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The regulatory mechanism in respiration

• During vigorous ,muscle require more oxygen and glucose to release energy • Rate of respiration increases • Oxygen content decreases, carbon dioxide content increases • Rate and depth of breathing increases • Lungs inflated with more oxygen with each breath

• Heartbeat rate increases (number of heartbeats per minute) • More blood are pump into blood circulation • The ventilation rate increases(gaseous exchange between the alveoli and blood capillaries .

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RELAXING • NORMAL: • Breathing rate: 18-20 per minutes • Heartbeat rate:60-70 beats per minute .

Vigorous activities • Breathing rate increases to 30 breaths per minute • Heartbeat rate increases to 120 beats per minute .

In fear • Breathing rate and heartbeat rate increase to meet demand of a higher respiration rate • Adrenal gland secrete adrenaline • Increase the heartbeat and breathing rate • More glucose and oxygen are supplied to muscles .

nausea.At high altitude • • • • Atmospheric pressure is low Decreased partial pressure of oxygen Causes drop of oxygen level in blood Causes headaches.dizziness .

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• Breathing is involuntary process • Controlled by respiratory centre located in medulla oblongata .

Mechanism of carbon dioxide content • Higher concentration level of CO2 causes decrease in pH in blood and cerebrospinal fluid • Detected by central chemoreceptor in medulla oblongata • Nerve impulses are send to respiratory centre and are send to diaphragm and intercostal muscles • Respiratory muscles contract and relax more .

stretch receptors in the bronchi and bronchioles generate impulses which are transmitted to the expiratory centre to inhibit inspiration temporarily Control of breathing by peripheral chemoreceptors. aortic bodies .the carotid.Respiratory centre in medulla oblongata Nerve impulses transmitted to external intercostal muscles to stimulate inspiration As the lungs expand.

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• Breathing rate and ventilation rate increases • Excess of CO2 is eliminated • CO2 concentration and pH value of blood return to normal • peripheral receptors (aortic bodies and carotid bodies) also sensitive to CO2 content and pH in blood .

Mechanism of oxygen content in the body • Peripheral chemoreceptors only stimulated if the oxygen level is very low • The respiratory centre stimulates the respiratory muscle to increase contractions • Breathing and ventilation rate increase • Oxygen level returns to normal .

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• Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 chemicals.benzene.nicotine.(tar.acetone.carbon monoxide.formaldehyde) • Carcinogenic compounds • Nicotine is stimulant and addictive • Carbon monoxide promotes artherosclerosis • Tar.benzene.formaldehyde causes emphysema and bronchitis .