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ENERGY CHANGES PHYSICAL CHANGES CHEMICAL CHANGES ENDOTHERMIC REACTION EXOTHERMIC REACTION 1 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL CHANGES Chemical Change Physical change Similarities Substances can undergo changes .............................. physically Differences Yes Yes Difficult More New substances formed Change in chemical composition Reversibility Energy needed No No Easy Less 2 iodine is heated, purple ………… vapour • When the ………….. is formed. solid gas without • Iodine changes from ………….to ……… liquid state (sublimation). going through the ……….. touches the cold • When the iodine vapour…………… surface of the watch glass, the vapour changes ………….. solid back into ……….. state (black crystal). iodine • Solid ……………. forms on the lower surface of the watch glass. • The change of solid iodine into iodine vapour is reversible …………….. physical • This is a ………….change. BACK 3 ice same Water and ................ have the ...................... particles. The differences between water and ice are in terms of the arrangement movement ...............................and ......................... of the particles. change into .................. water Ice can easily ................... heated ....................... Yes Is this a reversible process ? ........................ when it is Absorbed Is energy absorbed or released ? ........................... No Is new product formed ? ..................... BACK 4 ribbon burns with a ............... bright flame and The magnesium .................... white ash. forms .............. During the process: heat light - ..................... and .................... are given off. oxygen Magnesium combines with ...................in the air to magnesium oxide form ………...................... - magnesium oxide is different from .................................. magnesium .................................., magnesium oxide (white ash ) ………………………. Magnesium + oxygen (grey metal) No Is this a reversible process ?........................ Released Is energy absorbed or released ? ........................... Yes Is new product formed ? ..................... BACK 5 rust oxygen water Iron nails ........................... when ........................ and ......................... are present. brown substance that consists of................................ iron oxide Rusts is a ................. Water Iron ................... + Oxygen + .................... Iron oxide (Rust) ............................. No Is this reversible process ? ..................... Absorbed Is energy absorbed or released ? ........................... Yes Is new product formed ?..................... BACK 6 An endothermic reaction is a reaction which absorbs heat energy from the surroundings. BACK 7 An exothermic reaction is a reaction which releases heat energy to the surroundings. BACK 8 A.REACTIVITY OF METALS WITH WATER The reaction of metal with water will produce hydrogen gas and alkali 9 • Sodium and calcium (very active metal) reacts very fast in cold water. • Magnesium, aluminium and zinc (less active metal) reacts with hot water or steam. • Non active metals such as gold and silver do not react with either water or steam. 10 Chemical equations Sodium + Water Sodium + hydroxide hydrogen Magnesium + Water Magnesium + hydrogen oxide For experiment : Refer to Appendix 1 11 B. REACTIVITY OF METALS WITH DILUTE ACID  Some metals react with dilute acid to produce salt and hydrogen General equation: METAL + ACID SALT + HYDROGEN  Magnesium, aluminium and zinc react with dilute acid  Copper, silver and gold do not react with dilute acid 12 2.Type of salt produced depends on the type of acid used. Examples: Zinc + sulphuric acid Magnesium + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen magnesium sulphate + hydrogen Aluminium + sulphuric acid Aluminium sulphate + hydrogen 13 C. REACTIVITY OF METALS WITH OXYGEN air When heated in ......................, most metals react with oxygen metal oxide .......................to form ........................... Metal + Oxygen General equation metal oxide ........................... brighter The more reactive the metal, the ........................... the flame produced. For experiment : Refer to Appendix 2 14 The reactivity of metals with oxygen depends on the reactivity series Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide Iron oxide Zinc oxide Iron + oxygen Zinc + metal For experiment : Refer to Appendix 3 15 Symbol Reactivity Metal Reaction with water Reaction with steam Reaction with acid Reaction with oxygen K Na Ca Most Reactive Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Tin (Stanum) Lead Copper Silver Hydrogen gas released Metal hydroxides formed No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction Explosion Explosion Violent reaction Burn brightly forming oxides Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Hydrogen gas released Metal oxides formed React fast Hydrogen gas released Metal salts formed Burn if strongly heated No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction React slowly Hydrogen gas released No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction Metals do not burn but oxide layer formed Ag Au Pt Least Reactive No reaction No reaction No reaction 16 Gold Platinum Carbon and reactivity series • Metal compounds higher up in the reactivity series are more stable (not easily decomposed by heat). • These metal compounds can only be decomposed by electrolysis. • Example: Decomposition of sodium chloride by electrolysis. 