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:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.

Sanyal:
An Architect is basically space planner. He has to co-ordinate works of various consultant e.g. structural, HVAC, Mechanical & Electrical, Acoustics & Illumination etc. Hence he should have at least working knowledge of above fields. Structural options & possibilities & their behavior under the influence of loads being most important.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Structural design of building may be defined as to channelized all types of loads acting on building during its lifetime by shortest possible route to the foundation below so that bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded & structure is safe to use during its life time. The loads which will be acting on a building during its lifetime can be classified as: a) Dead load such as self weight, permanent fixtures etc. b) Live load such as occupancy loads, movable loads etc. c) Dynamic loads such as wind loads, Earthquake loads etc. d) Hydraulic loads such as load due to water table in rainy seasons etc. e) Impact loads etc.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Loads can be also classified as: UDL (Uniformly distributed loads e.g. self weight of structural members. Point loads (Loads which acts on very small area e.g. secondary beam transferring loads on main beam. Triangular loads e.g. water pressure in water tank, soil pressure on retaining wall etc. Trapezoidal loads e.g. loads transferred on long beam of two way slab. Combination of above loads.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Due to action of loads three types of stresses are set up in structural members : 1. Tensile e.g. shell structures, cables etc. 2. Compression e.g. column, struts etc. 3. Bending & tension or bending & compression e.g. beams, truss etc. 4. Stress is force per unit area, while strain is change in length divided by original length. 5. Standard bending formula is: M/I=F/y or M=fZ , where M= External B.M, I=Moment of inertia, f= allowable stress in structural members , y= position of extreme fiber from N.A; Z= Modulus of section. 6. In building we are encountered with members as mentioned in type 3 stress category.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Bending moment & shear force diagrams: Bending moment about any point can be defined as force x perpendicular distance from the point in question. Shear force can be defined as unbalanced force to the right or left of the section. B.M. & S.F. diagram is graphical representation of B.M. & S.F. In general B.M. is maximum where S.F. is zero & S.F. is maximum where B.M. is zero (Point of inflection). In cantilever structure B.M. & S.F. is maximum at support. In a continuous beam/slab advantage can be taken of cantilever projection, which reduces span moments of adjacent span. Propped cantilever is better option as compared to cantilever projections.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


In simple beam moment is zero at ends & maximum at centre: wl2/8, while in fixed beam at ends FEM=wl2/12 & centre it is wl2/24. In reality beam/slab is neither completely free or simply supported or completely fixed, but it can be assumed either nominally fixed or partially fixed. Hence for practical design for initial sizing of members can be based on wl2/10 for UDL. Deflection of beam/slab depends on load , span & end condition of beam. Fixed beam is stiffer as compared to simple beam. If the load is doubled BM in beam/slab is also doubled , but deflection becomes 16 times as deflection= k.wl4 where k= 5/384 for simple beam & 1/384 for fixed beam.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Important components of any building are : 1.Roof/Floor-truss with roofing materials, slabs, plank. Decking etc. 2.Beams plinth, floor beams etc. 3.Columns/wall-corner column, side column, central column etc. 4.Foundation/footing-strip footing, isolated footing, combined footing etc.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Slabs/beams can be classified based on spanning e.g. one way slab, two way slab etc. It can be also classified as per shape e.g. rectangular, square, triangular, circular etc. It ca be also classified as per support condition e.g. simple support, fixed support, continuous support, cantilever etc. Columns can be classified as/ its effective length e.g. short or long column. It can be also classified as per position e.g. corner column, side column or central column etc. Foundation can be classified as shallow or deep foundation/ pile foundation. Again it can be strip foundation, isolated footing, eccentric footing, combined footing, raft foundation etc. Roof can be sloping roof in A.C./G.I. sheets or tiles, r.c.c. slabs, folded slabs, shell structures, pneumatic/fabric structures etc.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Most of the structure falls under the category of bending & tension or bending & compression , general guide lines can be given as under: 1. Prefer short span as compared to long span from deflection point. 2. Doubling of load will double the BM but doubling of span will increase the deflection 16 times for UDL. 3. Prefer propped cantilever in place of isolated cantilever. 4. Isolated cantilever structure should be limited in use & adequate counter weight shall be provided for the same generally 1.5 times the load on cantilever. 5. In a continuous structure overhang reduces the BM in the adjoining span. 6. Beams/slabs are not completely free to rotate or completely fixed but it is either nominally/partially fixed. 7. Prefer ULD as compared to point load as BM & SF is less in common types beams/slabs. 8. If point loads cannot be avoided then try to ensure that is more than 10, which is practically very near to UDL.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


