix pressure varies linearly with the distance to the nearest fracture.

Well test in a dense fracture network 400 m Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 44 @Beicip-Franlab .

Build-up test simulation Simulated pressure maps T1 (fracture-dominated) T2 (end of transition) T3 P dP/dt (pseudo-steady-state) T1 T2 T3 log(Dt) Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 45 @Beicip-Franlab .

Well test simulation in a 3D network Complex 3D fracture network Exact location of well-fracture intersections WELL Pseudo steady-state matrix-fracture exchanges Visualisation of rates in fractures: Increasing rate @Beicip-Franlab Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 46 .

well test simulation Fracture sets conductivity determination through well test matching well [psia] [Mscf/D] History plot Variable adjusted : • • Conductivity @Beicip-Franlab Fracture length Log-Log plot of each fracture set Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 47 .Hydraulic characterization .

Complex well test match Constant pressure boundary (KH)1 (KH)2 Log-Log plot Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 48 @Beicip-Franlab .

Example of Flowmeter simulation PLT simulated PLT measured Matrix Fracture Matrix + Fracture Part 2 – How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir? 49 @Beicip-Franlab .