17 • Compounds of metals lower down in the reactivity series are less stable and can be decompose easily by heating. • These metal oxides can be reduced by carbon (reducing agent) into metal and carbon dioxide. • Example: Zinc oxide + Carbon Zinc + Carbon dioxide 18 Symbol Mg Al C Reactivity Reaction of metal oxides with carbon No reaction No reaction Least active Zn Fe Less active Active Sn Pb Most active More active Most active 19 Oxygen Water Acid with Reactivity of metals Energy and chemical changes Reaction of metal oxides with carbon Extraction of metal ores by carbon and electrolysis 20 5.4 Applying the concepts of the reactivity series of metal 21 CONCEPTS OF REACTIVITY SERIES • A more reactive metal can take oxygen from the oxide of other less reactive metal to form the less reactive metal and the oxide of the more reactive metal. • Example: Aluminium + iron oxide More reactive metal Oxide of less reactive metal iron + aluminium oxide Less reactive metal Oxide of more Reactive metal 22 • A more reactive non-metal (carbon) also can take oxygen from the oxide of other less reactive metal to form the less reactive metal and carbon dioxide. • Example: Carbon + iron oxide More reactive nonmetal Oxide of less reactive metal iron + carbon dioxide Less reactive metal 23 Extraction of metals Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium Electrolysis Extraction method Magnesium Aluminium Carbon Zinc Iron Tin Lead Copper Mercury Silver Gold Exist in metal form 24 By heating the ore with carbon in a furnace Heating the ore alone EXTRACTION OF TIN FROM TIN ORE (CASSITERITE) 200oC Sulphur + arsenic 400oC Tin ore + carbon limestone Tin +Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide + arsenic oxide 1000oC 1400oC Blast furnace Hot air Slag is used as road surfaces Liquid tin is collected at bottom of furnace 25 5.5. UNDERSTANDING ELECTROLYSIS 26 5.5. UNDERSTANDING ELECTROLYSIS 1 State what electrolysis is 2 State what anode, cathode, anion, cation and electrolyte are 3 Describe the electrolysis of an electrolyte using carbon electrodes 4 Explain the uses of electrolysis in industry 27 5.5 ELECTROLYSIS Switch Ammeter A Rheostat Diagram 1 Anode Cathode anion Cation Electrolyte 28 Worksheet 1 Meaning of Electrolysis •Electrolysis •Electrolyte •Electrodes decomposition of substance using ..................... electricity Process of .................................... decomposes whenelectricity Substance that ........................... …………… passes through. enter or .................. leave Substance that allow electricity to.................. an electrolyte. •Cathode •Anode •Cations •Anions negative The ............................... electrode positive The ................................. electrode positively charged ions .......................... negatively charged ions ........................... Electrical energy ? ……………… 29 The Experiment Electrolysis of molten lead (II) bromide Lead Bromine 30 31 32 2. Electrolysis of molten lead (II) bromide Anode negatively The .............................. charged bromide ..................... ions move to the anode Cathode positively The .............................. charged lead ..................... ions move to the cathode Bromide ....................... ions release electrons .......................... to the anode and form bromine ...............................molecules Bromide ............. Lead ................... ions receive electrons .........................from the cathode and lead become ........................ atom. Lead ion + electron ................. Lead …........atom deposited Lead metal is ............................. on cathode the ................... ion + electron ............. bromine ................molecules Two ............. bromine atoms form one bromine molecule 33 2. Electrolysis of molten copper (II) chloride Anode negatively The .............................. charged chloride ..................... ions move to the anode Cathode positively The .............................. charged copper ..................... ions move to the cathode Chloride ....................... ions release electrons .......................... into the anode and chlorine form ...............................molecules chloride ............. ion + electron .............. Copper ................... ions receive electrons .........................from the cathode and copper atom. turn into ........................ copper ion ..................... + electron chloride ...............molecules copper atom …............. ............. chlorine atoms form one Two chlorine molecule Copper metal is ............................. deposited on the cathode ................... 