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Growth and Development: Infancy Through Adolescence


Prenatal Development Germinal Stage
• Rapid cell division within 36 hours of conception • Zygote travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall in about 2 weeks • Supportive tissue begin development
– Placenta, amniotic sac, umbilical cord

Embryonic State of Development
• • • • • • Next 6 weeks, embryo grows rapidly Nervous system most rapidly developing Heart beat at about 3.5 weeks Arm/leg buds appear at 5 weeks Spinal cord visible to ultrasound at 7 weeks 95% of body parts formed by the 8th week

• Organs and systems become defined and start to function • Rapid growth continues until birth • External genitalia appear in the 3rd month • Long bones visible on x-ray in the 4th month. • Fetus 10-12 inches long and weighs 1lb at 5 months

Fetal Stage of Development

Multiple Births
• More than one ovum fertilized= fraternal twins • Single zygote separates into two or more blastocysts=identical twins • Use of fertility drugs may cause the release of multiple ova, usually resulting in multiple fraternal siblings

Maturation From Girl to Woman
• Puberty—onset between 9 and 17 years of age (average around 12) • FSH stimulates the ovaries to begin producing estrogen • Estradiol from the ovaries responsible for appearance of secondary sex characteristics

Slide 10-1

Maturation From Girl to Woman, cont.
Includes: • Breast development • Widening of the hips • Appearance of axillary and pubic hair • Reproductive organs continue development • FSH stimulates the development of ova and menstruation begins
Slide 10-2

Maturation From Boy to Man
• Puberty—onset at about 14 years of age • Interstitial cell stimulating hormone activates testes to begin producing sperm • Secondary sex characteristics begin to appear and include enlargement of sex organs, lowering of voice • Growth of facial, pubic, and axillary hair; increased bone and muscle size; nocturnal emissions occur
Slide 10-3

• • • • •

Age Groups
Prenatal– conception to birth Infancy– birth to 18 months Early childhood– 18 months to 6 years Middle and late childhood– 7-11 years Adolescence– 12-18 years

Eric Erikson (table 11-1) • Trust vs. Mistrust
– Birth-1year

Theories of Development

• Autonomy vs. Shame
– 1-3 years

• Initiative vs. Guilt
– 3-6 years

• Industry vs. Inferiority
– 6-12 years

Theories of Development
• Identity vs. Role Confusion
– 12-19 years

• Intimacy vs. Isolation
– 19-25 years

• Generativity vs. Stagnation
– 25-50 years

• Ego Integrity vs. Despair
– 50 and older

Jean Piaget (table 11-2) • Sensorimotor
– Birth- 2years

Theories of Development

• Preoperational
– 2-7years

• Concrete operational
– 7-11years

• Formal operational**
– 11years-death. Child has ability to think abstractly**

Lawrence Kohlberg • Pre-conditional Reasoning**
• Conventional Reasoning

Theories of Development

– Birth-age 9 – Motivated by Punishment/Reward** – Begins at age 10, may continue through life

• Post-conventional Reasoning
– People w/internalized moral principles; Kohlberg believes only a minority of adults operate at this level

Principles of Growth and Development
• Growth occurs in orderly and predictable ways** • The rate of growth and development is individual • Development is lifelong • Development is multidimensional • Development is continuous, but may be uneven
Slide 10-4

Maternal Influence in Development
• Single most important factor in a healthy pregnancy is early and regular prenatal care • Second most important is mother’s health • Third influence is mother’s age • Fourth is mother’s nutrition during pregnancy • Fifth is emotional stresses • Sixth is use of chemicals
Slide 10-5

Infants Nutrition
• Healthy newborns can manage for 12-24 hours without food • Breast milk will nourish and protect with antibodies for the first months • Cow’s milk is not advised until 10-12 months • First solids are usually baby cereals, strained fruits and veggies • Most can eat table food by one year • Should not be given pcs of sausage, peanuts or hard candy r/t aspiration risk.

Infants Physical Growth
• Newborns should double their birth weight by 5-6 months • Should grow 10-12 inches the first year • Eyes are dark blue or gray; permanent color develops by 9 or 10 months • Ears perfectly formed at birth • Touch not well differentiated at birth • First teeth appear at 5-10 months
Slide 10-6 (Figure 10-1)

• Brain

Physical Growth

– Grows rapidly in infancy and early childhood – Newborn’s brain is 25% of adult size – 66% of adult size by age 1 – 80% of adult size by age 2 – Healthy diet required for stimulation of neuron development – Moro reflex (startle response) can be elicited by making a loud noise near the baby, who will react by arching his/her back and assuming typical posture

• Cephalocaudal development proceeds from head to tail.** • Babies can lift their heads before their chest • Large muscles develop coordination before small ones • Can walk before they can draw • See table 11-3 pp 136 • Infants reach and try to grab things “crude pincer grasp”

Infants Motor Development

• First stage is sensorimotor– begins when babies experience things about themselves (discover toes) • Most begin babbling at 3-6 months • Most say their first words at 11-13 months and use two-word sentences at 18-24 months

Infants Cognitive Development

Infants Psychosocial Development

• Erickson believed infants learn to trust others when they receive warm, consistent care. • To develop trust they need to feel comfortable and that their needs will be met • Mothers need to allow the child to signal a need • Healthy babies recognize family members and show insecurity w/strangers by 6-7 months.

• • • • • • •

Physical Development Rate of growth slower Young children grow 2-3 in. & 4-6 lbs/year Nutrition is primary factor affecting growth Need 1400-1800 calories/day Vision improves from infancy, 20/20 by age 4 Full set of deciduous teeth by age 3 First dental visit between ages 2-3

Young Children

• • •

Motor Development Most children physiologically ready for toilet training by age 1½-2 years Climbs stairs w/assistance by age 2 Runs up stairs w/o thinking at age 5 Fine motor skills mastered- able to draw w/crayon, stack blocks

Young Children

Young Children Cognitive Development
• Curiosity—often surpasses their caution • Safety is a great concern. Childproofing a home is essential • Parents are primary safety teachers

• Attention spans lengthen with age
• Most 6-year-olds’ vocabulary is 8,000-14,000 words

• Immunizations needed when the child starts school
• Egocentric—believe they are the center of the world.
Slide 10-7 (Figure 10-2)

• Erickson’s second stage Autonomy develops for 18months-3 years. • Ability to drink from a cup • Need discipline (time-outs 1min/year) • Learn gender roles • Morals (values of right and wrong) are developed during early childhood • Peers become important. • Parallel play- play next to but not with each other 18 months-3years

Young Children Psychosocial Development

Middle and Older Children
Physical Growth

• Ages 7-11 • Grows 2-3 in and 3-5 lbs year • Periods of rapid growth followed by slow or no growth • By age 10 some showing pre puberty changes • Changes most noticeable in length of legs, while trunk becomes slimmer • Increasing coordination skills

• • • • •

Cognitive Development Starting to think in concrete ways Ideas organized and fixed Developing early problem solving skills Prefer to deal with black and white Have trouble dealing with “maybe” situations Able to classify things and consider relationships

Middle and Older Children

• • • • • •

Psychosocial Development Developing self-concept, own personality Spend more time w/friends Assuming more responsibility Require less supervision May require different discipline than younger children, denial of privileges is often best. Erikson’s Industry stage-want to accomplish things

Middle and Older Children

• • • •

• •

Physical Development 12-18 years Onset of puberty Muscle strength and endurance increase Sex hormones increase and it’s normal to seek sexual activity. Better sex education is direly needed Body capable of intercourse, not mentally ready for emotional aspects


• • • • •

Cognitive Development Able to analyze their own thoughts and thoughts of others Thoughts become more abstract Become aware of what others think of them Want to fit in society More egocentric Can’t imagine that anything bad could happen to them


• • • • • Psychosocial Development Emotions may be erratic when hormones released Serious conflicts w/parents common. Often copy peers Dating is important, it fulfills personal and social status Erikson’s stage is identity vs. role confusion

Concerns in Adolescent Development

• Pregnancy, teen parenting • Employment-usually part-time • Chemical abuse-alcohol, followed by pot and then amphetamines • Eating disorders-anorexia nervosa • Depression-often undiagnosed • Early deaths– accidents, homicide, suicide, AIDS • Should have some ideas about vocation by end of stage.