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ATM PRINCIPLE

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: • Describe ATM cells • Describe ATM connections and ATM switching • Master the service types of ATM • Describe the features of ATM network

OUTLINES

ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM

Service type of ATM
Interface of ATM network

.The Purpose of ATM Provide a high-speed. low delay multiplexing and switching network to support any type of user traffic.or video applications. data. such as voice.

The differences between ATM and other technologies Circuit switch: connection oriented monopolize bandwidth resource of line packet switch: connectionless oriented sharing bandwidth resource of line ATM: connection oriented fixed length packet switch .

Connectionless and Connection Oriented Connectionless switching network Connection oriented ATM network .

BISUP. LANE IETF RFC1483.2971. VTOA. IP Switch. RFC1577.2931/Q. MPLS . UNI4. I.0. MPOA. PNNI.1.610 ATM Forum UNI3.The Organization Relevant to ATM Standards ITU-T Q. ILMI.

OUTLINES ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM Service type of ATM Interface of ATM network .

ATM Cells GFC (4) VPI (4) VCI (8) VCI (4) PT (3) CLP (1) HEC (8) VPI (4) VCI (4) VPI (4) VPI (8) VCI (4) VCI (8) VCI (4) GFC: Generic flow control PT: Payload type PT (3) CLP (1) HEC (8) CLP: Cell lose priority HEC: Header error control VPI: Virtual path identifier 48byte payload VCI: Virtual channel identifier 48 byte payload ATM UNI cells ATM NNI cells .

VP and VC Virtual Channel Virtual Path ATM Virtual Channel Connection E3 OC-3 OC-12 Virtual Path Virtual Channel VCC VP VC The label of virtual connection is “VPI/VCI” .

ATM Connections VCC VPC A UNI B NNI VC switch VPI = 1 VCI = 40 C NNI VP switch VPI = 2 VCI = 44 D UNI VC switch VPI = 3 VCI = 44 VPI = 4 VCI = 50 E .

VP Switching and VC Switching VC switching VCI 1 VPI 1 VCI 2 VCI 3 VPI 3 VCI 4 VPI 2 VPI 2 Port 1 VCI 1 VCI 2 VPI 1 VPI 3 Port 2 VCI 4 VCI 3 VCI 1 VCI 2 VP switching VCI 1 VPI 4 VPI 5 VCI 2 Port 3 .

ATM Switching ATM switching A A L A T M P H Y ATM layer VPI 2 1 VCI 37 51 1 2 UNI Port 1 P H Y Port 2 P H Y Port A T M A T M VPI = 2 VCI = 37 NNI ATM switching Port 3 P H Y UNI Port 4 P H Y A T M A T M 3 4 ATM layer VPI 1 3 VCI 51 39 Port VPI = 3 VCI = 39 A A P A T H L M Y .

the PVC is down. unless the underlying physical network (SONET. A PVC in the usual meaning is a VC that is not signaled by the end points. Both of the endpoint (user) VC values are manually provisioned. . If a switch in the path fails. for example) can re-route below ATM.ATM Connections PVC: permanent virtual channel. the SVC is broken and would have to be reconnected. SVC: A SVC is established by UNI signaling methods. If any equipment fails. The link-by-link route through the network is also manually provisioned. So an SVC is a demand connection initiated by the user.

OUTLINES ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM Service type of ATM Interface of ATM network .

data and video service Provides QoS .Features of ATM Voice Data Video Cells      Connection oriented Fast packet switching Statistical multiplexer Supports voice.

The Traffic Contracts Contract Contract ATM network Contracts  Traffic parameters  QoS parameters .

Traffic Parameters PCR SCR MCR MBS Peak Cell Rate Sustainable Cell Rate Minimum Cell Rate Maximum Burst Size .

. CDVT: Cell Delay Variation Tolerance. average of a specified number of cell transfer delays for one or more connections.QoS Parameters MCTD: Maximum Cell Transfer Delay. CLR: Cell Loss Ratio. lost cells/total transmitted cells. describes the variability of the pattern of cell arrival for a given connection.

and to check on the validity of the traffic entering the network. A connection is granted when the user’s traffic contract is examined.Congestion Management of ATM Network CAC: Connection Admission Control. UPC: Usage Parameter Control. . revealing that the connection can be supported through the whole network at its required QoS levels. UPC operation is designed to monitor and control traffic.

OUTLINES ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM Service type of ATM Interface of ATM network .

ATM Protocol Stacks Mode U s e r A A L U s e r t r a f f i c A A L c o n t r o l A T M c o n t r o l P h y s i c a l c o n t r o l U s e r A A L A T M P h y s i c a l A T M P h y s i c a l e l l C e l l ¡ ¡ -C P h y s i c a l F l o w .

transmission frame adaptation. and transmission frame generation/recovery. cell delimiting.The Function of Each Layer CS Convergence sub layer AAL SAR segment and resemble ATM Flow control processing the cell header TC Physical PM Processing HEC. .

AAL Type and BISDN Service Application 类 Voice.video and circuit emulation Data Service of BISDN Bit rate Connection mode Real time constant variable connectionless Connection oriented Y N Service of ATM AAL Type 1 Type 2 Type 3/4 Type 5 ATM network ATM layer Physical layer .

The Processing of Data voice/video/data/picture AAL+ATM ATM cell Frame of transmission cell cell Frame header medium .

IP Service In ATM Network RFC1483B encapsulation RFC1483R encapsulation Ethernet RFC1483 AAL IP RFC1483 AAL ATM PH ATM PH .

OUTLINES ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM Service type of ATM Interface of ATM network .

Service Type of ATM CBR: Constant Bit Rate rt-VBR: Real Time Variable Bit Rate nrt-VBR: Not Real Time Variable Bit Rate ABR: Available Bit Rate UBR: Unspecified Bit Rate .

CBR Service Traffic parameter QoS Tolerance low high PCR Cell loss Cell delay and cell delay variation cost 5 byte cell header Voice and video 1 byte 47 byte payload .

VBR Service Traffic parameter QoS Tolerance PCR SCR MBS LOW HIGH Cell lose (RT) Cell lose (NRT) Voice and video .

UBR Service Traffic parameter QoS Tolerance NO QoS low high Cell relay variation Cell lose WAN .

ABR Service Traffic parameter QoS Tolerance PCR low high MCR Cell loss Cell delay variation Overhead 5 Byte Header 48 Byte Payload • No cell overhead • Uses congestion feedback instead LAN .

OUTLINES ATM overview Basic conception of ATM Features of ATM Protocol stacks of ATM Service type of ATM Interface of ATM network .

ATM Network and Interface UNI B-ICI UNI NNI ATM public network NNI NNI ATM private network .

0/UNI3.1/UNI4.Signaling of ATM Network ILMI4.0/IISP UNI3.0 .0 PNNI1.

What’s the function of each byte in the ATM cell header? 2. Which services are AAL1 and AAL5 used respectively to adapt? 4. Which applications do CBR and UBR respectively support? . Which data packets do RFC1483B and RFC1483R respectively encapsulate? 5. How does the ATM switch implement the ATM switching? 3.QUESTIONS 1.