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Active Front End

STI - Power Drives September 2009

Active Front End (AFE)
… is an option to Altivar ATV61 and ATV71 range
Feedback energy Reduce energy costs

Harmonic mitigation Increase power quality
Schneider Electric - Engineered Drives - Martin Gradner – March 2009

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Application examples
Downhill conveyors Gantry crane Supply pumps

Escalators Water pump Fans

Schneider Electric - Engineered Drives - Martin Gradner – March 2009

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Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 .Two main fields of application Regenerative operation ● ● ● ● ● Hoisting Downhill conveyors High inertia and high dynamic applications Test stands Winches Harmonic mitigation ● ● ● ● ● Weak mains supply Utilization of full transformer power Generator supply Compliance to IEEE 519 Unstable mains conditions 4 Schneider Electric .

AFE – some technical basics I Intelligent Rectifier + Line Filter Inverter IGBT bridge L1 L2 L3 U V W t t t motor cos j =1 t generator cos j = -1 Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 5 .Engineered Drives .

Engineered Drives .AFE – some technical basics II ● AFE works like a step up chopper ● AFE changeover from motor to generator operation shock-free ● AFE has a sinusoidal mains current ● AFE always needs line filter components Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 6 .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 7 .Engineered Drives . INV Inverter LFC Line Filter Choke Schneider Electric .Components of the AFE AFE LFM – Line Filter Module LFC – Line Filter Choke AIC – Active Infeed Converter LFM Line Filter Module AIC Active Infeed Conv.

Martin Gradner – March 2009 8 .AFE used for braking .Arguments I Easy to use braking solution for energy efficient operation Continuous nominal braking power and overload capability Sinusoidal mains current in all operating states Constant Power factor 1 in all operation modes Mains voltage drops up to 40% without interruption of operation Standard distribution transformer can be used Wide mains frequency range (30 -70 Hz) Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 9 .AFE used for braking . class C3 Mains short circuit power up to 100kA Schneider Electric .Arguments II No additional high temperature heat source like with resistor braking Adjustable braking torque and braking power Adjustable fast deceleration ramps Resistor braking for emergency operation possible Integrated RFI filter.Engineered Drives .

400 kW Recommended depending on application Available range depending on application Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .75 90/110 200/250 630/800 2.Martin Gradner – March 2009 10 .Braking options overview Braking Solution Active Front End Network braking unit Braking unit + resistor 0.

AFE used for harmonic mitigation Arguments Easy to use solution for optimum harmonic mitigation THDi less than 4% in all operating states Constant Power factor 1 in all operation modes Mains voltage drops up to 40% without interruption of operation Integrated RFI filter.Engineered Drives . class C3 Wide mains frequency range (30 -70 Hz) Mains short circuit power up to 100kA Operation at weak mains supply Operation at diesel generator supply Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 11 .

Harmonic mitigation overview Harmonic Mitigation Solution Multi pulse solution Active Front End Active filter Passive filter 0.75 90/110 200/250 630/800 2.Martin Gradner – March 2009 12 .400 kW Recommended depending on application Available range depending on application Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .

Application setup 1 : 1 .Application One AFE + several Inverter n : n .Application several AFE + several Inverter “4Q Drive” “LH Drive” “DC – Bus” “Parallel AFE” Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .Application One AFE + One Inverter 1 : n .Martin Gradner – March 2009 13 .

1 : 1 .terminals Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 14 .Application One Active Front End for one Inverter ● Same size for AIC and INV  full power for both energy directions ● AIC and inverter are simply connected via +/.

Engineered Drives .1 : n .Martin Gradner – March 2009 15 .Application One AFE supplies a common dc-bus for several drives: ● One single mains supply for all drives within a machine/process ● Size of AFE for real power consumption only ● Total Inverter power can be up to 4 times the nominal power of the AFE Schneider Electric .

Application AFE can operate in parallel for supply of a common dc-bus: ● Enables process setup ● Used for safety reasons (redundancy) ● Used to increase the supply power of AFE ● Used to “standardize” the size of AFE ● Used to reduce numbers of spare parts Schneider Electric .n : n .Martin Gradner – March 2009 16 .Engineered Drives .

AFE Control concepts Control of AFE can be done in several ways: ● Auto start ● Control via digital I/Os ● Control via inverter field bus ● Control and monitoring via CANopen or Modbus ● Control and monitoring via field bus (communication bridge) Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 17 .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 18 .200 € Schneider Electric . 3 min. 1 min. cycle time 5 min.000 € ● Result Energy consumption with resistor braking: 100. lifting.000 kWh / a = 7.Engineered Drives .000 € Energy consumption with AFE: 40.. lowering. operation time: 8h/day. Example ● Container crane hoisting application.5 years 60.12 €/kWh Drive investment for resistor braking: Drive investment for AFE solution: 23.000 kWh / a = 4. handling) Energy cost: 0. 200 days/a (1 min.000 kWh / a = 12.000 € 34.800 € Energy and cost savings: Payback time: ~ 1.Energy efficiency. 250 kW load.

