Relationship
for Multiphase Flow
Multiphase Flow
• Bubblepoint pressure (p
b
)
– Pressure at which first bubble of gas is released
from reservoir oils
• Darcy’s law is no longer valid below the
bubble point.
IPR Below the Bubblepoint
q
max
q O
O
q
b
Rate
p
wf
p
b
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
p
Vogel’s IPR
• Vogel’s Behavior
– IPR Curve  Vogel plotted the data using the
following dimensionless variables
max q
q
and
P
P
r
wf
Vogel Curve
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
q/q
max
p
w
f
/
p
r
Vogel’s Equation
• Mathematical model for Vogel’s curve
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =


.

\

2
8 . 0 2 . 0 1
p
p
p
p
q
q
wf wf
max
Vogel’s Equation
q
ma
x
q
2
q
q
b
P
wf
P
b
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
P
r
q
x
b x
q q q + =
max
b
q q q + =
2
2
2
2
8 . 0 2 . 0 1


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =
b
wf
b
wf
x
P
P
P
P
q
q
For a test @ point 2 (below bubble point):
Vogel’s Equation


.

\

+ =
c
c
÷
2
2
6 . 1
2 . 0
b
wf
b
x
wf
P
P
P
q
P
q
1. Differentiate the previous equation with respect to P
wf
2. PI is equal to the slope at P
wf
= P
b
, so:
( ) ( )
b
r
b
x
b b
r
b
P P
P
1.8q
q so P P PI q ÷ = ÷ =
( )
b
x
b
r
b
P
1.8q
PI then, P P PI q since, = ÷ =
Vogel’s Equation
b
x
P
1.8q
PI , that knowing =
and, q
max
= q
b
+ q
x
Then,
So: q
max
=
( )
8 . 1
P PI
q
b
x
=
( )
8 . 1
P PI
q
b
b
+
Note that Vogel does no account for damaged or stimulated wells
Flow Efficiency
• Standing came up with the concept of Flow
Efficiency. If p’
wf
is defined as the BH flowing
pressure for an undamaged well, then:
0
'
'
1
0
'
'
2
1
<
÷
=
=
>
÷
=
÷
÷
s f or
p p
p p
s f or
p p
p p
FE
wf r
wf r
wf r
wf r
Damaged well
Undamaged well
Stimulated well
Flow Efficiency
• Standing extended the effect of skin on
Vogel’s IPR equation and
p p FE p p
wf r r wf
) ( '
1
÷ ÷ =
Flow Efficiency – graphical representation
P
r
P’
wf
P
wf
r
w
r
d
Positive skin ~ Damaged wellbore or
Reduced wellbore radius
Standing’s Extesion of Vogel’s
IPR
• So Vogel’s IPR can be rewritten as:
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =


.

\

2
'
8 . 0
'
2 . 0 1
r
wf
r
wf
max
p
p
p
p
q
q
Multiphase Flow:Combination Darcy/Vogel
q
max
PI p
b
1.8
q O
O
q
b
Rate
p
wf
p
b
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
p
8 . 1
max
b
b
p PI
q q + =
Composite IPR
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ ÷ ÷ + =
+ =
2
max
max
8 . 0 2 . 0 1 ) (
8 . 1
b
wf
b
wf
b b
wf
b
b
p
p
p
p
q q q q
: point bubble the below P any f or
p PI
q q
A
( )A q  q q q
b max b
+ =
Exercise 2
q
o
= 200 bpd p
b
= 3,000 psi
p
wf
= 2,000 psi p
r
= 4,000 psi
• Find: q
max
and q
o
for p
wf
= 1,000 psi
Answers to Exercise 2
5111 . 0
2
000 , 3
000 , 2
8 . 0
000 , 3
000 , 2
2 . 0 1 =


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ = A
( ) ( )
1080 . 0
85 . 851 , 1
200
5111 . 0
8 . 1
000 , 3
000 , 3 000 , 4
200
= =
+ ÷
= PI
1. Solve for A:
2. Solve for PI:
3. Solve for q
b
:
( ) ( )( ) bpd P P PI q
b r b
108 3000 4000 108 . 0 = ÷ = ÷ =
Answers to Exercise 2, cont..
4. Solve for q
max
:
( ) ( )
bpd
P PI
q q
b
b
288 180 108
8 . 1
3000 108 . 0
108
8 . 1
max
= + = + = + =
5. Find: q
o
for P
wf
= 1000
8444 . 0
2
000 , 3
000 , 1
8 . 0
000 , 3
000 , 1
2 . 0 1 = 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ = A
( ) ( )( ) bpd A q  q q q
b max b o
260 8444 . 0 108 288 108 = ÷ + = + =
Transient Flow Equation
( )


.

\

=
K
r C
t
e t
hours
2
948
µ 
( )
( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ ÷


.

\

B
÷
=
t S
r C
K
P P Kh
q
w t
o o
wf r
o
log 87 . 0 23 . 3 log 6 . 162
2
µ 
µ
Jone’s Gas IPR
bq aq P P
wf r
+ = ÷
2
2 2
q
KH
S
r
r
0.472 ln TZ 10 x
q
r h
Z T x
P
w
e 3
w
2
p
g
(
¸
(
¸
+


.

\

+
B
= A
÷
µ
¸
424 . 1
10 16 . 3
2
12
2
( )
a
P a b b
AOFP
r
2
4
2
2
+ ± ÷
=