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Tubing Intake Curve

µ = density,
v = velocity,
d = pipe diameter, (ID),
g = acceleration due to gravity,
g
c
= garvity conversion factor,
f = fanning friction factor,
= pressure gradient,

m = mixture properties,
u = angle of inclination from horizontal


Multiphase Flow in Pipes
1. The pressure gradient equation for multi-phase flow can be written as:
( )
( ) dL g
dv v

d g 2
v f
sin
g
g
dL
dp
c
m m m
c
2
m m
m
c
µ µ
u µ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Where:
dL
dp
Multiphase Flow in Pipes
Multiphase Flow in Pipes
Fluid Correlations for Multiphase Flow in Pipes.
Duns and Ros (1963) (vertical upflow)
Orkiszewski (1967) (vertical upflow)
Hagerdorn and Brown (1965) (vertical upflow)
Beggs and Brill (1973) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Mukherjee and Brill (1985) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Dukler (1964) (only horizontal flow)
Gradient Curves
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the BHFP
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the WHFP
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the WHFP
Exercise:

Given:
P
wh
=100 psig WH Temp.= 70
o
F
GLR = 400 scf/bbl BHST = 140
o
F
¸
g
= 0.65 TD = 5,000 ft (mid –perf)
Tbg ID = 2.0 in API Gravity = 35
o
API


Calculate and plot the Tubing Intake Curve
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
• Using Fig. 4.10, start at the top of the gradient curve at a pressure of
100 psig. Proceed vertically downward to a GLR of 400 scf/bbl.
Proceed horizontally and read an equivalent depth. Add the TVD to the
depth in question. Read a depth of 6,600 psig and proceed horizontally
to the 400 scf/bbl curve. From this point proceed vertically and read
the tbg intake pressure for 200 bpd of 720 psig.

• Repeat this procedure for flow rates of 400, 600, and 800 bpd using the
corresponding graphs.

• Plot the obtained values of P
wf
to plot a P
wf
vs q , the desired tubing
intake curve.
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
Assumed q, (bpd)
P
wf , psig
200 720
400 730
600 900
800 1000
Tubing Intake Curve
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Rate q, bpd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

P
w
f
,

p
s
i
g
Pressure Loss Across
Perforations
Pressure Loss in Perforations
• The effect of perforations on productivity can be
quite substantial.
• It is generally believed that if the reservoir
pressure is below the bubble point, causing 2
phase flow through the perforations, the pressure
loss may be an order of magnitude higher.
• 2 Methods for calculating presssure loss in
perforations, McLeod (1983) and Karakas
&Tariq (1988).
- Ap
p
calculated using the modified Jones, Blount &
Glaze equations.
- Treats the perforation tunnel as a miniature well
with a compacted zone of reduced permeability
around the tunnel.
– 10% of K
f
, if perforated overbalanced
– 40% of K
f
, if perforated underbalanced
- The thickness of the crushed zone is assumed to
be 0.5 in.
Pressure Loss in Perforations- McLeod Method
McLeod Method, cont….
McLeod Method, cont….
• For an Oil well:
o
2
o wf wfs
bq aq P P + = ÷
– where:
in 5 . 0 r r ,
k L 10 x 08 . 7
r
r
ln
b
k
10 x 2.33
,
L
r
1
r
1
10 x 3 . 2
a
p c
p p
3 -
p
c
o
1.201
p
10
2
p
c p
2
o
14 -
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
B µ
=
= |
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ µ B |
=
, q is flow rate through perforation
McLeod Method, cont….
• For a gas well:
g
2
g
2 2
bq aq P P
wf wfs
+ = ÷
– where:
in 5 . 0 r r ,
k L
r
r
ln TZ 10 x 424 . 1
b
k
10 x 2.33
,
L
r
1
r
1
TZ 10 x 16 . 3
a
p c
p p
p
c 3
1.201
p
10
2
p
c p
g
12 -
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
µ
=
= |
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |¸
=
, q
g
is flow rate through perforation
Karakas and Tariq Method, (1988)
• Semi-analytical solution to the problem of 3D
flow into a spiral system of perforations. Two
cases:
– 2D case, valid for small dimensionless perforation
spacings (large perf penetration or high shot
density).
– 3D flow problem around the perf tunnel, valid in
low density perforations.
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ B µ
÷ t
=
t
w
e
w
r
S
r
r
ln
P P kh 2
q
• For steady-state flow into a perforation:
• Where:
S
t
= total skin = S
p
+
S
dp


and:

S
p
= S
h
+ S
wb
+ S
v
S
p
= perforation skin factor
S
dp
= damage skin factor
S
h
= pseudo skin due to phasing =
where: r
we
(u) is the effective wellbore radius as a function of the phasing angle (u)
and perf tunnel length. 0.25 l
p
, if u = 0
o
rw(q) =
o
u
(r
w
+ l
p
) , otherwise
S
wb
= pseudo skin due to wellbore effects (dominant in zero
degree phasing).
S
v
= pseudo skin due to vertical converging flow (negligible in
the case of high shot density; 3D effect)
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
we
w
r
r
ln
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
Perforation
Phasing
o
u
(360
o
) 0
o
0.250
180
o
0.500
120
o
0.648
90
o
0.726
60
o
0.813
45
o
0.860
Dependance of o
u
on Phasing
S
wb
(u) = C
1
(u) exp[C
2
(u)r
wd
]
Perforation
Phasing
C
1
C
2
(360
o
) 0
o
1.6E-1 2.675
180
o
2.6E-2 4.532
120
o
6.6E-3 5.320
90
o
1.9E-3 6.155
60
o
3.0E-4 7.509
45
o
4.6E-5 8.791
• Crushed zone effect
– In conditions of linear flow, the effect of
compacted or crushed can be neglected.
– In the case of 3D flow, an additional skin due to
the crushed zone can be calculated as follows:

Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
p
c
c p
c
r
r
ln 1
k
k
l
h
S
Note: Rc and rp may be calculated using McLeod (1983) method