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How would you prepare a lemonade?

How much I have to add to have a GOOD lemonade?
Is it concentrated? Is it diluted?


Solution Homogeneous mixture where particles are uniformly distributed throughout. Solute The substance that dissolves in a solvent

Solvent The substance in which a solute dissolved


When water is a solvent, the solution is aqueous. Solvents may be gases: air is a solution of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and other gases. Steel is an alloy, solution of one solid dissolved in another solid are solutions of various metals.

Solubility The maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a fixed quantity of a particular solvent. Soluble Capable of being dissolved.

Salt is soluble in water

Solubility Terms

Two liquids that are soluble in each other. If they are soluble in any proportion, they are said to be completely miscible. Liquids that are partially soluble are said to be partially miscible


Liquids that are not soluble when mixed.


Solubility Terms
Insoluble. When a substance does not appear to dissolve in a solvent. A concentrated solution has a relatively large amount of solute for given quantity of solution. A dilute solution has a smaller amount of solute for a given quantity of solution.

Oil is Not Soluble in Water

Insert figure 14.4

Ionic Solubility
Water will dissolve many ionic compounds (salts). When salts dissolve in water:

1. The ionic forces holding ions together are broken. 2. The attractive forces holding some of the water molecules together are broken. 3. Ions must interact with the solvent molecules to form attractive forces.


Ionic Solubility

The process in which water molecules surround the ions is called hydration. For other solute/solvent interactions, this process is called solvation.


Dissolving an Ionic Compound in Water

Insert figure 14.3


Solubility of Covalent Compounds

Like dissolves like.

Non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents (like oil, thinner, soaps). Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents (water, alcohol, acids). Hydrogen bonding between solute and solvent molecules plays an important role.


Solubility Equilibria

Most solutes have a limited solubility in a given solvent. When more solute is present than the solubility limit, a dynamic equilibrium is established:

solute + solvent



A solution of this type is said to be saturated. A solution that contains less solute than the solubility limit is unsaturated.

Effects of Temperature on Solubility

Most solids become more soluble as temperature increases. (There are some exceptions.)

If a saturated solution is cooled, with solid present, more solid will precipitate until equilibrium is reestablished. If a saturated solution is cooled with no solid present, sometimes precipitation does not occur immediately. The solution is said to be supersaturated.


The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a certain quantity of solvent.

One measure of concentration is molarity M.


= (# mol solute)/1 Liter of solution


Molarity Problem
Tell how to prepare 250 mL of a 3.00 M solution of NaCl. M= # moles / Liters 250 mL 1L 1. Convert mL to L: 0.250 L
1L 1000 mL x 250 mL

1000 mL

2. Convert grams to mol with Molar Mass Na 23.0 + Cl 35.45 = 58.45 g/mol 3 mole 58.45 g 175.35 g 58.45 g 1 mole 1 mole
x 3 moles (3M)

3. Convert grams to volume

175.35 g 1 L x 0.250 L|

0.250 L 175.35 g 1 L

43.84 g


Preparing solutions of a given molarity

The plan for solving the above problem was:

mL L moles grams

To actually prepare the solution, 250 mL of 3.00 M NaCl: 1. Transfer 43.8 g of NaCl to a 250 mL volumetric flask partly filled with distilled water. 2. Shake to dissolve. 3. Add enough water to the flask to reach the mark 4. Stopper the flask and invert several times to mix thoroughly.

Another Molarity Problem

How many mL of 12.00 M HCl solution are required to deliver 0.500 mol? L = moles/M = (0.500 mol)/(12.00 mol/L)

=0.0417 L 0.0417L x 1000 mL/L = 41.7 mL


Percent by Volume [%(v/v)]

Percent by Volume = [(volume solute)/(volume solution)]x100% Calculate the percent by volume alcohol prepared by mixing 15.0 mL with enough water to make a total volume of 50.0 mL. Percent by volume = [(15 mL)/(50 mL)] x 100 = 30%(v/v) 15 mL 100 % 50 mL 100% 30% 15 mL x 50 mL

Percent by mass [%(w/w)]

Percent by mass = [(mass solute)/(total mass of solution)]x100% =[(g solute)/(g solute + g solvent)] x 100%

How many g of NaCl are required to prepare 100 g of a 5.0% solution?

Mass solute = (percent/100)x(total mass) = (5/100)x100 g = 5.0 g NaCl
100g 100%
x 5%

5% 100 g 100 %


Preparation of Solutions by Dilution

Calculate the volume of 10.0%(v/v) ethanol require to prepare 500 mL of 5.00% ethanol. V1 C1 = V2 C2 500 mL 5%
Desired [ ]

V1C1 C2


250 mL

C1 = 10.0, V2 = 500 mL, C2 = 5.00 V1 = V2C2/C1 = (500mL)(5.00%)/(10.0%)

= 250 mL


Colligative Properties

Properties of liquids change when solutes are dissolved in them:

boiling point is raised melting point is decreased The higher the concentration of solute particles, the greater the effect.

Colligative Properties are properties of solutions that depend on the number of dissolved solute particles.


Counting Particles
A solution of 1.00 L of a 1.00 M solution of glucose contains 6.022 x 1023 particles of glucose molecules. But a solution of 1.00 L of a 1.00 M solution of NaCl contains 2x6.022x1023 particles because of ionization. The freezing point depression of 1.0 M NaCl is almost twice that of 1.0 M glucose.



The temporary dispersion of one substance in another is a mixture called a suspension. Part of the mixture will settle out from the other part or can be separated by filtration. Colloids or colloidal dispersions are defined as mixtures having a particle size of 1.0 nm 100 nm. Colloids appear milky or cloudy. They scatter light by the Tyndall effect.

There are 8 different types of colloids based on the particles and the phase of the dispersal agent. Some examples are foams and emulsions. Colloids are stabilized by emulsifying agents such as soap or bile salts.


Osmosis and Dialysis

Certain materials are:

Permeable: allow water and solvents to pass through. Impermeable: do not allow solvents to pass. Semipermeable: material which allows solvent molecules to pass, but not solute molecules.

The process of solute molecules passing through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis. If small ions and molecules pass through the membrane with the solvent, but colloidal particles are retained the process is called dialysis.

A Semipermeable Membrane

Insert figure 14.16



The pressure required to prevent the flow of solvent from the less concentrated side to the more concentrated side of a membrane is called the osmotic pressure.

Isotonic solutions is one that has the same osmotic pressure as the fluid in a living cell.
Hypotonic solutions have a lower concentration than inside the cell. Water flows from a solution into a cell.

Osmosis in Cells
The rupture of a cell by hypotonic solutions is called plasmolysis (or hemolysis in the case of red blood cells) Hypertonic solutions contain a greater concentration of particles than the fluid in cells. Water will flow from the cells to the solution. This process is called crenation.