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Chapter 8: Installing Linux

The Complete Guide To Linux System Administration

Objectives
Learn about the hardware components of your computer system Configure hard disk space to hold a new Linux installation Install Linux Automate installation of multiple systems

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Reviewing Your Computers Hardware


Install operating system yourself Plan your installation to:
Make effective use of hardware Prevent problems from occurring during installation

Before installing
Gather information about computer Determine best way to organize Linux on computer
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Understanding Computer Hardware


Linux treats computer hardware as collection of devices Must be configured to use all devices on computer system Before installing Linux, gather information about computer system

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Understanding Computer Hardware (continued)


Common terms that describe computer hardware
Bit/Byte Megabyte (MB)/Gigabyte (GB) Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) CMOS RAM

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Understanding Computer Hardware (continued)

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Understanding Computer Hardware (continued)


Common terms that describe computer hardware
Interrupt request (IRQ) Direct memory access (DMA) channel Port-mapped input/output (port-mapped I/O) I/O port Hexadecimal numbering IDE IDE controller SCSI USB
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The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Understanding Computer Hardware (continued)

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Supported Linux Hardware


Linux works with thousands of different hardware devices Not all devices work with Linux
Newer hardware devices less likely to be supported

Check on Web site of Linux vendor to see if hardware is supported

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Supported Linux Hardware (continued)


http//hardware.RedHat.com
Comprehensive site for exploring Linux hardware compatibility Applies to all Linux distributions

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Understanding Networking
Networking protocols
Used by computer systems to communicate

Protocol
Organized pattern of signals or words

IP networking
Each computer must have unique IP address All IP addresses on single network related

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Understanding Networking (continued)


Special IP addresses associated with setting up Linux networking
Network mask Network address that identifies local network Broadcast address Gateway address

Domain name
Assigned to organization Used to identify collection of computers
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Understanding Networking (continued)

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Understanding Networking (continued)


Top-level domain name
Last word of domain name

Domain name system (DNS)


Network service Maps domain names and host names to IP addresses

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Creating a Shared System


Dual-boot system
System with more than one operating system

Live CD version of Linux


Boots from CD-ROM Uses system memory (RAM) as storage Never writes information to hard disk

Boot manager
Select operating system each time computer booted
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Creating a Shared System (continued)


Basic options
Store each operating system on separate hard disk Store multiple operating systems on single hard disk

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Graphical Systems
Current installation programs
Automatically detect what video card is installed Configure it without any input from user

Good idea to understand some video card concepts for those times when installation doesnt go as smoothly as planned Very few standards exist

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Creating a System Inventory


Sources of information
Manuals BIOS settings Microsoft windows operating system
Take advantage of device information Windows has discovered

Find networking information


IP address gateway other information

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Configuring Disk Space


Must install Linux in dedicated partition on hard disk Each hard disk can have only four partitions
Called primary partitions Numbered 1 through 4

Logical partitions
Exist within physical partition Numbered beginning with 5

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Configuring Disk Space (continued)


Logical partitions
Some Linux distributions use logical partitions by default

Active partition
Bootable partition BIOS passes control to operating system stored on partition

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Booting the System


Master boot record (MBR)
Contains small program that decides how to start operating system

Boot record
Small area that contains boot manager program to start operating system on partition

Linux boot manager can be stored on either


MBR Boot record of active partition
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Hard Disk Geometry


Hard disk composed of multiple flat platters that hold magnetic data Track
Concentric circle on platter

Sector
Unit of data storage on hard disk Contains 512 bytes

Block
1024 bytes or two sectors
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Hard Disk Geometry (continued)

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Swap Partitions
Should create separate partition used as swap partition
For more efficient operation Normally from 64 MB to 1 GB in size
Should be twice the size of RAM

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Preparing a Shared Hard Disk


Disk partitioning utility
Needed to create dual-boot system Products
FIPS Parted partition editor PartitionMagic QtParted

Defragmenting
Necessary before installing Linux
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Installing Linux
Install Red Hat Softwares Fedora Linux
Procedure applicable to virtually all versions of Linux

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Linux Distributions
Linux distributions very similar to each other technically Fedora Linux
Based on Red Hat Linux Stable long-term participant in Linux market

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An Overview of Linux Installation


Operating system initializes itself sufficiently to install itself on computer General procedure
User starts installation program Installation program runs copy of Linux within the computers RAM Installation program determines where files for installation are located

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An Overview of Linux Installation (continued)


General procedure
Installation program determines where Linux operating system should be installed User answers questions Program copies Linux software packages from installation source to target partition Installation program configures system User starts newly installed Linux operating system

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Installation Source Options


CD-ROM Hard disk Network installation

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Options for Starting the Installation


Pass control directly to Linux installation program located on:
Floppy disk CD-ROM

Boot disk
Removable disk that can start up computer and initialize installation program

Bootable CD-ROM drive


Drive that can start operating system
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Options for Starting the Installation (continued)


Disk image
Single file Contains exact copy of floppy disk Create boot disk if CD boot does not work Usually for older computers

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The Installation Process


Initial questions
How you will interact with installation program

Preparing hard disk partitions


Edit partition table

Deciding on mount points


Subdirectory through which set of data is accessed Must specify mount point for new Linux file system Create regular user account for non system administration work
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The Installation Process (continued)


Choosing what to install
Decide which of many components to install Installation type determines which Linux software is installed Software packagesingle file that contains all files needed to install and use application RPMmost popular data storage format for creating software packages Packages grouped into functional categories Fedora Linux provides three installation types plus custom installation option
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The Installation Process (continued)


User accounts
Specify password for root account Create regular user account for non system administration work

Configuring boot manager


Possible locations
Master boot record Boot sector of partition on which Linux is being installed Floppy disk
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The Installation Process (continued)

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Kickstart Installations
Kickstart
Method of automating installation selections Used to reinstall system or install multiple identical systems Relies on configuration file
Contains all settings to complete installation

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Reviewing the Kickstart Configuration File


File /root/anaconda-ks.cfg
Created during installation Open with editor

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Using the Graphical Configuration Tool


Create file
From scratch in text editor Using graphical Kickstart configurator tool

Helpful to be logged in as root Kickstart configurator


Tool to create Kickstart configuration file Do not need to define every option in Kickstart configuration

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Using the Graphical Configuration Tool (continued)

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Summary
Devices communicate with CPU using:
Interrupts Direct memory access Port-mapped I/O

Linux supports thousands of hardware components (devices) Protocols define how devices and parts of operating system communicate with each other

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Summary (continued)
Compile detailed system inventory Dual-boot system
Use Linux on same computer as another operating system

Linux installations are started by:


Boot disk Bootable CD-ROM Bootable DVD Bootable USB device
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The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration

Summary (continued)
Attractive graphical installation programs standard in commercial versions of Linux Various components of Linux sometimes arranged on different hard disk partitions Kickstart method uses configuration file to hold all installation selections

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