Fans and Blowers

Difference between fans, blowers and compressors
As per ASME the specific pressure, i.e, the ratio of the discharge pressure over the suction pressure is used for defining the fans, blowers and compressors as highlighted below :

Equipment Fans Blowers Compressors

Specific Ratio Up to 1.11 1.11 to 1.20 more than 1.20

Pressure rise (mmWg) 1136 1136 – 2066 -

Typical centrifugal fan operation .

Fan types Centrifugal fan Axial fan .

Centrifugal Fan: Types Paddle Blade (Radial blade) Forward Curved (Multi vane) Backward Curved .

Axial Flow Fan: Types Tube Axial Vane Axial Propeller .

Fan Types and Efficiencies Peak Efficiency Range Airfoil. backwardly curved/inclined 79-83 Modified radial 72-79 Redial 69-75 Pressure blower 58-68 Forwardly curved 60-65 Axial fan vanaxial 78-85 Tubeaxial 67-72 Propeller 45-50 Centrifugal Fans .

axial medium flow.High pressure. dip in pressure-flow curve. dip in pressure-flow curve before peak pressure point. low efficiency. efficiency close to tube-axial fans. power reduces as flow increases beyond point of highest efficiency Same as backward curved type. exhaust systems Type Radial Centrifugal Fans Characteristics High pressure. exhaust HVAC. high flow. power increases continuously Medium pressure. use of guide vanes improves efficiency High pressure Backward applications curved including blades HVAC systems. drying ovens. dip in pressure curve. power rises continuously High pressure. forced draft fans. high flow. various industrial applications. moist air/gases Low pressure HVAC. high flow. packaged units. peak efficiency close to point of free air delivery Medium pressure.Axial-flow Fans Type Prope ller Characteristics Low pressure. medium flow. etc. but for clean air applications . exhausts Airfoil type HVAC. efficiency higher than radial fans. suitable for dust laden. high efficiency. higher efficiency than propeller type. high flow. Same as backward curved. suitable for clean and dust laden air / gases Tubeaxial Forwardcurved blades Vane. highest efficiency Typical Applications Various industrial applications. ventilation. Typical Applications Aircirculation.

System characteristic curve .

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System curve .

kW – Power and N – speed (RPM) . Where Q – flow. SP – Static Pressure. Varying the RPM by 10% decreases or increases the power requirement by 27%.Fan Laws Flow ? Speed Pressure ? (Speed)2 Power ? (Speed)3 Q1 N 1  Q2 N 2 SP1  N 1    SP 2  N 2  2 kW 1  N 1    kW 2  N 2  3 Varying the RPM by 10% Varying the RPM by 10% decreases or increases air decreases or increases the delivery by 10%. static pressure by 19%.

.Fan static pressure Fan Static Pressure r SP = SP (Fan outlet) – SP (Fan outlet) SP (Fan outlet) – Static pressure at fan outlet.05 in W.05 – (-10) = 10.C. inches WC SP (Fan outlet) – Static pressure at fan inlet. inches WC r SP = 0.

Static Pressure Profile of the System .

Static pressure drop and rise across entire system Fan behaviour .

Speed vs Power % Speed 100 90 80 % Power 100 73 51 70 60 50 34 22 13 .

Most Popular Variable Speed Drive Recirculation Damper VFC 100 Power 75 50 25 25 VFD Ideal 50 Flow 75 100 .Flow control Damper .

Impact of speed reduction .

Use of VSD: Boiler ID fan case study .

) .Use of VSD: Boiler ID fan case study (contd.

Energy audit of fan • Collect fan and motor specifications with ducting network • Measure motor power input • Measure fan and motor speed • Measure static pressure at various points in the duct • Measure total and static pressure and compute flow • Estimate the system efficiency and check fan operating point .

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an adjustable-speed control is most efficient. Bends and restrictions near the inlet or outlet seriously degrade capacity and efficiency. In systems requiring constant air volume. • With a properly selected fan or blower and well-designed air distribution system. the method of control is the main thing determining energy efficiency. • The efficiency of a system depends on the number and type of bends and restrictions.What to Look for in the Field Overall system efficiency will be determined by the type of fan or blower. and equipment should operate only when needed. Sharp bends. Is your fan or blower is providing the best efficiency and performance in a given application. . and the method of control. its interaction with the air distribution system. In systems requiring variable airflow. especially. the speed of a beltdriven fan or blower should be adjusted by proper selection of pulley sizes. • Determine whether the right type of fan or blower is used for an application. increase the resistance the fan or blower must overcome.

VSD. • Avoid unnecessary demand – excess air reduction – idling • Reduce pressure drops – Remove redundant ducts – Modify ducting with minimum bends • Drive system – Provide direct drive where possible – Replace V-belt by flat belt • Replace with energy efficient fans • Regular preventive maintenance . pulley change.Energy conservation in fans • Match fan capacity to demand – downsizing..

Energy saving in Boiler ID fan by speed reduction through pulley change 8” 1470 RPM 10” 26 kW 1181 RPM 6” 1470 RPM 10” 14 kW 882RPM .

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