µ = density,
v = velocity,
d = pipe diameter, (ID),
g = acceleration due to gravity,
g
c
= garvity conversion factor,
f = fanning friction factor,
= pressure gradient,
m = mixture properties,
u = angle of inclination from horizontal
Multiphase Flow in Pipes
1. The pressure gradient equation for multiphase flow can be written as:
( )
( ) dL g
dv v
d g 2
v f
sin
g
g
dL
dp
c
m m m
c
2
m m
m
c
µ µ
u µ + +


.

\

=
Where:
dL
dp
Multiphase Flow in Pipes
Multiphase Flow in Pipes
Fluid Correlations for Multiphase Flow in Pipes.
Duns and Ros (1963) (vertical upflow)
Orkiszewski (1967) (vertical upflow)
Hagerdorn and Brown (1965) (vertical upflow)
Beggs and Brill (1973) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Mukherjee and Brill (1985) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Dukler (1964) (only horizontal flow)
Gradient Curves
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the BHFP
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the WHFP
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to find the WHFP
Exercise:
Given:
P
wh
=100 psig WH Temp.= 70
o
F
GLR = 400 scf/bbl BHST = 140
o
F
¸
g
= 0.65 TD = 5,000 ft (mid –perf)
Tbg ID = 2.0 in API Gravity = 35
o
API
Calculate and plot the Tubing Intake Curve
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
• Using Fig. 4.10, start at the top of the gradient curve at a pressure of
100 psig. Proceed vertically downward to a GLR of 400 scf/bbl.
Proceed horizontally and read an equivalent depth. Add the TVD to the
depth in question. Read a depth of 6,600 psig and proceed horizontally
to the 400 scf/bbl curve. From this point proceed vertically and read
the tbg intake pressure for 200 bpd of 720 psig.
• Repeat this procedure for flow rates of 400, 600, and 800 bpd using the
corresponding graphs.
• Plot the obtained values of P
wf
to plot a P
wf
vs q , the desired tubing
intake curve.
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
Vertical Multiphase Flow: How to plot the
Tubing Intake Curve
Assumed q, (bpd)
P
wf , psig
200 720
400 730
600 900
800 1000
Tubing Intake Curve
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Rate q, bpd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
P
w
f
,
p
s
i
g
Pressure Loss Across
Perforations
Pressure Loss in Perforations
• The effect of perforations on productivity can be
quite substantial.
• It is generally believed that if the reservoir
pressure is below the bubble point, causing 2
phase flow through the perforations, the pressure
loss may be an order of magnitude higher.
• 2 Methods for calculating presssure loss in
perforations, McLeod (1983) and Karakas
&Tariq (1988).
 Ap
p
calculated using the modified Jones, Blount &
Glaze equations.
 Treats the perforation tunnel as a miniature well
with a compacted zone of reduced permeability
around the tunnel.
– 10% of K
f
, if perforated overbalanced
– 40% of K
f
, if perforated underbalanced
 The thickness of the crushed zone is assumed to
be 0.5 in.
Pressure Loss in Perforations McLeod Method
McLeod Method, cont….
McLeod Method, cont….
• For an Oil well:
o
2
o wf wfs
bq aq P P + = ÷
– where:
in 5 . 0 r r ,
k L 10 x 08 . 7
r
r
ln
b
k
10 x 2.33
,
L
r
1
r
1
10 x 3 . 2
a
p c
p p
3 
p
c
o
1.201
p
10
2
p
c p
2
o
14 
+ =


.

\

B µ
=
= 


.

\

÷ µ B 
=
, q is flow rate through perforation
McLeod Method, cont….
• For a gas well:
g
2
g
2 2
bq aq P P
wf wfs
+ = ÷
– where:
in 5 . 0 r r ,
k L
r
r
ln TZ 10 x 424 . 1
b
k
10 x 2.33
,
L
r
1
r
1
TZ 10 x 16 . 3
a
p c
p p
p
c 3
1.201
p
10
2
p
c p
g
12 
+ =


.

\

µ
=
= 


.

\

÷ ¸
=
, q
g
is flow rate through perforation
Karakas and Tariq Method, (1988)
• Semianalytical solution to the problem of 3D
flow into a spiral system of perforations. Two
cases:
– 2D case, valid for small dimensionless perforation
spacings (large perf penetration or high shot
density).
– 3D flow problem around the perf tunnel, valid in
low density perforations.
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
( )


.

\

+ B µ
÷ t
=
t
w
e
w
r
S
r
r
ln
P P kh 2
q
• For steadystate flow into a perforation:
• Where:
S
t
= total skin = S
p
+
S
dp
and:
S
p
= S
h
+ S
wb
+ S
v
S
p
= perforation skin factor
S
dp
= damage skin factor
S
h
= pseudo skin due to phasing =
where: r
we
(u) is the effective wellbore radius as a function of the phasing angle (u)
and perf tunnel length. 0.25 l
p
, if u = 0
o
rw(q) =
o
u
(r
w
+ l
p
) , otherwise
S
wb
= pseudo skin due to wellbore effects (dominant in zero
degree phasing).
S
v
= pseudo skin due to vertical converging flow (negligible in
the case of high shot density; 3D effect)
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
( )


.

\

u
we
w
r
r
ln
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…
Perforation
Phasing
o
u
(360
o
) 0
o
0.250
180
o
0.500
120
o
0.648
90
o
0.726
60
o
0.813
45
o
0.860
Dependance of o
u
on Phasing
S
wb
(u) = C
1
(u) exp[C
2
(u)r
wd
]
Perforation
Phasing
C
1
C
2
(360
o
) 0
o
1.6E1 2.675
180
o
2.6E2 4.532
120
o
6.6E3 5.320
90
o
1.9E3 6.155
60
o
3.0E4 7.509
45
o
4.6E5 8.791
• Crushed zone effect
– In conditions of linear flow, the effect of
compacted or crushed can be neglected.
– In the case of 3D flow, an additional skin due to
the crushed zone can be calculated as follows:
Karakas and Tariq Method, cont…


.

\



.

\

÷ =
p
c
c p
c
r
r
ln 1
k
k
l
h
S
Note: Rc and rp may be calculated using McLeod (1983) method