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• Has an positive charge due to the protons.g. •The amount of electrons of the highest occupied energy level is determined by the group. Electronic Structure and Energy Levels • First energy level (shell) can only hold two electrons. • The volume of their orbit determines the size of the atom. • Almost the entire mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Electrons • Occupy shells/energy levels which orbit the nucleus. • The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons within the atom. • The atomic mass of an atom is the total number of protons added to the total number of neutrons.Subatomic Particles The Nucleus • Consists of Protons and Neutrons. Sub-atomic Particle Proton Mass 1 Charge +1 Neutron Electron 1 0 0 -1 Atomic Number & Atomic Mass •The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is its atomic number (proton number) • Atoms with the same atomic number belong to the same element. • The maximum amount of electrons on the other energy levels (in the first twenty elements) is 8. • Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. • In the centre of an atom. . • Atoms with different atomic numbers belong to different elements. 2. • The total number of electrons is the same as the atom number e.8. • They are negatively charged.3 = 13 (Atomic number of Al) • The number of energy levels (shells) is determined by the period number in the periodic table. This quantity of neutrons Can be calculated by taking the atomic number from the atomic mass. • Tiny compared to the rest of the atom. • Electrons practically explain the whole of chemistry.

Compounds. Common elements are Aluminium. • Elements with similar properties form columns. • Generally difficult to separate the two reactants out again. Isotopes and the Periodic Table Elements • Elements consist of one type of atom only. . • Properties of a compound are totally different from the properties of the original elements. Isotopes • Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. The Periodic Table • The group number reveals the number of electrons on the outer shell (the highest occupied energy level) • The period determines the quantity of energy levels for an atomic diagram. Compounds • Formed where two or more elements chemically react together. Oxygen and Carbon. • The different number of neutrons doesn’t affect the chemical behaviour of the element at all.Elements.

• Ions are strongly attracted to each other. • The number of charges on the ion is 8 minus the group number of the original non-metal element. Negative Ions • Non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions.Ions and Ionic Bonds Ions • An Ion is a charged particle which is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons. • A non-metal atom gains enough electrons to complete its highest occupied energy level. • The charge of an ion is shown at the top right of its symbol. electron static attraction between the positively charged ions and the negatively charged ions. • A metal atom loses the electrons from its highest occupied energy level (outer shell) • The charge of the ion is the same as the group number of the original element. Magnesium in group 2 forms Mg2+ ions. Oxygen is in Group 6 and forms the Oxygen ion 02Ionic Bonds • Ionic bonds are chemical reactions between a metal atom and a non-metal atom. • The substance formed as a result of these bonds is known as an ionic compound. For example. Positive Ions • Hydrogen and metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions. Electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom. . It has the same electronic structure as one of the noble gases in Group 0 of the Periodic Table. Sodium is in group 1 and forms Na+ ions.

• There is a strong force of electrostatic attraction between these oppositely charged ions which acts in all directions. • Group 1 and 2 are metal elements and lose electrons to form positive ions (cations). Ions and Electron Shells • Atoms that have gained/lost electrons are ions. Same with Group 2 and Group 6 elements. • Group 1 and Group 7 elements are most likely to react and form ions. entitled ionic bonding. but they do when melted/dissolved in solution  as the ions are free to move. • Ionic Compounds have regular structures called giant ionic lattices. • Ionic Compounds do not conduct electricity in solid form. • These contain positive and negative ions held together in a giant structure. • These giant ionic lattices have high melting points and high boiling points. whereas Group 7 and 6 are non-metal elements which gain electrons to form negative ions (anions) .Ionic Compounds + Giant Ionic Structures Ionic Compounds • Ionic compounds are substances that are made as a result of chemical reactions between a metal atom and a non metal atom.

