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Airport Pavement Design

By laurent Porot Technology Implementer, Shell Bitumen Sustainable development

Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell 10th July 2007, London

Agenda
1. Background
2. What are the key parameters for airport pavements 3. What about pavement design

4. What is new in airport pavement engineering
5. Conclusions

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Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell,

of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design

10th

1. Background
2. What are the key parameters for airport pavements? 3. What about pavement design? 4. What is new in airport pavement engineering? 5. Conclusions

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Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell,

of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design

10th

A road can fail a runway can not Airport pavements must exhibit higher performances than road pavements and are less tolerant of failures Which properties should be optimised What is the reality 4 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design 10th .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Airport pavement specificity Airport pavement is not as unique as a road! Apron Terminal Taxiway Runway 5 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

high speed on runways Lower traffic volume 104 instead of 106 cycles Random in loading application Skid resistance FOD Traffic control • In terms of pavement • In terms of serviceability 6 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. shorter length and low transversal slope Higher load up to 16bars. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . Road • In terms of geometry • In terms of loadings Wider. up to 6 wheels Low speed on taxiways.Airport vs.

What are the key parameters for airport pavements? 7 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. Background What about pavement design? What is new in airport pavement engineering? Conclusions 2.1. 5. 3. 4. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Airport pavement functions Service value: •Permanent deformation •Surface Shear •Skid resistance •Water evacuation •FOD / integrity •Fuel spilling •Joint sealant Top layers Maintenance: •Rubber removal •Surface sealant •De-icing •Works under traffic control •Overlay on concrete Asset value: •Structural need •Cracking •Permanent deformation Bound base layers Granular base layers 8 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Airport pavement functions Service value: •Permanent deformation •Surface Shear •Skid resistance •Water evacuation •FOD / integrity •Fuel spilling •Joint sealant Top layers Maintenance: •Rubber removal •Surface sealant •De-icing •Works under traffic control •Overlay on concrete Asset value: •Structural need •Cracking •Permanent deformation Bound base layers Granular base layers 9 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

taxiways. runway entrances Mainly at aircraft stop lines • Material performances: Static loading more than dynamic loading Stiffness at low speed (low frequency) Low energy dissipation Thin asphalt system for top layers (SMA) High modulus base layer Polymer modified bitumen PmB • Suitable solution 10 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Permanent deformation • Degradation on aprons.

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . self healing Flexibility at low temperature B 777 gear 11 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. thermal. reflective Can lead to integrity loss  FOD Truck standard axle • In connection with strain / stress levels (higher level and longer time application) • Material performances: Fatigue.Cracking resistance • Taxiways and runways Various types: fatigue. ageing.

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . runways • Material performance Stiffness at various conditions 12 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Strength and structural need • Structural value of the pavement itself Spread load on sub grade and withstand traffic flow Valid on aprons. taxiways.

E+03 1.E-01 1.E+01 1. MPa Stiffness at various conditions Asphalt Mix A 1000 15°C 10Hz Asphalt Mix B Asphalt Mix C 100 1.E+05 1. runways High T° Low frequency Low T° High frequency • Material performance 10000 Modulus.E-03 1.E+04 1.E+02 1.E+06 Shift Frequency 13 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.E+00 1. taxiways.Strength and structural need • Structural value of the pavement itself 100000 Master Curve at 15°C Spread load on sub grade and withstand traffic flow Valid on aprons. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .E-02 1.

E+00 1.E-01 1.E+06 Shift Frequency 14 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.E+02 1.E-03 1. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .E+04 1. taxiways. runways • Material performance Stiffness at various conditions Dense asphalt concrete 100000 Master Curve at 15°C • Depends on the load conditions 10000 High T° Low frequency Low T° High frequency Modulus.E+01 1.Strength and structural need • Structural value of the pavement itself Spread load on sub grade and withstand traffic flow Valid on aprons. MPa Asphalt Mix A 1000 15°C 10Hz Asphalt Mix B Asphalt Mix C 100 1.E+03 1.E+05 1.E-02 1.

aprons Due to chemical agent Can lead to integrity loss  FOD • Material performance required: Fuel resistance Dense asphalt / closed surface • Special products available Fuel resisting binder instead of tar 15 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Fuel resistance • Degradation on taxiways. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Airport pavements are specific Pavement materials have to address key performance parameters How to predict and characterise these performances Relevant testing Under which conditions 16 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

high pressure Creep test 17 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Specification for permanent deformation • For road applications Wheel tracking test  Dynamic loading  Standard road loading French Wheel Tracking Tester Creep test static or cyclic • What is suitable for airport applications Static loading Slow speed related (loading time) Heavy load. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Specification for cracking resistance • For road applications Fatigue test  For 1 million cycles  Strain level in range of 60-150 micro strain 2 points fatigue test Thermal cracking susceptibility Fatigue test • What is suitable for airport applications  For 10 000 cycles  High strain level in connection with heavy load Fracture toughness  Healing effect Fracture toughness 18 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

ITS at 20°C  Full complex modulus measurement • What is suitable for airport applications High strain  maybe not any more in the elastic domain Need for complex modulus measurement and interpretation At various conditions especially for slow speed Look at visco-elasticity of the material 19 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .Strength and structural need • For road applications Elastic modulus (at low strain level)  Indirect tensile strength.

