# Energy Analysis

Charlie Zhong
Professor Edward A. Lee

EE 290N Class Project Presentation
May 10, 2002
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results

Wireless Sensor Network
“Hundreds of sensors are self organized into a wireless network, over which
they can do cooperative processing to accomplish tasks they cannot individually”.
Research Goal
# neighbors
Network Layer
Physical Layer
# of channels available Modulation
We want to find a combination of algorithms with lower
energy under these constraints.
Parameters
Power control
Error Control
(k,M)
MAC
(N
s)

P
kt_COL

N
ack
N

R
r
N
n

T
n
L
n

µ
Channel
model
P
kt_BER

N
ch

The Mega Formula
| |
N N
i I C
OH N
N I T M
L T
t P E N E
R
L L
T P P E
E
·
· + + ·
+
· · + +
=
) (
) (
E
M
is average energy spent on maintenance per cycle; P
T
/P
I
is
TX/RX power; T
N
is average number of packets per cycle from
network; R is radio data rate; L
N
/L
OH
is the length of info/OH bits;
N is number of transmissions; E
C
is average computation energy per
cycle; ti is the node idle time. e.g. receiver duty cycle when no
packet has arrived.
Average energy per bit per node:
Data Transfer Scenario

: node
: Neighbor
if enough data to send,
initiate session;
tune to neighbor's
channel
If it is ready, ack on its own
channel to listen

send data on its own
channel and tune to
neighbor's channel
end session
end session
process data
Send data
Return data
End session
process data
return data on its own
channel and tune to
neighbor's channel
Average Transmit Power for Data Transfer
+Power control sets radiated power level
+Efficiency
] ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ) [( ] [
_ _ _
_ _
ack ACK OHD DATA OHD N N
T
D
L N E L N E L
N E L N E L L T
R
P
P E
+ · + · +
· + · + · · =
q
T
P
P =
Error Control System View
CRC+ARQ
s kt
M
s kt
p
p
N E
_
_
1
1
] [
÷
÷
=
) 1 ( ] [ ] [
_ d kt ack
p N E N E ÷ · =
Number of ACKs: N
ack
Number of transmissions: N
P
kt_d

P
kt_a

Channel independent
between packets
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
_ _ _ a kt d kt s kt
p p p ÷ · ÷ ÷ =
Probability that data fails Probability that ACK fails
Probability that either data
Or ACK fails
Collision Rate in Aloha
R
L
N
COL kt
o
e p
· · ÷
÷ =
int
2
_
1
ì
R
N
L L
COL kt
i
i i
i
i
e p
int
5
1
5
1
) (
_
1
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
¿ ¿
÷ =
= =
ì ì
More accurately,
e.g. data rate:
] [
1
N E T
N
· = ì
Collision Rate in CSMA
) 1 (
) (
_
)
1
1 ( 1
5
1
5
1
÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
÷ ·
¿ ¿
÷ =
= = e
h
i
i i
i
i
N
s
R
N
L L
COL kt
N
e p
ì ì
D r r N
e
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ · · =
2 2
8
3
3
2
t
e h
N D r N ÷ · · =
2
t
Number of hidden terminals: N
h

D: node density
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results

A Fixed Point Problem
p
kt
E[N]
kt
M
kt
p
p
N E
÷
÷
=
+
1
1
] [
1
] [
1
N E C
kt
e p
· ÷
÷ =
f
2
f
1
) ( )) ( ( ]) [ (
1 2 2 kt kt kt
p f p f f N E f p = = =
Simplified view:
C > 0
Ordered Set
p
kt
belongs to [0,1]:
+ This is a real valued closed set
+ It is a fully ordered set (algebraic ordering) with
bottom 0 and top 1.
+ It is also a complete ordered set (CPO) since every
chain Y in it has lowest upper bound V(Y).
– Every non-decreasing sequence {x
n
}in [0,1] is
bounded, so it has limit x in [0,1]. Additionally, x is its
lowest upper bound.
Function
+f is monotonic
– If x1<x2, f(x1)<f(x2)
+f is continuous
– For every chain Y in [0,1], V(f(Y))=f(V(Y))
• f is continuous =>
) exp( 1 ) (
1
¿
· ÷ ÷ =
=
M
i
i
x C x f
) lim ( ) ( lim
n
n
n
n
x f x f
· ÷ · ÷
=
Fixed Point Theorem
+We need one for algebraic ordered sets:

If X is a CPO with bottom ±, and f: X->X is
continuous,
Then f has a least fixed point x and we can
find x constructively by finding the lowest
upper bound of the chain:
{±, f(±), f(f(±), …..}
Intuitive Way to Look at It
0
1
f(0)=1-exp(-C) >= 0
f(f(0))
f(f(f(0)))
Starting from bottom,
monotonically
converging to
the least fixed point
For C > 0
Ways to Find Fixed Point (1/2)
+Iteration in MATLAB
– Simple, fast
– Scalable to more complicated models
– Pros: intuitive
– Cons: slow, internal bugs in close loop, not
scalable to more complicated models, poor plot
functionality
Ways to Find Fixed Point (2/2)
+Solve equations
– MATLAB solve():
• Slow, no symbolic coefficient, output order not
specified by user
– Mathematica Solve():
• Pros: fast, symbolic coefficient, output order as
specified
• Cons: can not clear previous value, need to figure
out how to use vector and plot
+Find intersection of f(x) and x
Outline
+Research background
+Application of fix point theorem to energy
analysis
+Models and numerical results

Model 1
+A little more complicated than the previous
model used for illustration
+Considers external input of BER
+But ignores ACK, session setup messages
for simplicity
+Finds only the value of E[N]
+Single channel MAC (Aloha)
+Supports scalar only
Verified by MATLAB Iterations
Packet error rate
N
1000 iterations
Model 2
+Considers ACK now
+Still ignores session setup messages
+Supports vector
+Provides the average transmit power for a
range of traffic density

A Break Here
+It is becoming much more difficult to build
results
+Fix point does exist for this model and this
has been verified by iteratively applying f in
MATLAB for 1000 times
+MATLAB iteration will be used from now
on
Model 3
+Considers everything now
+Same has been done to CSMA MAC
+Still single channel
+Parameters used:

Name

Value

Name

Value

p

1E-3

BER

L_data

148 bits

Data packet length

R

10k bps

L_ack

40 bits

ACK packet length

m

6

Max # of transmissions

L_setup

32 bits

Setup packet length

P
T

4 mW

Transmit power

24 bits

r

10 m

L_end

24 bits

End packet length

D

0.01/m
2

Node density

Ns

10 Backoff window size

N
N

6

# of neighbors

Ne

2

# of exposed terminals

Nh

3

# of hidden terminals

Better Accuracy
Model 4
+2 channel MAC
– Session setup messages on one channel
– Data and ACK on the 2
nd
channel
Comparison of MAC
Appendix
Error Control Design
+ARQ+CRC
+Maximum number transmission: M
+Positive acknowledgement
Packet Error Rate
+Assume channel impairment is independent
of collisions
COL kt BER kt COL kt BER kt kt
p p p p p
_ _ _ _
· ÷ + =
Note: increased retransmissions will increase collision
rate
Channel Models
+Independent channel model
– For same average BER, this model results in
higher packet error rate than bursty channel
model
+Gilbert-Elliott channel model

L
BER kt
p p ) 1 ( 1
_
÷ ÷ =
Assumptions for MAC Analysis
+Single channel
+Retransmissions are also Poisson distributed

MAC System View
MAC
Number of interferers: N
int
Traffic rate: ì
o

Radio data rate: R Packet size: L
Collision rate: p
kt_COL