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Mitotic and Meiotic Cell Division

Chromosomes

Chromosome Structure
• Chromosomes
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contained in the cell nucleus composed of chromatin
60 % histone proteins, 35% DNA, 5% RNA when cell is not dividing chromosomes in uncondensed form = euchromatin When cells are dividing, the chromosomes are in condensed form = heterochromatin

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Each chromosome contains 100’s-1000’s of genes Genes code for one protein or RNA molecules (only 10% of DNA) Genes also contain regulatory portions

Packaging of DNA into Chromosomes

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• • • • homologous pairs (homologues) –pairs that are similar in size. Chromosomes are usually arranged as homologous pairs.cell that contain two sets of chromosomes (homologous pairs of chromosomes) (2n) • • haploid.Karyotype • Karyotype. shape and position of centromeres Number of chromosomes vary from 2 to several 100’s humans 46 chromosomes per cell (23 homologous pairs) diploid.is a picture of all the chromosomes within cells of an organism.cells that contain one set of chromosomes (only one of each type of chromosome) (n) chromosome mutations affect karyotype .

Examples of Human Karyotypes .

The Cell Cycle .

• • .The Cell Cycle • The Cell Cycle includes the sequence of activities required for growth and cell division cells reach a certain size where they must either stop growing or divide In cells capable of dividing: • The cell cycle is the period from the beginning of one division to the beginning of the next.

The Cell Cycle .

NOTE CHANGES IN CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE THROUGHOUT CYCLE .

Mitosis Significance of Mitosis • Mitosis is a process of nuclear division that produces identical daughter nuclei – It is usually accompanied by cytokinesis which usually forms two identical (clone) daughter cells • Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm forming new cells • mitosis without cytokinesis yields multinucleated cells – occurs in somatic cells – body cells Significance of mitosis • Growth – formation and extension of tissues • Replacement of damaged cells • Asexual reproduction –parent splits. buds or fragments etc. to produce two identical daughter cells • Maintains genetic stability .

Stages of Mitotic cell cycle .

Interphase • cells spend most of their life span in interphase (hours to years) • this is the time when cell is metabolically active • Cells that will divide go through G1. neurons etc.).normal growth/life of cell – S phase (Synthesis phase) – DNA replication occurs – G2 phase (Second gap phase) – cell prepares for division – Cells not preparing for division go through G0 and may remain there indefinitely (skeletal muscle. S and G2 phases – G1 phase (First gap phase). (G0 is a specialized resting state) .

S phase highlighted ◦ During this S phase DNA replication occurs  Chromosomes are duplicated/copied ◦ This ensures that the new cells have the same number of identical chromosomes ◦ Before replication each chromosome is a single chromosome structure ◦ After replication each chromosome is a double chromosome structure (two sister chromatids joined at centromeres) .

Cells in Interphase .

Stages of Mitosis Mitosis may be divided into four (4) stages PROPHASE ANAPHASE METAPHASE TELOPHASE .

Centromeres have kinetochores ((protein complexes) to which microtubules (spindle fibres) will bind Microtubules form between poles and begin to form the mitotic spindle 3.Prophase (Stage 1of Mitosis)  Main features of Prophase 1. Remember each chromosome has been replicated. each consists of two chromatids (termed sister chromatids) bound at their centromeres b. 6. 5. chromosomes coil becoming shorter and thicker (they are now visible under light microscope) a. 4. nuclear envelope disappears in most cell types nucleolus disappears by end of prophase some microtubules are attached to the kinetochores located at the centromeres of sister chromatids . chromatin begins to condense into heterochromatin 2.

In animal cells centrioles are in the middle of each MTOC (microtubule organizing centre) and are believed to assist in the organization of the MTOC Asters are clusters of microtubules that migrate to opposite sides establishing poles Prophase .

a dense centrosome with no special structures is present .Kinetochores and Mitotic Spindle further explained • kinetochore are protein complexes that assemble on • each centromere – this allows microtubules to bind • A mitotic spindle is an assembly of microtubules responsible for separation and movement of chromosomes – Microtubules (spindle fibres) attach to – kinetochores within the centromeres • At each pole is a MTOC (microtubule organizing centre ) that organizes the microtubules – Microtubules radiate from the microtubule-organizing centre. – MTOC may also be refered to also as centrosome – in animal cells a pair of centrioles is located in centre of MTOC (centrosome) – no centrioles in plants.