g. oxygen. silicon oxide) • Atoms which share electrons often form molecules in which there are strong covalent bonds between the atoms in each molecule but not between molecules. • Most substances held together by covalent bond consist of molecules but a few have giant structures. • A covalent bond forms when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. water etc) or giant structures (macromolecules e.g. SUBSTANCES FORMED FROM COVALENT BONDS ARE EITHER SIMPLE MOLECULES OR GIANT STRUCTURES. • Covalent bonds are VERY STRONG! • Only electrons in the highest occupied energy level (outer shell) can be shared. • Each atom involved has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its highest occupied outer shell (8 electrons) • Substances formed from covalent bonds can either be simple molecules (e. Diamond.Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonds • These bonds occur between non-metal atoms. carbon dioxide. Calculate how many covalent bonds can be formed: 8 – group number = # of covalent bonds. 8. . weak intermolecular forces therefore covalent structures generally have low melting/boiling points. • The atoms in covalent bonds are held together by shared electrons. e.3 (Al) = 5 covalent bonds.g.

• Fourth electrons form intermolecular bonds between layers. However. • Carbon is in group 4 so it can form four covalent bonds (8-4 =4) and in graphite only three covalent Bonds are made so one electron from each carbon atom becomes delocalised which allows graphite to Conduct heat and electricity. Graphite • Carbon atoms arranged in giant layers. Diamond is a very hard macromolecule because each carbon atom is covalently joined to four other ones. • Carbon atoms join together to make large cages. • Sometimes used to reduce friction between two surfaces as it is very slippery as a result of the layers of carbon atoms sliding over each other. • Nanoparticle! • The smallest fullerene. • It’s a regular lattice of carbon atoms with strong covalent bonds. Diamond • Each carbon atom covalently bonds to four other carbon atoms.Giant Covalent Structures Buckminster Fullerene • 3 strong covalent bonds. They have high melting and boiling points. graphite is soft because there are layers of atoms which can slide over each other. diamond is very hard. . • Each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds in layered structure. has 60 carbon atoms joined in a ball. • Unpaired electrons form intermolecular bonds. Giant covalent structures contain many atoms joined by covalent bonds.

they gain kinetic energy when the metal is heated.Simple Molecular Substances • The atoms form very strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of several atoms. • As a result of these feeble forces of attraction between the molecules. • Molecular substances do not conduct electricity. the atoms exist as positive ions because the electrons on the outer shell have become delocalised. Oxygen. Metals conduct electricity because of their delocalised electrons. Metals can be bent and shaped without breaking  they are malleable because they have layers of metal atoms that can slide over each other. Water and Ethanol are all simple molecular substances. • A molecular substance’s physical state will be ‘mushy’ i.e. Metallic Structures What is a metal? A lattice of positive metal ions held together by a sea of delocalised electrons. Metals consist of a giant structure. • Chlorine. they are free to move and carry charge through the metal. The energy is transferred throughout the metal as the delocalised electrons move. . Liquid or gas or an easily-melted solid. • The intermolecular forces are very weak. the melting and boiling points are very low as the molecules are easily parted from each other. There are strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the positively charged metal ions and negatively charged delocalised electrons : METAL BONDS Metallic Conduction Metals conduct heat because of their delocalised electrons. THERE ARE NO IONS. • Most molecular substances are gases or liquids at room temperature. In a metal. they come from the outer shell of every metal atom in the structure. Metal properties are all due to the sea of delocalised electrons.

• Nanoparticles have different properties from the same substance in larger pieces. • Nanoparticles are between 1nm and 100nm and each contain just a few hundred atoms. They’re currently being used to test water purity levels. • They have a high surface area to volume ratio.Identifying Bonding by its Properties Melting and boiling points low and not a good electrical conductor = Simple Molecular Substance High melting and boiling points and a good electrical conductor = Metallic Bonding High melting and boiling points and not a good electrical conductor = Giant Covalent Reasonably high melting and boiling points and a good electrical conductor when in solution/molten = Ionic Bonding. They can be used to make sensors to detect one type of molecules and nothing else. • 1nm = 1 millionth of a millimetre. Useful properties of Nanoparticles • They have huge surface areas and thus can help make industrial catalysts • You can surfaces. they’re that sensitive and specific. using Nanoparticles. Nanoparticles . with very specific properties.