% • Mass loss 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 As a function of immersion time Less than 1% after 24h Indirect Tensile Strength • Specimen stability after immersion Direct compression Strength Not less than 75% of strength loss  Limited use. 5% voids 18 16 Specimen mass loss. h 20 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Fuel resisting material • Common fuel immersion test procedure Immersion of samples in kerosene Results compared to dry samples Specimen mass loss as a function of Kerosine Immersion Time BBSG 0/10. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . depend on integrity of specimen 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Immersion time.

What about pavement design? 21 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 5. 4. Background 2. What are the key parameters for airport pavements? What is new in airport pavement engineering? Conclusions 3. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .1.

PCN Comparison of ACN to PCN  Maximum mass. quality of the soil support. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design • Limitation . type of structure • The CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) method Empirical approach using a simple equivalent wheel Pavement thickness equivalence & layer equivalency factor per material Based on DC10 as the heaviest aircraft (in correlation with the AASHO road test) Empirical method based on CBR and material equivalency Does not take into account material performances 22 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Current approach . ACN Pavement Classification Number.ACN/PCN Principle • International system set up by ICAO in Annex 14 • ACN/PCN approach Aircraft Classification Number.

B747. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . up to 6 wheels • Aggressiveness of B777. A340.Effect of super jumbo jets • Introduction of large body aircraft Bogies of 4 wheels. A380 Much higher than small body aircraft Research program has shown new pavement failure from bituminous layers 23 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

The new FAA method • FAA has developed a Layered Elastic airport pavement Design (LEDFAA) to comply with large aircraft body (software available for free) • Bases on multilayered model similar to Shell’s BISAR • Input Real traffic flow and load configuration Elastic modulus of material Does not take into account climate condition (fatigue law) • Still limitations 24 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . US) Pavement Experimental Programme. PEP (LCPC-Airbus) 25 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. NAPTF (Atlantic City.Other approaches • Aircraft Loading Index ALI approach • 3D Finite Element method • Research & Experiments National Airport Pavement Test Facility.

What is new in airport pavement engineering? 26 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 3. What are the key parameters for airport pavements? What about pavement design? Conclusions 4.1. 5. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . Background 2.

Experience sharing – FAA (US) • FAA recommendation for bitumen selection (AC 150-5370-10B P401) Use of the PG grade framework as a reference In range of PG58 and PG76 for surface layers PG bump regarding traffic classes for runway. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design • FAA recommendation for asphalt mix design • Some on going research for more fundamental specifications . taxiway/Aprons Shift from Marshal method to Superpave method Use of Superpave Gyratory Compactor with Ndesign and Nmax Fuel resistance sealer and binder (research project 05-02) Use of Stone Matrix Asphalt SMA (research project 04-04) Energy ratio approach for assessing fatigue performance at high strain levels (University of Illinois research partnership) 27 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.

Experience sharing – Middle East • Characterisation of permanent deformation resistance Model Mobile Load Simulator MMLS from South Africa Adaptation of the speed and cycle number for airfield application • Introduction of PG82 Greater high temperature criteria to better fit with hot dry climate 28 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design .

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . a dedicated asphalt mixture for Airfield application Gap graded asphalt mixture Special specification against fatigue cracking and permanent deformation 29 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Experience sharing – Europe • Airbus research programme Pavement Experimental Programme 1&2 1998-2003 to assess impact of A380 on pavement (PEP1 bituminous pavement. PEP2 rigid pavement)  Simulation of pavement strain/stress distribution  Cracking performances PEP 3 to start in 2007 to assess the tyre pressure effect on permanent deformation of asphalt pavement  7 asphalt mixtures to be assessed under various conditions of loading • French BBA.

Conclusions 30 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell. 2. 3.1. 10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . 4. Introduction Airport pavement similar to road pavement? What are the key parameters for airport? What about specification? 5.

10th of July 2007 London Airport Pavement Design . loading. use. operation Static loading High strain and stress levels Extreme conditions • Key parameters for airport pavement have greater impact • Road specifications might be not adapted to suit airfield application Need for specific dedicated pavement engineering 31 Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell.Conclusions A road can fail a runway can not • Airport pavements are different than road pavements Function.

London .Airport Pavement Design Airport Workshop – Lafarge/Shell 10th July 2007.