Metaphase (Stage 2 of mitosis)  Metaphase is when duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane Microtubules extend from poles   Some attached to chromatids Some extend to equatorial line ◦ ◦ Photos of chromosomes usually taken during metaphase for karyotype analysis .

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Anaphase (stage 3 of mitosis) • – – – – – Anaphase is the third stage of mitosis Chromatids separate as centromeres divide/split Sister chromatids move towards opposite pole Each chromatid now called a chromosome Movement due to microtubule shortening Chromosome arms trail behind (V shape) Animal cell Plant cell .

Telophase (stage four of mitosis)  Telophase is the fourth and final stage of mitosis ◦ Two separate nuclei form ◦ nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes ◦ Chromosomes decondense (return to the conditions similar to interphase) ◦ Spindle fibres (microtubules) disappear ◦ Nucleoli reappears Plant cell Animal cell .

The Complete Process of Mitosis INTERPHASE Telophase Prophase MITOSIS Anaphase Metaphase .

but smaller ◦ organelles appear to be apportioned at random. cell plate forms at equatorial region that eventually becomes cell membrane and cell wall ◦ New cells are identical to parent cell. begins with a cleavage furrow that gradually deepens and separates the cytoplasm into two cells ◦ In plants. so each cell has at least one of each .Cytokinesis  Cytoplasm divides to yield two daughter cells ◦ Usually overlaps with telophase ◦ In animal cells.

begins with a cleavage furrow that gradually deepens and separates the cytoplasm into two cells – In plants. cell plate forms at equatorial region that eventually becomes cell membrane and cell wall – New cells are identical to parent cell. but smaller – organelles appear to be apportioned at random. so each cell has at least one of each .Cytokinesis • Cytoplasm divides to yield two daughter cells – Usually overlaps with telophase – In animal cells.

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See 8th Edition text pages 222-223 for more information . The cell cycle is controlled by an internal genetic programme interacting with external signals B. Eukaryotic cells typically divide less frequently than prokaryotes 2.Control of the Cell Cycle A. Under optimal conditions timing is typically constant for the cell type 3. Under optimal conditions timing is constant for the cell type 1. Protein kinases are involved in control of mitosis 4.

it may fail to prevent a cancer from growing DNA mismatch repair genes – These genes maintain integrity of the genome and the fidelity of information transfer from one generation of cells to the next • . Cancer may arise if a cell’s control mechanism for cell division break down and cells divide via mitosis uncontrolled.genes that promote cell proliferation and stop cell death (apoptosis) (when mutated cell proliferation is not stopped) Tumour suppressor genes – These genes normally limit the development and/or growth of tumors. Normal cells divide in a highly controlled way.Cancer and Mitosis • – – – An illness characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. when a tumor suppressor gene is mutated. Mechanisms regulate how often and how many times they may divide. – • • It is thought to start specifically when changes occur in the genes the control cell division Oncogenes .

Cancer Cells Image from http://visualsonline.com/biotechnology_encyclopedia/180p x-Normal_cancer_cell_division_from_NIH.Normal vs.cfm?imageid=2512&fileformat=jpg Image from: http://www.cancer.png .gov/preview.biotech100.

life threatening. Carcinogens. virus infection.mass remains intact. warts.the spread of cancer that leads to secondary growths.cells spread into surrounding tissue.uk/pilsinl/158.Tumours Cancer begins with tumour (neoplasm) Development Tumour – a mass or swelling of undifferentiated cells produced by abnormal cell division Benign tumours. hereditary predisposition) Image from: http://www. seldom is life threatening (eg. no longer respond to normal control mechanisms = cancer Metastasis. brain tumours) Malignant tumours. ovarian cysts. certain chemicals.gif .patient.co.agents that cause cancer Common carcinogens: ionising radiation.

or fragmentation of the parent  The offspring formed by asexual reproduction are clones of the parent  Asexual reproduction is typically rapid and efficient  Mitosis is the basis of sexual reproduction  Sexual reproduction    involves the union of gametes to form a zygote The offspring of sexual reproduction are not identical to the parents More complex. Sexual Reproduction  Asexual reproduction  involves splitting.Asexual vs. budding. and time consuming process  Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction .

Meiosis Significance of Meiosis • process of nuclear division that produces haploid (n) daughter nuclei • Also called reduction division • • • • reduces chromosome number (2n) to half (n) involves two consecutive meiotic divisions results in the formation of gametes usually accompanied by cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm forming new cells • Significance • • • Essential part of sexual reproduction Provides genetic variation Offspring are genetically different – – due to crossing over (Prophase I) Random distribution (independent assortment during Metaphase I and II) • increases species chance of survival .

Metaphase II. Telophase II .Stages of Meiotic cell cycle • Interphase • Meiosis I (separates homologous chromosomes) – Prophase I. Anaphase I. Anaphase II. Metaphase I. Telophase I • Meiosis II (separates sister chromatids) – Prophase II.

cells that will go through meiosis spend most of there life in interphase prior to dividing • Interphase is similar to that before mitosis • Interphase only occurs once (before Meiosis I) • Chromosomes duplicated during S phase (produces double stranded chromosomes) .Stages of Meiotic cell cycle • Interphase – Similar to cells that go through mitosis.

Meiosis I .

spindle fibres attach to centromeres of each homologue nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear . chiasma) Chiasma occur at the sites of crossing over (X shape configuration) mitotic spindles form.Homologues line up lengthwise adjacent to each other forming tetrads (also called bivalents).Prophase I (first stage of Meiosis l) Chromatin condenses to become visible chromosomes Synapsis occurs . Crossing over may occur.exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids within the bivalents  Enzymes break and rejoin DNA molecules allowing a sawp of genetic informaiton between nonsister   In late Prophase I homologues are held together at chiasmata (sing.

Prophase I .

Key Terms related to Prophase 1 Tetrad Synapsis Crossing over Chiasma .

Mechanism of crossing-over gives rise to recombinant (nonparental) genotypes and phenotypes for linked genes. .

Metaphase I • • Bivalents (tetrads) align on the equatorial plane Alignment is random which will lead to independent assortment (random distribution to poles) .

Anaphase I • Tetrads (associated homologous pairs) separate and chromosomes migrate to poles One homologue of each pair goes to each pole • .

each chromosome is in duplicated form (consist of two sister chromatids) .Telophase I • • • • Chromosomes generally decondense Nuclear envelope may reorganize Cytokinesis may or may not occur Two new nuclei form each containing haploid number (n) of chromosomes.

Meiosis II  Meiosis II is like Mitosis but with ½ the number of chromosomes ◦ Similarly in Meiosis II chromatids separate  Stages: Prophase II.  Both nuclei that are produced at the end of meiosis I go through meiosis II  producing a total of 4 new haploid nuclei at the end of meiosis  Each division is usually accompanied by Cytokinesis  Cytokinesis at the end produces 4 new haploid cells  Each new cell is genetically different . Metaphase II. Anaphase II. Telophase II.

Overview of Meiosis I .

Overview of Meiosis II .

Meiosis .

Meiosis in Humans  In humans meiosis produces the haploid gametes (the sex cells we call sperm & egg)    In males the process produces sperm and is called spermatogenesis In females the process produces eggs(ova) and is called oogenesis The processes both involve meiosis. but differ significantly See 8th edition text pages 229-230 for more details .

and results in four genetically different cells Due to synapsis and independentseparation of homologues and then sister chromatids. a great deal of genetic diversity results .Mitosis vs. - Meiosis is two sets of divisional processes. Meiosis The events of mitosis and meiosis lead to contrasting outcomes A. - Mitosis is a single division and results in two genetically identical daughter cells Homologous chromosomes do not experience crossing over B.

Mitosis vs. Meiosis (cont’d) .

Can you compare and contrast the stages of mitosis and meiosis? As you review the material complete the table below. Mitosis Events during: Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Products: Diploid/haploid at beginning? Diploid/haploid at end? Meiosis I Meiosis II .

explain the meanings of the terms haploid and diploid and the need for a reduction division prior to fertilisation in sexual reproduction. cell membrane. with the aid of diagrams. the behaviour of chromosomes during the mitotic cell cycle and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope. explain the need for the production of genetically identical cells and fine control of replication. *describe. explain how uncontrolled cell division can result in cancer and identify factors that can increase the chances of cancerous growth.Specific Objectives • • • explain the importance of mitosis in growth. use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. • • • . repair and asexual reproduction. centrioles and spindle (names of the main stages are expected).