34 USES OF ELECTROLYSIS IN INDUSTRY A. Electroplating    corrode Objects made of iron .................. easily when exposed to air. coated prevent To ........................... iron objects from corrosion, they are…………… with a thin layer of non reactive metal such as copper. The aims of electroplating are to make objects more ....................... and .................. to corrosion. resistant attractive Click for experiment 35 • The figure shows an iron spoon being electroplated with copper. cathode i) An iron spoon is used as the ........................ anode ii) Copper is used as the .............. copper iii) The electrolyte is a solution of ...................... A • compound At the anode : The copper dissolves forming positively ............................charged copper ions. Copper as anode • At the cathode: The .................... ions receive electrons, forming a coat of ...................... on iron spoon. • A rheostat is used to control the current flow in Iron spoon small the circuit so that a ..................... and steady copper copper current is used. This is to ensure that the coating Copper sulphate solution firm even is .......................... and ...................... 36 NON-REACTIVE METALS SUCH AS COPPER , SILVER AND GOLD ARE FOUND AS FREE ELEMENTS. THESE METALS CONTAIN IMPURITIES AND CAN BE PURIFIED BY ELECTROLYSIS 37 THE IMPURE METAL IS THE ANODE THE PURE METAL OF THE SAME TYPE IS THE CATHODE THE ELECTROLYTE IS THE METAL SALT SOLUTION CONSISTING OF METALLIC IONS WHICH IS TO BE PURIFIED IN THE PURIFICATION OF COPPER; The impure copper is used as anode The pure copper is used as cathode The electrolyte is copper sulphate solution 38 39 B. Extraction of metals anode carbon Oxygen gases Cathode carbon Bauxite + cryolite Molten aluminium 40 B. Extraction of metals At the cathode aluminium i) The positively charged .......................  Electrolysis is a process to extract metals magnesium and such as sodium, ...................... reactive aluminium which are more .................... than carbon.  Aluminium is extracted through electrolysis from molten bauxite .............................. ions are attracted to the cathode. ii) Aluminium ions receive electrons atoms and become aluminium ...................... At the anode: i) The negatively charged oxide ..................... ions are attracted to the anode. DIAGRAM ii) Oxide ions release electrons to become oxygen atoms ................... iii) The oxygen atom pairs together to form oxygen … ............ gas 41 A Anode (impure copper) Cathode ( Pure copper) C. Purification of metals A Copper sulphate solution Mass of anode decreases .................. Impurities Mass of cathode increases .................. 42 The diagram shows how electrolysis is used to purify copper impure copper • The anode is made of …………………….. • • • pure copper The cathode is made of …………………….. copper sulphate solution The electrolyte used is ……………………….. When electricity is passed through the electrolyte: i) The copper anode dissolves to form …………. copper ions ii) The positively charged copper ions are attracted to cathode the ……………………… cathode iii) Copper ions receive electrons from the ……………. and form copper atoms which are deposited on the cathode ………………… impurities iv) At the same time the …………………… settle to the bottom 43 ELECTROLYSIS is a process of breaking down chemical substances in aqueous solution or molten state to its constituents by using ………………….. Electrical energy ……….......... energy (molten aluminium oxide) G ……………. EXAMPLE: (At cathode):Aluminium ion + electrons Aluminium atom (At anode):Oxide ion Oxygen atom + electron 44 ELECTROPLATING IRON NAIL WITH COPPER Name of process : …………………………….. Metal M: ……………………………………... Electrolyte,N: ……………………………….. **To obtain a good quality: 1. Dilute ……………… should be used. 2 Use …………….. electric current. Metal becomes …………….. Iron nail is coated with …………….. layer. ANODE: ………………… CATHODE: ……………………. 45 **TASK 4 PURIFICATION OF COPPER Name of process : …………………………….. Electrolyte,P: ……………………………….. ***The presence of impurities in copper will ………. its electrical conductivity. Hence, copper has to be ………………. before it is used as a conductor of electricity. Impure copper………….. And impurities are left at the base. ……………… metal is formed and becomes ………….. ANODE: ………………… CATHODE: ……………………. 46 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY BY A SIMPLE CELL G A simple cell consists of two electrodes electrolyte ....................... and an........................... Zinc plate ................ Two electrodes made of two different metals ............... salt solution The electrolyte can be a .........................., dilute acid dilute alkali ....................... or ............................... Copper ................ ........ plate The diagram shows a simple cell circuit. copper (II) sulphate solution ........................................................ In the cell, Zinc i) .................... and copper plates are used electrodes as ..................... Cont 3 Cont 4 Zinc ii) ................ is more reactive than copper copper (II) sulphate 47 iii) The electrolyte used is .............................. solution EXERCISE 1 • In a simple cell, the more reactive metal acts as the negative ......................... terminal which gives out electron and the positive less reactive metals acts as the ...................... terminal. negative • In this process, the zinc plate is the ................... electrode positive and the copper plate is the ...................... electrode. electrons • The .................. from the zinc atoms flow to the copper zinc electrode through the connecting wire. Thus the .................. electrode dissolves in the electrolyte. hydrogen • At the copper electrode , ........................ ion from the electrolyte receives the electrons. positive • The flow of electron from ..................electrode to ............... electrode through the connecting wire deflect the galvanometer. This proves that the process produces 48 electrical ........................... energy. negative CELL AND THEIR USAGE Type of cells Dry cells .............................. Remote control ...Alarm clock .............................. Used in vehicles  .............................. .... ....  .............................. ..... Radios Torchlights Toys Uses Transistor radio ............................ Small ............................ Portable Cheap .............................. High voltage  ...................................... .............................. Advantages Light Disadvantages Non-rechargeable ............................ Not long lasting ............................ Leakage may happen .............................. Heavy ............................ ............................ Acid might spill .............................. Distilled water need to be added Expensive Wet cells ..... Rechargeable Long-lasting ...................................... ...... ...................................... Large current ...... Constant voltage Small, long-lasting ...................................... Portable Steady voltage Long-lasting .............................. Non-rechargeable Alkaline batteries Watches, .............................. .... Calculators, Hearing aids Cameras ... Expensive Non-rechargeable …………………… …. Use in electronic such as devices …………………… digital camera ...................................... Constant current ... ...................................... Long-lasting Rechargeable ................................... ADV 5 .. Expensive 49 5.7 LIGHT AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS CLICK HERE 50 Photosensitive Chemicals sensitive to light . Some chemicals are .................. decompose when ........................ exposed The chemicals will ................... to light. Examples of photosensitive chemicals are .................................... and silver nitrate ............................................ stored The chemicals cannot be .................. in a glass bottle. hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide water oxygen water oxygen .................. + ........... light decomposes into In the presence of ......................... ,hydrogen peroxide ...................... ..................... and .............. Silver chloride silver chlorine ...................... + ............... opaque silver chlorine Silver chloride decomposes into ........................... and .......................... The chemicals are stored in an ..................... glass bottle. 51 Instructions : Students are asked to answer the questions in Worksheet 2 after discussion. Water and mineral salts are absorbed from the soil by the roots light energy ................. Photosynthesis chlorophyll During photosynthesis, ................... light energy (green pigment) absorbs .......................... split The energy is used to ............. the . Oxygen is released into the air Glucose is sent to the whole plant water ..................... molecules into hydrogen oxygen ....................... and ....................... Oxygen .........................is released into the air ............................... hydrogen The ........................ atoms reacts with Carbon dioxide is absorbed from the air Carbon dioxide .................................. glucose carbon dioxide to form ......................... Water ................................ + sunlight Chlorophyll Glucose + ............................ Oxygen ............................. 52 PHOTOSYNTHESIS chlorophyll carbon dioxide oxygen glucose water water oxygen …………… + …………….  ……………. carbon dioxide ………………… + ………………. glucose Sunlight …………………………. 53 Instructions : Students are asked to answer questions in Worksheet 3 after discussion. Photographic paper silver bromide Photographic paper is coated with ......................... . When ............... falls on the paper, silver bromide is decomposed .......................... into ........................... and ....................... . silver The formation of .................... atoms on the photographic silver bromine light paper causes....................... black areas on the paper. greyish Silver bromide ...................... + ............... (Grey) Silver Bromine 54