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• Differences between individuals of the same species • Used to describe differences in characteristics shown by organisms in the same species • Due to genetic or enviromental factors

• Helps species to survive changes in the environment • Species inhabit a wider range of habitats


CONTINOUS VARIATION • Characteristics with traits that show a gradual change from one extreme to the other • Example:height. body colour.intelligence • Determined by the combine effect of multiple genes located at different loci (polygenic) .

• Quantitive inheritance(can be measured) • Normal distribution curve • Bell-shaped curve .

eye colour.shape of the earlobe.DISCONTINOUS VARIATION • Have clear-cut differences between them • No-intermediate forms • Controlled by one or two genes(alleles) • Phenotypes are generally unaffected by environmental factors • Example:blood groups.ability to role tongue. hair curly .fingerprints.

no overlap % of population A B AB O Bar chart showing frequency distribution for the ABO blood groups .Individuals fall into clearly-defined groups.







Effects of Genetic Factors on Variation Gene reshuffling (gamete formation): • Crossing over • Independent Assortment • Mutation –Chromosomal mutation --Gene mutations .

CROSSING OVER • Homologous chromosome pair up and form bivalents • May occur between maternal and paternal chromosomes of the bivalents resulting in new genetic combinations .


INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT • During metaphase 1.bivalents randomly orientated on spindle equator. maternal and paternal chromosomes randomly distributed to either pole • The daughter cells have different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes • Possible of 223 combinations .



• Random fusion of male and female gamet during fertilisation • Offspring will have a genetic composition different from its parents • Creates new combinations of existing feature .

pesti cides.UV light MUTATION .• MUTATION: sudden change in the amount of DNA or structure of DNA of an organism • Occur randomly and spontaneous • Occur at low rate • Increase by the exposure of mutagens: caffeine.colchicne.radiations.formaldehyde.

better adapt to new environment • Increases variation in population: creating new alleles .• If happens in somatic cells it is not transmitted to next generation • If happens in gametes its likely to be inherited • Most mutations harmful • Some mutations beneficial.


CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS • Changes in the number of chromosomes or in the structure of chromosomes • Cause: one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes fail to separate during Anaphase 1 (non-disjunction) • Gain or loss of chromosomes in the daughter cells .

• If whole set failed to separate : polyploidy/ euploidy (common in plants) • Aneuploidy : loss or gain one of the chromosomes • Eg: Down syndrome’s .

• Structural change: a) Deletions b) Duplications c) Inversions d) Translocation .

A fragment of chromosome breaks off and is lost .

New chromosome Has extra genetic material .A fragment of chromosome is doubled or repeated.

A fragment of chromosome is removed. The fragment rotates through 180 C and is inserted back at the same location .

A fragment of chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome .


• Protein non-functional/does not efficient . Altered mRNA carries altered information to where synthesis take place.GENE MUTATIONS • Point mutation • A change in the nucleotide sequence of part of a gene • Changes in genetic code and order of amino acid • Mistake is transcribed as mRNA.


albinism.• Causes genetic diseases such as sickle-cell anaemia.haemophilia .

gamma rays).component in tobacco .food preservatives. pesticides. caffeine.formaldehyde.uv light. drugs.Mutagen • Mutations-causing agents • Example: radiation(X-rays.

Effect of environmental factors on variation • Full potential of genotype only expressed when environmental factors are optimum and not limiting • Development of characteristics is dependent not only on genotype but also environment .

Effects of interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors on variation • Genetic and environmental factors interact to influence the overall appearance of an organism • Development of organism that dependent on the instructions encoded in DNA and environmental factors nature versus nurture .


Importance of variation in the survival of a species • Better adapation to environmental conditions • Survive and transmit advantageous genes in offspring • Time by time …’survival of the fittest’(Natural Selection) .


banded snails predominate .• The shell color and banding patterns determined by genes • The distribution of the different uniforms is determined by environment • If the background is fairly uniform. the unbanded snails are numerous • If the background vegetation is mottled.