Altivar AFE Technical advantages ● Easy to install ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Mains contactor 24V control supply Charging circuit Charging fuses Charging circuit breaker Charging resistors Fan supply for AIC and INV Integrated in LFM ● High efficiency due to new control structure ● ● ● ● No damping resistors Reduced losses of LFM No voltage sense lines Operation independent of phase sequence 19 Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 .Engineered Drives .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 20 .AFE Commercial advantages ● Hardware consistency ● ● ● ● ● ● Same design of AIC and INV Same HMI as for ATV61/71 Reduce projecting and mounting time 90% of spare parts are identically Easy servicing Same quality ● Quality and Delivery convenience ● Assembly on the same production line ● Same delivery performance ● Available also in enclosed version Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .

AFE Competitive advantages I ● Complete AFE consist of 3 components only ● Easy to project ● Simple to mount ● Reduce time for wiring ● Practically no limits for mains short circuit capability ● Minimum mains short circuit capability not required ● Maximum mains short circuit capability 100kA (7 MVA transformer @ 690V) ● Full integration in Engineered Drives offer ● ● ● ● Customised solutions 100% tested functionality Optimised size High protection degree Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 21 .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 22 .Engineered Drives . AIC cables are pre-assembled ● Fan supply cable ● Control cables Schneider Electric .AFE Competitive advantages II ● Novel LFM design without damping resistors ● ● ● ● Patent pending Reduce losses Reduce components Increase energy efficiency ● EMC level C3 as standard ● ● ● ● All components build in Easy to project Reduce installation time Provides safe operation ● Easy to wire.

: ● IEC 61800-3 ● IEEE 519 ● ER G5/4-1 Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 23 .Engineered Drives .Product certification / specifications ● Product certification ● CE marking according to the low voltage directives (73/23/EEC) and to the EMC directives (89/336/EEC) ● UL and CSA pending ( ) ● EMC emission: ● Conducted and radiated emissions in accordance to product standard IEC 61800-3 Category C3 (EN 55011-Class A Group 2) ● Harmonic emission: ● Compliance to all actual relevant regulations and standards as e.g.

enclosed drives: IP23/IP54/IP54SA Schneider Electric .400V class .Engineered Drives .Specification ● Line voltage: 380V … 400V +/-10% (-30% for less than 1 min.) for TT-.or IT-mains ● Line frequency: 50/60Hz +/-5% (30 to 70Hz time-limited or with separate supply for the fans) ● Nominal DC-link voltage: 650V DC for mains voltage 3AC 380V/400V 720V DC for mains voltage 3AC 440V 770V DC for mains voltage 3AC 480V ● Overload: 120% for 60s every 10 minutes ● Protection degree: IP00.or IT-mains 440V … 480V +/-10% (-40% for less than 1 min. TN.) for TT-.Martin Gradner – March 2009 24 . TN.

Martin Gradner – March 2009 25 .) for TT-.) for TT-.Specification ● Line voltage: 500V … 525V +/-10% (-20% for less than 1 min.) for TT-.Engineered Drives . TN.or IT-mains 600V +/-10% (-30% for less than 1 min. TN.690V class . enclosed drives: IP23/IP54/IP54SA Schneider Electric .or IT-mains ● Line frequency: 500V … 525V: 50Hz +/-5% 600V/690V: 50/60Hz +/-5% (30 to 70Hz time-limited) ● Nominal DC-link voltage: 840V DC for mains voltage 3AC 500V/525V 960V DC for mains voltages from 3AC 575/600V 1100V DC for mains voltage 3AC 690V ● Overload: 120% for 60s every 10 minutes ● Protection degree: IP00. TN.or IT-mains 690V +/-10% (-40% for less than 1 min.

Engineered Drives .Name and Ordering Name: DC power: Voltage range: AFE ●●●V ●●●kW 120 … 860 kW 400 = 400 … 480V 690 = 500 … 690V Each AFE consists of 3 mandatory components.●V●●● . which have to be ordered separately: Name: AIC LFM LFC .Martin Gradner – March 2009 .●V●●● .●V●●● VW3 A7 ●●● VW3 A7 ●●● VW3 A7 ●●● 120 … 860 kW 4 = 400 … 480V 6 = 500 … 690V 26 DC power: Voltage range: Schneider Electric .

AFE – Altivar allocation 1:1.Martin Gradner – March 2009 27 .Engineered Drives . 400V INV (Inverter) ATV71 ATV61 CT Power in kW VT AFE-Sizes 400V ATV71HD90N4D ATV71HC11N4D ATV71HC13N4D ATV71HC16N4D - ATV61HD90N4D ATV61HC11N4D ATV61HC13N4D ATV61HC16N4D ATV61HC22N4D 90 110 132 160 - 90 110 132 160 220 400V 120kW 400V 120kW 400V 145kW 400V 175kW 400V 240kW 400V 240kW ATV71HC20N4D ATV71HC25N4D ATV71HC28N4D ATV71HC31N4D ATV71HC40N4D ATV71HC50N4D CT … constant torque VT … variable torque ATV61HC25N4D ATV61HC31N4D ATV61HC40N4D ATV61HC50N4D ATV61HC63N4D 200 250 280 315 400 500 250 315 400 500 630 400V 275kW 400V 340kW 400V 430kW 400V 430kW 400V 540kW 400V 675kW Schneider Electric .

Martin Gradner – March 2009 28 .Engineered Drives .AFE – Altivar allocation 1:1. 690V INV (Inverter) ATV71 ATV71HC11Y ATV71HC13Y ATV71HC16Y ATV71HC20Y ATV71HC25Y ATV71HC31Y ATV71HC40Y ATV71HC50Y ATV61 ATV61HC13Y ATV61HC16Y ATV61HC20Y ATV61HC25Y ATV61HC31Y ATV61HC40Y ATV61HC50Y ATV61HC63Y CT 110 132 160 200 250 315 400 500 Power in kW VT 132 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 AFE-Sizes 690V 690V 145kW 690V 175kW 690V 220kW 690V 275kW 690V 340kW 690V 430kW 690V 540kW 690V 675kW ATV71HC63Y ATV61HC80Y 630 800 690V 860kW CT … constant torque VT … variable torque Schneider Electric .

Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 29 .References 400V AFE-Sizes 400V 120kW Components AIC-4V120: LFM-4V120: LFC-4V120: AIC-4V145: LFM-4V175: LFC-4V175: ComponentReferences VW3 A7 250 VW3 A7 260 VW3 A7 265 VW3 A7 251 VW3 A7 261 VW3 A7 266 690V AFE-Sizes 690V 145kW Components AIC-6V145: LFM-6V220: LFC-6V220: AIC-6V175: LFM-6V220: LFC-6V220: AIC-6V220: LFM-6V220: LFC-6V220: AIC-6V275: LFM-6V430: LFC-6V430: AIC-6V340: LFM-6V430: LFC-6V430: AIC-6V430: LFM-6V430: LFC-6V430: AIC-6V540: 2 x LFM-6V430: 2 x LFC-6V430: AIC-6V675: 2 x LFM-6V430: 2 x LFC-6V430: AIC-6V860: 2 x LFM-6V430: 2 x LFC-6V430: ComponentReferences VW3 A7 270 VW3 A7 263 VW3 A7 268 VW3 A7 271 VW3 A7 263 VW3 A7 268 VW3 A7 272 VW3 A7 263 VW3 A7 268 VW3 A7 273 VW3 A7 264 VW3 A7 269 VW3 A7 274 VW3 A7 264 VW3 A7 269 VW3 A7 275 VW3 A7 264 VW3 A7 269 VW3 A7 276 2 x VW3 A7 264 2 x VW3 A7 269 VW3 A7 277 2 x VW3 A7 264 2 x VW3 A7 269 VW3 A7 278 2 x VW3 A7 264 2 x VW3 A7 269 400V 145kW 690V 175kW 400V 175kW AIC-4V175: LFM-4V175: LFC-4V175: AIC-4V240: LFM-4V340: LFC-4V340: AIC-4V275: LFM-4V340: LFC-4V340: VW3 A7 252 VW3 A7 261 VW3 A7 266 VW3 A7 253 VW3 A7 262 VW3 A7 267 VW3 A7 254 VW3 A7 262 VW3 A7 267 690V 220kW 400V 240kW 690V 275kW 400V 275kW 690V 340kW 400V 340kW AIC-4V340: LFM-4V340: LFC-4V340: AIC-4V430: 2 x LFM-4V340: 2 x LFC-4V340: AIC-4V540: 2 x LFM-4V340: 2 x LFC-4V340: VW3 A7 255 VW3 A7 262 VW3 A7 267 VW3 A7 256 2 x VW3 A7 262 2 x VW3 A7 267 VW3 A7 257 2 x VW3 A7 262 2 x VW3 A7 267 690V 430kW 400V 430kW 690V 540kW 400V 540kW 690V 675kW 400V 675kW AIC-4V675: 2 x LFM-4V340: 2 x LFC-4V340: VW3 A7 258 2 x VW3 A7 262 2 x VW3 A7 267 690V 860kW Schneider Electric .

List of abbreviations AFE LFM LFC AIC INV THD EMC CT VT NBU 4Q LH … … … … … … … … … … … … Active Front End (consists of LFM+LFC+AIC) Line Filter Module (part of AFE) Line Filter Choke (part of AFE) Active Infeed Converter (part of AFE) Inverter Total Harmonic Distortion Electromagnetic Compatibility Constant Torque Variable Torque Network braking unit 4 quadrant (operation) Low harmonic 30 Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 .Engineered Drives .

Make the most of your energy Schneider Electric .Engineered Drives .Martin Gradner – March 2009 31 .

More technical details … Schneider Electric .Martin Gradner – March 2009 32 .Engineered Drives .