# By Omer ο

Learning Objectives:ο Understand de Broglieβs wave-particle duality hypothesis ο Know that the equation π = links a particle property with a wave property and can be used to calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a particle ο Know that the accelerating voltage of an electron is β linked to its de Broglie wavelength by Ξ» = 2πππ β Ξ» .

Light as a wave ο Diffraction and interference of light can only be explained by waves ο For example. or just pass straight through and the beam would be unchanged . in the diffraction of waves as they pass through the slit. if the light was acting as a particle the light particles would not pass through the gap if they were too big.

Light as a particle ο Results from photoelectric effect experiment can only be explained by thinking of light as a series of particlelike photons ο If a photon of light is a discrete bundle of energy. then it can interact with an electron in a one-to-one way ο All the energy in the photon is given to one electron .

p=mv) ο The equation is π = ο In the equation p is momentum in ππ π π  β1 ο In the equation h is Planckβs constant (6.Wave-particle duality theory ο Wave-particle duality is the exhibition of both wave- like and particle-like properties by a single entity ο The photoelectric effect and diffraction show that light behaves as a wave and a particle ο The de Broglie equation relate both a wave property to a moving particle property (momentum.63 Γ 10β34 ) ο In the equation Ξ» is de Broglie wavelength in m β Ξ» .

Where did π = ? ο We know πΈ = ππ from AS Physics ο We also know πΈ = ππ 2 from Einstein's famous β Ξ» equation ο So therefore you could say that ππ 2 = ππ ο If we know that momentum is ππ ο To get momentum from this equation you divide both βπ sides to give ππ = π ο Rearranging π = πΞ» to π π = 1 Ξ» ο The input this into π = ππ = β Ξ» by swapping with Ξ» π π .

even though it is a particle ο This showed that de Broglie was correct in suggesting that particles like electrons should be expected to show wave-like properties .Electron diffraction ο Electrons acting as waves we seen as obscured when de Broglie first mentioned it in his PhD thesis ο However later on diffraction patterns of electrons were seen ο Diffraction patterns of electrons show that electrons must have wave-like nature.

Electron diffraction experiment .

Electron diffraction experiment ο In wave theory. the wavelength is shorter and the spread of lines is smaller . Ξ» = β 2πππ ο As you can see if velocity is higher. the spread of the lines in he diffraction pattern increases if the wavelength of the wave is greater ο In electron diffraction experiments a slower electron gives widely spaced rings ο Increasing the electron speed and the diffraction pattern circles squash together towards the middle ο This fits in with the de Broglie equation.

Question 1 ο An electron of 9.11 Γ 10β31 ππ is fired from an electron gun with de Broglie wavelength of 1.Use Ξ» = .07 Γ 10β10 π. What anode voltage is needed to produce this velocity? β 2πππ ο Hint: .

Answer 1 ο Start off by rearranging Ξ» = ο So π = β 2πππ so it gives π = β2 2ππΞ»2 (6.60Γ10β19 )(1.) .70π β 132π (to 3s.11Γ10β31 (1.f.63Γ10β34 )2 2 9.07Γ10β19 )2 ο Therefore V = 131.

Estimate the velocity of the electrons. .Question 2 ο Electron with a wavelength of 2.13 Γ 10β10 π are diffracted as they pass between atoms in a crystal lattice.

Answer 2 ο Start off by using π = Ξ»= β π β Ξ» and rearrange so Ξ» is the subject.) Js. and .f.13 Γ 10β10 π.π£ = 9.400.63Γ10β34 to get: .63 Γ 10 β πΞ» β34 π = 9.11Γ10β31 Γ2.11 Γ 10β31 πΎπ ο To give an answer of 6.13Γ10β10 3. ο Use your knowledge to know that if velocity is needed the use of π = ππ£ is needed ο Swap p for mv to give Ξ» = β ππ£ ο Rearrange this equation to make v the subject π£ = ο Substitute in Ξ» = 2.000ππ  β1 (to 2s. π = 6.

we also know that the accelerating voltage of an electron is linked to its de Broglie wavelength by β Ξ»= (slower electron gives widely spaced rings) 2πππ β Ξ» .Back to learning objectives: ο We now understand de Broglieβs wave-particle duality hypothesis (light particle (photoelectric effect) or wave (diffraction) ο We know that the equation π = links a particle property with a wave property and can be used to calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a particle ο Finally.

Thank you for listening ο .