Lecture 16

Glycolysis II

Glycolysis & Human

Step 1 Transporter (Malfunction is related to Diabetes) Cytoplasm H OH H O H H H OH OH 1. First of three irreversible steps HO HO Inherited Diseases: ATP 2+ Hexokinase Kinase (Step Highly negative G 3. Phosphate in all intermedaites D-Glucose Glucose-6-Phosphate (G6P) . Requires Mg Deficiency of Phosphoglycerate 7) (HK) ADP Deficiency of Pyruvate Kinase (Step 10) 2H OPO3 Inability of exercise due to muscle pains H O HO HO H H H OH OH 2.Before Step 1 of Glycolysis: Glucose Glycolysis.

Arsenate Poisoning Arsenate (AsO43-) is structural analog of inorganic phosphate Pi (HPO42-)  Competes with phosphate for binding site in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Step 6) Very unstable! .

Questions & Answers .

3. 4. 2 ATP produced. 4 ATP produced. 2 pyruvate produced 2 ATP consumed. 2. 2 ATP produced. 2 pyruvate produced 4 ATP consumed. 2 ATP consumed.Question: What is the net outcome per molecule of glucose during glycolysis? 1. 1 pyruvate produced . 4 ATP produced. 1 pyruvate produced 4 ATP consumed.

2. . It is the step bridging the hexose and triose phases. It is the first regulated step of the pathway. It is the only metabolically irreversible step.Question: Why is the PFK-1 step of glycolysis called the first committed step? 1. 4. 5. It is the first step through which all hexoses entering the pathway must pass. 3. It is the first step to produce ATP.

5. 4. 2. . 3. Hexokinases I and II catalyze the reverse of the reaction catalyzed by hexokinases III and IV. They all have approximately the same Km value. Hexokinase IV has a much higher Km than the others.Question: Which is true about the four isozymes of hexokinase? 1. All four hexokinases are usually saturated at normal blood glucose concentrations. Hexokinase I is active mostly in the liver.

What are the three irreversible steps of glycolysis? 2. The product of aldolase is dihdroxyacetone phosphate and ______.More Questions: 1. . Give name and chemical structure.

3 .Fate of Pyruvate. Horton Chapter 11.

Plants & many Microbes under aerobic conditions (see later) Citric Acid Cycle CO2 H2O .The Fate of Pyruvate 10 Steps of Glycolysis (See Lecture 11) Animals.

The Fate of Pyruvate Anaerobic: Fermentation to Ethanol in yeast & some bacteria Precursor in Gluconeogenesis Anaerobic: Fermentation to Lactate in exercising muscles. red blood cells and lactic acid bacteria .

Fermentation In the absence of aerobic respiration (=membrane-associated electron transport system. see later)  Fermentation regenerates NAD+ (Oxidizes NADH to NAD+) If NAD+ would not be regenerated glycolysis would stop! .

causing the phosphate bond to become high-energy.Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate NAD+ NADH + H+ 1. Step 9: Water is removed. ~ ~ ~ 3-phosphoglycerate Step 7: ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.3-bisphosphoglycerate ~ Step 6: The addition of a phosphate group is coupled to an oxidation. . generating NADH and a high-energy phosphate bond. Step 8: A chemical 2-phosphoglycerate H2O Phosphoenolpyruvate ~ ~ ~ Pyruvate rearrangement occurs. Step 10: ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.

Reoxidation of NADH during alcoholic Fermentation In yeast & some bacteria (Zymomonas) .

Reoxidation of NADH during alcoholic Fermentation In yeast & some bacteria (Zymomonas) Hangover Production of alcoholic beverages (beer & wine) and bread .

+ 2 Pi2.THE OVERALL REACTION Glucose + 2 ADP3.+ 2 H+ 2 Ethanol + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP4.+ 2 H2O .

antibiotic poisoning) .g.Auto-Brewery Syndrome Consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (sugar)  the patient appears drunk Ethanol production in the gut by yeast Caused by infection (e.

Sauerkraut. red blood cells. Pickles . Yogurt. and lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus.Reoxidation of NADH during Lactic Acid Fermentation in exercising muscles. Lactobacillus) Exercise Tooth decay Cheese.

+ 2 Pi2- 2 Lactate.+ 2 ATP4.+ 2 H2O .THE OVERALL REACTION Glucose + 2 ADP3.

Alligator: Quick burst of energy by lactic acid fermentation  Generate ATP in the muscle quickly without O2 Needs long recovery to clear excess lactate (source of sourness after exercise) .

The Pasteur Effect • Facultative microbes have both fermentation and aerobic respiration • With O2 .Consumes less glucose • Without O2 .Consumes more glucose .

.Summary Under anaerobic conditions: Pyruvate  Ethanol & CO2 or Pyruvate  Lactate Both processes regenerate NAD+ from NADH.

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