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John Anthony A. Domantay, M.D., FPSP, Ph.D.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Analysis of variables that are numerical or that are suitable for numerical summarization

Examples of numerical variables
Age in years  Blood pressure in mmHg  Social support in terms of a scale from 1 to 5  Number of pregnancies  Attitudes towards contraceptive use on a scale of 1 to 4

TOPICS

RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW RESEARCH DESIGNS*

TOPICS

SAMPLING DESIGNS
DATA ANALYSIS

RESEARCHABILITY Data can be collected to answer the question or resolve the problem  .What is a good research problem? 1.

What is a good research problem? 2. SIGNIFICANCE The problem:  Affects a large population  Has serious morbidity consequences  Is related to on-going projects .

SIGNIFICANCE The answer:  Fills a gap in knowledge or technology  Has practical application  Will improve the practice of the profession .What is a good research problem? 2.

SIGNIFICANCE Concepts and ideas are novel Not over-researched in the past   .What is a good research problem? 2.

What is a good research problem? 3.  FEASIBILITY Adequate subjects can be gathered for the study. .  The study can be completed within a reasonablle period of time.  Procedures are technically possible.  Information needed can be collected.  Resources are available.

priority within the national or institutional mission   . OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Critical mass: problem is broad and large enough Interest: current interest in the problem area.What is a good research problem? 3.

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Article Summary Page Topic_____________________________Date__________ Citation_________________________________________ Purpose Design Sample Vars Stats Result Conclusions Critique .

Summarizing and writing up literature review: To write up your review you need to: 1. report conflicting findings but indicate which findings are from best studies and most credible . Organize the studies by finding 2. rank the studies according to your ranking. summarize them and cite strongest articles b) If findings across studies are not in agreement. Compare findings across studies a)If findings are in same direction.

Write up the findings from the literature review and summary. Plagiarism rules need to be adhered to. and focused. Writing should be clear. To become more familiar with how to write up a literature review…Read review articles and the literature review sections of published papers . Repetition should be avoided.Summarizing and writing up literature review: 3. concise.

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Standard IMRAD format  I – INTRODUCTION: why the authors decided to do the research M – METHODS: how they did it. and how they analyzed their results  .

Standard IMRAD format  R – RESULTS: what they found D – DISCUSSION: what the results mean  .

Standard IMRAD format  Is a paper worth reading? Design of the METHODS section  .

Critical Appraisal  Assessment of methodological quality Three preliminary questions  .

Why was the study done. and what clinical questions were the authors addressing?   Introduction Or Methods .Critical Appraisal 1.

What type of study was done?   Primary study: reports research first hand Secondary (or integrative) study: attempts to summarize and draw conclusions from primary studies .Critical Appraisal 2.

Critical Appraisal Primary research:  Randomized control trial  Cohort study  Case-control study  Cross-sectional survey  Case report .

Rigorous and pre-defined methodology . Overviews  Non-systematic reviews .Critical Appraisal Secondary research: A.Summarize primary studies  Systematic reviews .

Critical Appraisal Secondary research:  Meta-analyses .Integrate numerical data from more than one study .

Critical Appraisal Secondary research: B. Decision analyses D. Guidelines C. Economic analyses .

Cross-sectional survey 3.Critical Appraisal Was this design appropriate to the research?  Therapy:  . .Cross-sectional survey  Screening:  .Randomized controlled trial  Diagnosis:  .

Case-control study .      Was this design appropriate to the research? Prognosis: .Critical Appraisal 3.Cohort study Causation .Cohort study .

Cross-Sectional Study (Prevalence study) .STUDY DESIGNS DESCRIPTIVE  Observational studies  .Ecological Study (Correlation study)  .

STUDY DESIGNS ANALYTICAL  Observational studies  .Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)  .Cohort study Experimental studies  .Case-control study  .Community Trial  .

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and their HIV status determined. .What type of study was done? A study was carried out to investigate the effect of HIV infection on mortality among people with tuberculosis in Zambia. Individuals with tuberculosis were recruited to the study. They were followed up to compare mortality in the HIVpositive and HIV-negative groups.

What type of study was done? ANSWER: COHORT STUDY .

and a comparison group of women were selected from the same population.The prevalence of these exposures was compared between the group of women with cancer and the comparison group. . Both groups were interviewed to determine the presence or absence of a number of exposures.What type of study was done? A study was carried out to investigate risk factors for invasive cervical cancer in Brazil. Women with invasive cervical cancer were identified from a cancer registry.

What type of study was done? ANSWER: CASE-CONTROL STUDY .

. For all these babies. A representative group of nonlow birth-weight was selected. the hospital antenatal notes were used to identify the haemoglobin levels of the mother in the final trimester of pregnancy. All low birth-weight babies born in a rural hospital during a one-year period were identified.What type of study was done? A study looked for an association between severe maternal anaemia in the final trimester of pregnancy and low birthweight babies.

What type of study was done? ANSWER: CASE-CONTROL STUDY .

What type of study was done? In a study of the treatment of acute diarrhoea. children with acute diarrhoea were randomly allocated to receive either rice-based oral-rehydration fluid or the standard treatment (glucosebased oral rehydration fluid). . The average duration of the diarrhoea in each group was compared.

What type of study was done? ANSWER: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL .

.What type of study was done? A study looked for an association between trachoma and overcrowding. All the individuals in a community were examined for the presence of trachoma. They simultaneously filled in a questionnaire about the size of their homes and the number of people living there.

What type of study was done? ANSWER: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY .