Becoming “Human” Requires Interaction with other humans
Anna Isabelle Genie

values and behaviors essential for effective participation in society .Socialization: Process by which the Self is formed Process by which the unique human qualities of each person are formed Process of social interaction by which a person acquires the knowledge. attitudes.

Nurture Nature= biological-genetic endowment Nurture= environmental influences A false dichtomy .Nature vs.

Interactive influences Exposure to lead can lower IQ “Stimulation” can affect brain development .

General Principle: Individuals and groups act on their environment. which in turn can act back on them .

Basic question for micro level socialization theory: How are the adult attributes (the Self. how do they develop? What are the origins of adult behavior patterns? . abstract logical thinking) which are not present at birth. the Ego.

re-socialization occur?) .Two aspects to socialization: Primary Socialization (how does self or ego develop in early childhood) Secondary Socialization (how does adult socialization.

Conditioning Theory 1.F Skinner) (Original conditioning theory is behaviorist) . Operant (B. Classical (Pavlov etc) 2.

Observational Learning Theory Conditioned by observing others (leaves strict behaviorism) .

Jean Piaget—Cognitive Development Theory Adult thinking capabilities not present at birth. Concrete operational 7-11 years 4. Pre-operational (to about 6-7 years) 3. but developmental 1. Formal operational 12yrs and up .sensori motor (first 18mos) 2.

Moral Development Piaget and Kohlberg Think differently about the rules depending on stage (and age) .

Maturity (adulthood) . Oral (nursing) 2.Ego Psychology Freud Stages: 1. Latency 5. Phallic (Oedipal) 4. Anal (toilet training) 3.

Freud’s theory based on Identification 1. Loss . Success-Admiration 3. Fear 2.

morality of society and parents 2. Favors moralistic goals 3.Theory of the Super ego: 1. Strives for perfection Based on “Introjection” .

Develop the ability to see our selves from the point of view of the other Develop the ability to control our selves We have a self awareness. based on social comparisons. Self-attribution (believe we are responsible) Belief in personal efficacy (achieve goals) George H. Mead—Symbolic interactionism—based on Cooley . based on self evaluation.

and by ourselves. As an Object—have characteristics observable by others. With subjective mental experience—the I-me interaction (impulsive vs social or conventional side)— “conversation” . knowing others have an “insides” 2.Mead: the dual aspects of the Self 1. a part of that “object” is subjective.


Stages of Self Growth: Mead 1. Play stage.reciprocal roles (parentchild. Game stage—organized games— development of generalized other . Imitation: based on language learning. pupil-teacher etc) specific role others 3. learning the attitudes of the culture and parents through language and experience 2..

Generalized other The generalized point of view of the community incorporated inside of us Allows us to play multiple parts or roles Generalized other=“me” in the I-me interaction inside of us .

advertising 5.1. attitudes. Family 2. making identifications (agents of socialization) .popular culture. Schools-Teachers 4. Religion Learning of values. Peer group 3. Media.

Language communication Chomsky: language acquisition device .

Paralanguage—non verbal vocal cues (pitch) 3. Touch . Body language—physical motions and gestures (gestures. Proxemics—use of social and personal space 4. posture) 2.Non-verbal communication 1.

Gestures . Artifacts—clothing etc 6.Non-verbal continued 5.

Thomas Theorem: “If people define situations as real. they are real in their consequences” Issue is the agreed upon meanings for the definition of the situation .

Erving Goffman—Presentation of Self Impression Management: concealment and strategic revelation Dramaturgical approach: dramatic presentation (backstage/front stage). teamwork. . etc.

Erikson’s 8 stages Earlier resolutions of crises (or lack of) affect later stages… .

Nature of childhood (young adults) 2.Changing definition of life stages 1. Adolescence(not stage in every society) (Erikson=identity issues—how do I fit into the adult world?) .