Charlie Zhong
Professor Edward A. Lee
EE 290N Class Project Presentation
May 10, 2002
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results
Wireless Sensor Network
“Hundreds of sensors are self organized into a wireless network, over which
they can do cooperative processing to accomplish tasks they cannot individually”.
Research Goal
# neighbors
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer
# of channels available Modulation
Link level reliability Traffic density
Radio Data Rate
We want to find a combination of algorithms with lower
energy under these constraints.
Parameters
Power control
Error Control
(k,M)
MAC
(N
s)
P
kt_COL
N
ack
N
R
r
N
n
T
n
L
n
µ
Channel
model
P
kt_BER
N
ch
The Mega Formula
 
N N
i I C
OH N
N I T M
L T
t P E N E
R
L L
T P P E
E
·
· + + ·
+
· · + +
=
) (
) (
E
M
is average energy spent on maintenance per cycle; P
T
/P
I
is
TX/RX power; T
N
is average number of packets per cycle from
network; R is radio data rate; L
N
/L
OH
is the length of info/OH bits;
N is number of transmissions; E
C
is average computation energy per
cycle; ti is the node idle time. e.g. receiver duty cycle when no
packet has arrived.
Average energy per bit per node:
Data Transfer Scenario
: node
: Neighbor
if enough data to send,
initiate session;
tune to neighbor's
channel
If it is ready, ack on its own
channel and tune to receiver's
channel to listen
send data on its own
channel and tune to
neighbor's channel
end session
end session
process data
Broadcast setup request
Read to receive
Send data
Return data
End session
process data
return data on its own
channel and tune to
neighbor's channel
Average Transmit Power for Data Transfer
+Power control sets radiated power level
+Efficiency
] ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ) [( ] [
_ _ _
_ _
END OHD ready READY OHD setup SETUP OHD
ack ACK OHD DATA OHD N N
T
D
L N E L N E L
N E L N E L L T
R
P
P E
+ · + · +
· + · + · · =
q
Rad
T
P
P =
Error Control System View
CRC+ARQ
s kt
M
s kt
p
p
N E
_
_
1
1
] [
÷
÷
=
) 1 ( ] [ ] [
_ d kt ack
p N E N E ÷ · =
Number of ACKs: N
ack
Number of transmissions: N
P
kt_d
P
kt_a
Channel independent
between packets
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
_ _ _ a kt d kt s kt
p p p ÷ · ÷ ÷ =
Probability that data fails Probability that ACK fails
Probability that either data
Or ACK fails
Collision Rate in Aloha
R
L
N
COL kt
o
e p
· · ÷
÷ =
int
2
_
1
ì
R
N
L L
COL kt
i
i i
i
i
e p
int
5
1
5
1
) (
_
1
·


.

\

+ ÷
¿ ¿
÷ =
= =
ì ì
More accurately,
e.g. data rate:
] [
1
N E T
N
· = ì
Collision Rate in CSMA
) 1 (
) (
_
)
1
1 ( 1
5
1
5
1
÷
·


.

\

+ ÷
÷ ·
¿ ¿
÷ =
= = e
h
i
i i
i
i
N
s
R
N
L L
COL kt
N
e p
ì ì
D r r N
e
·


.