9. In corner column there will be biaxial bending, in side column it be uniaxial bending & in central column it may be axial loading for symetrical beam & loading. 10. Short column if preferable to long & slender column. 11. Braced column if preferable to un-braced column. 12. Concentric isolated footing is preferable to isolated eccentric/strip footing. RULE OF THUMBS: a) For isolated footing Length x breadth = 1.1nwA/B.C. b) Plinth beam (lintel at 2.1mt) d= 50mm/mt run & Ast= 10mm , no. being equal to span in mts. c) Tee or beam= 60mm/mt Ast= d/3 for tee beam & d/4 for ell beam d) Column with 1% reinf. = 15.57Sq. Cms/tonne load. e) Slabs= 40 mm/mt. run

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Member Plinth beam Tie beam Floor beam Grid beam Span/Overall depth ratio. 15 to 18 18 to 20 12 to 15 20 to 30

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Slab type One-way simply supported One-way continuous Two-way simply supported Two-way continuous Span to overall depth ratio. 30 35 38 for L/B=1.5 35 for L/B>1.5 40 for L/B=1.5 38for L/B>1.5

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Miscellaneous structures : Truss depth/span= 10 Virendell truss = 1/8 to 1/10 span, compression & tension at top & bottom cords is given by: C=T= qL2/8h, where q=UDL & L=Span in mts & h=depth of V. truss. Arch. Optimum rise= 1/6 to , d=Span/40 to span/70 Folded plate: depth of fold= Span/15 to Span/10. Flat plate: d=Effe.Span/22 to E.Span/18. Two way ribbed slab= Eff. Short span/30 to 1/25. Flat plate ribbed slab= Eff. Span/20 to 1/17 Domes: Rise/span=1/8 to for nomal dome & 1/5 to for shallow domes.

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Rule of thumbs for M20 concrete mix (AJS): 1. Beam in general: d= 15.41[w/k]1/2 , Ast=1.94[w/k]1/2 & of bar= 0.884[w/k]1/4 2. Plinth beam: d= 50mm/mt. run & Ast=10mm , number =span in mts. 3. Tee or Ell beam: MR=Qbd2, where Q= 40xy(2-y), x=Bf/br, y=ds/d, Bf=Effe. Flange width, br=width of rib, ds=thickness of slab, d= effe. Depth of beam. 4. d of Tee/Ell beam=12.77[w/{40kxyb(2-y)}]1/2, Ast=6.527[w/{40kxyb(2-y)}]1/2 d/2 5. Column: Load carrying capacity Pu=[72+24.3p], where Pu= Ultimate load, p=% of reinf. 15.57 sq. cms./tonne load with 1% reinf. 6. Slab: d= 12.2474l[w/k]1/2=3.873l[w]1/2, Ast 7. Approximate UDL on columns: Corner-2T/M2, Side-1.5/M2, Central-1.1T/M2

:AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO STRUCTURES-by Prof. A.J.Sanyal:


Sorry I could not go in details due to constrain of time. If you want detail seminar it should be minimum 2-3 days seminar, where basic theory, derivation of common formula, numerical & assignments with probable solutions etc. can be covered comfortably. Any way if like my presentation, tell your friends, else tell your enemies so you can Pleasure of revenge. But tell somebody.

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