By Omer 

Learning Objectives:ο‚— Understand de Broglie’s wave-particle duality hypothesis ο‚— Know that the equation 𝑝 = links a particle property with a wave property and can be used to calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a particle ο‚— Know that the accelerating voltage of an electron is β„Ž linked to its de Broglie wavelength by Ξ» = 2π‘šπ‘’π‘‰ β„Ž Ξ» .

Light as a wave ο‚— Diffraction and interference of light can only be explained by waves ο‚— For example. or just pass straight through and the beam would be unchanged . in the diffraction of waves as they pass through the slit. if the light was acting as a particle the light particles would not pass through the gap if they were too big.

Light as a particle ο‚— Results from photoelectric effect experiment can only be explained by thinking of light as a series of particlelike photons ο‚— If a photon of light is a discrete bundle of energy. then it can interact with an electron in a one-to-one way ο‚— All the energy in the photon is given to one electron .

p=mv) ο‚— The equation is 𝑝 = ο‚— In the equation p is momentum in π‘˜π‘” π‘š 𝑠 βˆ’1 ο‚— In the equation h is Planck’s constant (6.Wave-particle duality theory ο‚— Wave-particle duality is the exhibition of both wave- like and particle-like properties by a single entity ο‚— The photoelectric effect and diffraction show that light behaves as a wave and a particle ο‚— The de Broglie equation relate both a wave property to a moving particle property (momentum.63 Γ— 10βˆ’34 ) ο‚— In the equation Ξ» is de Broglie wavelength in m β„Ž Ξ» .

Where did 𝑝 = ? ο‚— We know 𝐸 = 𝑕𝑓 from AS Physics ο‚— We also know 𝐸 = π‘šπ‘ 2 from Einstein's famous β„Ž Ξ» equation ο‚— So therefore you could say that π‘šπ‘ 2 = 𝑕𝑓 ο‚— If we know that momentum is π‘šπ‘ ο‚— To get momentum from this equation you divide both β„Žπ‘“ sides to give π‘šπ‘ = 𝑐 ο‚— Rearranging 𝑐 = 𝑓λ to 𝑓 𝑐 = 1 Ξ» ο‚— The input this into 𝑝 = π‘šπ‘ = β„Ž Ξ» by swapping with Ξ» 𝑓 𝑐 .

even though it is a particle ο‚— This showed that de Broglie was correct in suggesting that particles like electrons should be expected to show wave-like properties .Electron diffraction ο‚— Electrons acting as waves we seen as obscured when de Broglie first mentioned it in his PhD thesis ο‚— However later on diffraction patterns of electrons were seen ο‚— Diffraction patterns of electrons show that electrons must have wave-like nature.

Electron diffraction experiment .

Electron diffraction experiment ο‚— In wave theory. the wavelength is shorter and the spread of lines is smaller . Ξ» = β„Ž 2π‘šπ‘’π‘‰ ο‚— As you can see if velocity is higher. the spread of the lines in he diffraction pattern increases if the wavelength of the wave is greater ο‚— In electron diffraction experiments a slower electron gives widely spaced rings ο‚— Increasing the electron speed and the diffraction pattern circles squash together towards the middle ο‚— This fits in with the de Broglie equation.

Question 1 ο‚— An electron of 9.11 Γ— 10βˆ’31 π‘˜π‘” is fired from an electron gun with de Broglie wavelength of 1.Use Ξ» = .07 Γ— 10βˆ’10 π‘š. What anode voltage is needed to produce this velocity? β„Ž 2π‘šπ‘’π‘‰ ο‚— Hint: .

Answer 1 ο‚— Start off by rearranging Ξ» = ο‚— So 𝑉 = β„Ž 2π‘šπ‘’π‘‰ so it gives 𝑉 = β„Ž2 2π‘šπ‘’Ξ»2 (6.60Γ—10βˆ’19 )(1.) .70𝑉 β‰ˆ 132𝑉 (to 3s.11Γ—10βˆ’31 (1.f.63Γ—10βˆ’34 )2 2 9.07Γ—10βˆ’19 )2 ο‚— Therefore V = 131.

Estimate the velocity of the electrons. .Question 2 ο‚— Electron with a wavelength of 2.13 Γ— 10βˆ’10 π‘š are diffracted as they pass between atoms in a crystal lattice.

Answer 2 ο‚— Start off by using 𝑝 = Ξ»= β„Ž 𝑝 β„Ž Ξ» and rearrange so Ξ» is the subject.) Js. and .f.13 Γ— 10βˆ’10 π‘š.𝑣 = 9.400.63Γ—10βˆ’34 to get: .63 Γ— 10 β„Ž π‘šΞ» βˆ’34 π‘š = 9.11Γ—10βˆ’31 Γ—2.11 Γ— 10βˆ’31 𝐾𝑔 ο‚— To give an answer of 6.13Γ—10βˆ’10 3. ο‚— Use your knowledge to know that if velocity is needed the use of 𝑝 = π‘šπ‘£ is needed ο‚— Swap p for mv to give Ξ» = β„Ž π‘šπ‘£ ο‚— Rearrange this equation to make v the subject 𝑣 = ο‚— Substitute in Ξ» = 2.000π‘šπ‘  βˆ’1 (to 2s. 𝑕 = 6.

we also know that the accelerating voltage of an electron is linked to its de Broglie wavelength by β„Ž Ξ»= (slower electron gives widely spaced rings) 2π‘šπ‘’π‘‰ β„Ž Ξ» .Back to learning objectives: ο‚— We now understand de Broglie’s wave-particle duality hypothesis (light particle (photoelectric effect) or wave (diffraction) ο‚— We know that the equation 𝑝 = links a particle property with a wave property and can be used to calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a particle ο‚— Finally.

Thank you for listening  .