\

· ÷ · · =
2 2
8
3
3
2
t
e h
N D r N ÷ · · =
2
t
Number of hidden terminals: N
h
r: radius
D: node density
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results
A Fixed Point Problem
p
kt
E[N]
kt
M
kt
p
p
N E
÷
÷
=
+
1
1
] [
1
] [
1
N E C
kt
e p
· ÷
÷ =
f
2
f
1
) ( )) ( ( ]) [ (
1 2 2 kt kt kt
p f p f f N E f p = = =
Simplified view:
C > 0
Ordered Set
p
kt
belongs to [0,1]:
+ This is a real valued closed set
+ It is a fully ordered set (algebraic ordering) with
bottom 0 and top 1.
+ It is also a complete ordered set (CPO) since every
chain Y in it has lowest upper bound V(Y).
– Every nondecreasing sequence {x
n
}in [0,1] is
bounded, so it has limit x in [0,1]. Additionally, x is its
lowest upper bound.
Function
+f is monotonic
– If x1<x2, f(x1)<f(x2)
+f is continuous
– For every chain Y in [0,1], V(f(Y))=f(V(Y))
• f is continuous =>
) exp( 1 ) (
1
¿
· ÷ ÷ =
=
M
i
i
x C x f
) lim ( ) ( lim
n
n
n
n
x f x f
· ÷ · ÷
=
Fixed Point Theorem
+We need one for algebraic ordered sets:
If X is a CPO with bottom ±, and f: X>X is
continuous,
Then f has a least fixed point x and we can
find x constructively by finding the lowest
upper bound of the chain:
{±, f(±), f(f(±), …..}
Intuitive Way to Look at It
0
1
f(0)=1exp(C) >= 0
f(f(0))
f(f(f(0)))
Starting from bottom,
monotonically
converging to
the least fixed point
For C > 0
Ways to Find Fixed Point (1/2)
+Iteration in MATLAB
– Simple, fast
– Scalable to more complicated models
+Simulink model
– Pros: intuitive
– Cons: slow, internal bugs in close loop, not
scalable to more complicated models, poor plot
functionality
Ways to Find Fixed Point (2/2)
+Solve equations
– MATLAB solve():
• Slow, no symbolic coefficient, output order not
specified by user
– Mathematica Solve():
• Pros: fast, symbolic coefficient, output order as
specified
• Cons: can not clear previous value, need to figure
out how to use vector and plot
+Find intersection of f(x) and x
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results
Model 1
+A little more complicated than the previous
model used for illustration
+Considers external input of BER
+But ignores ACK, session setup messages
for simplicity
+Finds only the value of E[N]
+Single channel MAC (Aloha)
+Supports scalar only
Simulink Model
Verified by MATLAB Iterations
Packet error rate
N
1000 iterations
Model 2
+Considers ACK now
+Still ignores session setup messages
+Supports vector
+Provides the average transmit power for a
range of traffic density
Simulink Model
A Break Here
+It is becoming much more difficult to build
simulink model
+Bugs in Simulink are leading to incorrect
results
+Fix point does exist for this model and this
has been verified by iteratively applying f in
MATLAB for 1000 times
+MATLAB iteration will be used from now
on
Model 3
+Considers everything now
+Same has been done to CSMA MAC
+Still single channel
+Parameters used:
Name
Value
Comments
Name
Value
Comments
p
1E3
BER
L_data
148 bits
Data packet length
R
10k bps
Radio data rate
L_ack
40 bits
ACK packet length
m
6
Max # of transmissions
L_setup
32 bits
Setup packet length
P
T
4 mW
Transmit power
L_ready
24 bits
Ready packet length
r
10 m
Radius
L_end
24 bits
End packet length
D
0.01/m
2
Node density
Ns
10 Backoff window size
N
N
6
# of neighbors
Ne
2
# of exposed terminals
Nh
3
# of hidden terminals
Better Accuracy
Model 4
+2 channel MAC
– Session setup messages on one channel
– Data and ACK on the 2
nd
channel
Comparison of MAC
Appendix
Error Control Design
+ARQ+CRC
+Maximum number transmission: M
+Positive acknowledgement
Packet Error Rate
+Assume channel impairment is independent
of collisions
COL kt BER kt COL kt BER kt kt
p p p p p
_ _ _ _
· ÷ + =
Note: increased retransmissions will increase collision
rate
Channel Models
+Independent channel model
– For same average BER, this model results in
higher packet error rate than bursty channel
model
+GilbertElliott channel model
L
BER kt
p p ) 1 ( 1
_
÷ ÷ =
Assumptions for MAC Analysis
+Single channel
+Retransmissions are also Poisson distributed
MAC System View
MAC
Number of interferers: N
int
Traffic rate: ì
o
Radio data rate: R Packet size: L
Collision rate: p
kt_COL
Or radius: r