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2.1 Métodos de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje para la Transferencia de Tecnología.

Fundamentos

Dr. Andrés María Ramírez

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In Curry’s model (1983; see Figure 2), the inner layer of cognitive personality style is both more stable (and therefore less easily modified or changed) and more significant in complex learning, while the outer layer of instructional preferences is easier to modify and influence, but less important in learning.
Many researchers in the learning styles field have seen Curry’s model as a useful, pragmatic way to present different models within these broad categories (eg Price and Richardson 2003). Yet, however attractive the onion metaphor may be, it is far from clear what lies at the centre. Conceptions of cognitive style relate to particular sets of theoretical assumptions, some of them psychoanalytic in origin. Ideas about stability are influenced more by theoretical concerns than by empirical evidence. There is not a single theory of cognitive or of learning style which is supported by evidence from longitudinal studies of stylistic similarities and differences in twins.
Coffield. Et al. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.pdf

see Figure 3) aimed to integrate different learning processes. Et al. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.ac.pdf . some of which are thought to be relatively stable (mental learning models and learning orientations) and some of which are contextually determined (choice between regulating and processing strategies).uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. Coffield. Vermunt (1998.As an alternative model.hull.

pdf . 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.ac.Coffield. Et al.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.hull.

3). astrologically determined characteristics. The emphasis she places on ‘matching’ as an instructional technique derives from her belief that the possibility of changing each individual’s ability is limited.pdf .uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. Rita Dunn argues that learning style is a ‘biologically and developmentally imposed set of characteristics that make the same teaching method wonderful for some and terrible for others’ (Dunn and Griggs 1998. She differentiates between environmental and physical elements as more fixed. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. Et al. According to Rita Dunn. 16).ac. ‘three-fifths of style is biologically imposed’ (1990b. or to the dominance of certain functions linked with the left or right halves of the brain. theorists refer to genetically influenced personality traits. For example. Not dissimilar beliefs are held by those theorists of cognitive and/or learning style who claim or assume that styles are fixed.hull. 15).Widespread beliefs that people are born with various element-based temperaments. or to the dominance of particular sensory or perceptual channels.or left-handedness have for centuries been common in many cultures. To defend these beliefs. and the emotional and ‘sociological’ factors as more open to change (Dunn 2001a. or at least are very difficult to change. Coffield. or personal qualities associated with right.

uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.pdf . Et al.hull.ac.Coffield.

The group of theorists summarised in this section have been clustered because we consider that they have a shared view (implicitly or explicitly expressed) of learning styles as ‘structural properties of the cognitive system itself’ (propiedades estructurales del sistema cognitivo propio )(Messick 1984. as Riding and Rayner (1998) note. Coffield. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. not simply the tendency towards specific acts … but rather the enduring structural basis for such behaviour. concentrate on the interactions of cognitive controls and cognitive processes. styles are linked to particular personality features. many of these styles are very similar to measures of ability.ac.. They also. styles are not merely habits.hull. with the changeability that this implies.pdf . ‘styles are more like generalised habits of thought. For the theorists in this family.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. 60). Et al. rather. are not particularly susceptible to training. 61) and as such. For this reason. For this group. with the implication that cognitive styles are deeply embedded in personality structure.’ (Messick 1984.

2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.ac.Coffield. Et al.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.hull.pdf .

uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. the theorists in this family are concerned with constructing instruments which embed learning styles within an understanding of the personality traits that shape all aspects of an individual’s interaction with the world.pdf . (por supuesto) how many factors underpin individual differences (see eg Furnham 1995. Jackson et al. 2000). Coffield.ac.hull. indeed. a theory primarily influenced by the work of Jung (1968).The instruments and models grouped in this family have a common focus upon learning style as one part of the observable expression of a relatively stable personality type. Et al. While debates continue within psychology about the appropriate descriptors for personality traits (rasgos) and. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.

Coffield.hull. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.ac.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.pdf . Et al.

2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. Kolb goes so far as to claim that the scores derived from the LSI are stable over very long periods. 8).hull.One of the most influential models of learning styles was developed by David Kolb in the early 1970s. Et al. but not others (eg formal lectures): ‘From this emerged the idea of an inventory that would identify these preferences by capturing individual learning differences’ (Kolb 2000. He then observed that some students had definite preferences for some activities (eg exercises). which led him to experiment with experiential teaching methods. It is. The starting point was his dissatisfaction with traditional methods of teaching management students. which changes slightly from situation to situation.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. Coffield. difficult to accept this claim when the necessary longitudinal research has still to be carried out. but ‘a differential preference for learning. however.pdf . 8). For Kolb and for those who have followed in his tradition. there is some long-term stability in learning style’ (2000. At the same time. His theory of experiential learning and the instrument which he devised to test the theory – the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) – have generated a very considerable body of research.ac. a learning style is not a fixed trait. the learning style of a 60 year old will bear a close resemblance to that individual’s learning style when he or she was an undergraduate of 20. for example.

ac.Coffield.pdf . 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.hull. Et al.

uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.Coffield.hull.ac.pdf . Et al. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.

pdf .ac. Et al. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.hull.Coffield.

2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. This emphasis encourages a broad approach to pedagogy that encompasses subject discipline. Theorists within this family of learning research tend to eschew ‘styles’ in favour of ‘strategies’ and ‘approaches’ because previous ideas about styles promoted the idea of specific interventions either to ‘match’ existing styles or to encourage a repertoire of styles. students’ previous experience and the way the curriculum is organised and assessed.During the 1970s. This body of work has been led for over 25 years in the UK by Noel Entwistle at the University of Edinburgh.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. active view of approaches and strategies – as opposed to styles – that takes into account the effects of previous experiences and contextual influences. Coffield.hull. contextual factors influence learners’ approaches and strategies and lead to a multifaceted view of teaching. institutional culture. Et al. a body of research on learning explored a holistic.pdf .ac. In this broader view.

with the latter being derived from perceptions of a task and cognitive strategies that learners might then adopt to tackle it. In doing this. for example.In Entwistle’s model. It is therefore less fixed than a style. which is a broader characterisation of how students prefer to tackle learning tasks generally.hull. this definition of strategy makes it difficult to develop a general scale that can measure it. For Entwistle (1998). and to relate it to other topics and to real-life and personal experience. Coffield. so that some learners adopt a holist strategy and aim from the outset to build up a broad view of the task. a strategy describes the way in which students choose to deal with a specific learning task.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. Researchers within this family refer to underlying personality differences and relatively fixed cognitive characteristics. This leads them to differentiate between styles. Et al.pdf . An influential researcher within this field has been Pask (1976) who argues that there are identifiable differences between students’ strategies.ac. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. strategies and approaches. they take account of its perceived demands.

Coffield.pdf .ac. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www. Et al.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.hull.

pdf . Et al.Coffield.ac.hull. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.

Consistencia interna Fiabilidad test -retest Validez de constructo Validez predictiva Coffield.ac. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.hull.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles. Et al.pdf .

Et al.pdf .ac.hull.Despacio que llevo prisa… Coffield. 2004: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review: http://www.uk/php/edskas/learning%20styles.