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© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu

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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Color Imaging
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Describing Chromatic lights
 Radiance (watt):
» Total amount of energy flow from the light source.
 Luminance (lumens, lm):
» measure of amount of energy an observer
perceives from a light source. It varies based on
distance from the source, wavelength, etc.
 Brightness:
» a subjective descriptor, describing color sensation.
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Primary Colors
 Primary colors of
light (additive):
» Red (700 nm), 65%
cones sensitive to
red light.
» Green (546.1nm),
33%
» Blue(435.8nm). 2%
cones sensitive to
blue light.
 Mixing of R,G,B may
NOT generate ALL
visible colors.
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Primary and Secondary Colors of
Lights and Pigments
 Primary colors of
pigment
(subtractive):
» magenta,
» cyan, and
» yellow.


© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Characterization of Color
 Colors are distinguished from one another based on
brightness, hue, and saturation.
 Hue:
» an attribute associated with the dominant wavelength in a
mixture of light waves. It represents the dominant color as
perceived by an observer.
 Saturation:
» specifies relative purity or the amount of white lights mixed
with a hue.
 Hue and saturation together are called chromaticity.
Example: color palette
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Chromaticity Diagram
 Tri-chromatic coefficients:
» Let X, Y, Z: tri-stimulus values
representing the amounts of red,
green, and blue needed to form any
particular color.




» Since x + y + z = 1, x and y along
will make a chromaticity diagram
 CIE Chromaticity diagram
» x-axis: red, y-axis: green
» Color on boundary are completely
saturated.
» Saturation @ pts of equal energy is
zero
, ,
X Y
x y
X Y Z X Y Z
Z
z
X Y Z
= =
+ + + +
=
+ +
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Color Gamut
 Any 3 points in the
chromaticity diagram
can produce all
colors within that
triangle. Due to the
tongue-shape
indicates that no
mixing of three
primary color can
produce ALL
possible colors
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Color Models
 RGB color model: monitor, video
 CMY (CMYK) color model: printing
 HIS: close to HVS


© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
RGB Color Model
 R, G, B at 3 axis ranging
in [0 1] each
 Gray scale along the
diagonal
 If each component is
quantized into 256 levels
[0:255], the total number
of different colors that
can be produced is (2
8
)
3

= 2
24
= 16,777,216
colors.
 RGB safe color:
» Quantize each
components into 6
levels from 0 to 255.
24-bit RGB color cube
RGB safe color cube
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
HSI Color Model
 Hue:
» an attribute describing
pure color
 Saturation:
» The degree of which
a pure color is diluted
by white light.
 HSI model
» Hue and saturation lie
in a plane
perpendicular to an
intensity axis.
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Color Coordinate Transform
 RGB  CYM



 HSI  RGB





» Others see text book
 RGB  HSI
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