MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Presented by: Lugo, Lucila O. BSN 3-1

LAUNCHING QUESTIONS
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How did the Church play an important role in the Medieval Age? How is the early Christian Church organized? What are the activities that characterized monastery life? How did Islam affect the influence of the Church and what are its contributions to civilization?

LAUNCHING QUESTIONS 5. 9. 6. What are the causes of the decline of the Church? What are the causes of the Reformation? Who is Martin Luther? Why did he broke with the Church? How was the Counter Reformation carried out? Why did Constantinople become a center of culture? . 7. 8.

11. 12. 13.LAUNCHING QUESTIONS 10. Why were the crusades launched? What were the achievements and results of each crusade? What were the features of feudalism? What is chivalry and what are the good things that it fostered? What were the causes and results of the Hundred Years’ war? .

HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR CHIVALRY CATHOLIC CHURCH ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH FEUDALISM MONASTICISM CRUSADES MEDIEVAL EUROPE ISLAM CONSTANTINOPLE MARTIN LUTHER DECLINE OF CHURCH COUNTER REFORMATION REFORMATION .

political beliefs and religious philosophy Hierarchy was wisely constituted (composed of earnest men and serious in their mission) Restored peace and order in all countries where civilization had fallen into decay or where the barbarians had tried to establish a new order Lifted the people into a newer and higher ideal Affected religious unity throughout the civilized world .THE CHURCH PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE DURING THE MEDIEVAL AGE  Catholic Church       Well-organized institution and possessed effective methods of spreading Christianity Center of social ideals.

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH Cardinals Archbishopric (Archbishop) – King’s consultant Bishopric (Bishop) Congregation/Parish (Priest) – constant association with the common people Pope . had complete “spiritual” authority in moral and religious matters Apostle Peter – first Bishop of Rome Curia – court of Pope Legates/Nuncios – official representatives by the Pope Bulls – official edicts issued by the Pope .supreme head of the Church.

way of life lived by the monks and nuns      Lived a life of poverty. took care of the orphans and the sick Conducted schools and gave free education Copied books and manuscripts .MONASTERY LIFE  Monasticism . obedience and chastity. meditation and penance Drained marshes and planted crops and did the cooking and washing for the monastery Protected the poor. spent a great part of time in prayer.

THE RISE OF ISLAM AFFECTED THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH    Lessened the influence of the Church Many people became converts Rival faith of Christianity .

CAUSES OF THE DECLINE OF THE CHURCH         Opposition of other religions Growth of national states Changes in the economic field Rise of doubt about the Church’s authority Opposition to Church interference Weakened prestige Conflict between Pope and King Great Schism .

greatest leader of the Protestant Revolt Member of mendicant order of Augustinian monks Later became a professor in the University of Wittenberg .CAUSES OF REFORMATION  Protestant Revolt    Evils in the Church Conflicts between the popes and princes Discontent and trust LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER    Son of poor miner.

attacking the impropriety of indulgences Taught that there is nothing sacred about the priesthood.LUTHER BROKE WITH THE CHURCH       Luther objected the selling of Pope Leo X’s indulgence (grant by the Pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution) due to a misunderstanding with Tetzel. the Pope’s agent Luther made open his objections and posted 95 theses on the door of the church at Wittenberg. mass and other sacraments Man saves his soul by Faith alone Bible must be the sole guide of belief Priest should be allowed to marry . Eucharist.

COUNTER REFORMATION  Election of better Popes     Pope Paul III – Council of Trent Pope Paul IV – first Index of Prohibited Books Pope Pius V – published first Roman Cathechism Pope Gregory XIII – reformer of the Julian Calendar     Work of the Council of Trent Publication of the Index Revival of the Inquisition Founding of the Society of Jesus  Ignatius Loyola .

government and administration.CONSTANTINOPLE BECAME THE CENTER OF CULTURE        Constantinople – Capital of the Byzantine Empire Classical learning flourished Roman laws and customs were practiced Orthodox Church influenced life of the people Important military outpost Preserved treasures of ancient civilization Handed to the Western world its great achievements in law. literature and fine arts .

CRUSADES (1096-1292 AD)     Military expeditions primarily launched by the Christian countries to recover the Holy Land from the Mohammedans People joined the Crusades in the name of religion. and the nobles for heroic adventure (Age of Chivalry) Hoped to obtain lands in Syria. to deserve forgiveness for their sins and seek temporary relief from poverty . or punishment for crimes they had committed. and amass profit through commerce and trade Some joined to escape the payments of debts.

captured Jerusalem Supported by Frederick Barbarossa of Germany (drowned while crossing the river).SEVEN CRUSADES  First Crusade (1096-1099) – Pope Urban II  Ended by the capture of Jerusalem by the Turks Fully supported by Emperor Conrad III of Germany and King Loius VII of France Failed because of poor leadership  Second Crusade (1147-1149) – St. Bernard    Third Crusade (1189-1192) – William the Archbishop   Saladin. King Phillip Augustus of France (returned home after a quarrel with King Richard) and King Richard the Lion-hearted of England . Sultan of Egypt.

being the center of Mohammedan power Constantinople was taken and looted. and a Latin Empire was reestablished Fifth Crusade (1228-1229) – King Frederick II Sixth Crusade (1248-1254) – King Louis IX of France Seventh Crusade (1270) – King Louis IX  Minor Crusades    .SEVEN CRUSADES  Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) – Pope Innocent III    Led by Boniface of Montferat Original purpose was to attack Egypt.

a German lad Many died of hunger and starvation. a French boy (12 y/o) and Nicholas.CHILDREN’S CRUSADE (1212)    Took place during the interval between fourth and fifth crusades Started by Stephen. some were drowned and lost and many were captured and sold as slaves .

RESULTS OF CRUSADES        Failure of original purpose to deliver the Holy Land from the Moslems Increased the prestige of the Church Weakened the powers of feudal nobles Gave rise to new cities and feudal states Stimulated shipbuilding and the growth of commerce and transportation Widened man’s knowledge of science. art. medicine and geography due to contact between East and West Improvement of knowledge of military science .

A political. economic. and social system based on loyalty and military service.Feudalism . Provide knights in times of war Fiefs – land grants Military protection Fiefs – land grants service protection Based on mutual obligation .

THE AGE OF CHIVALRY  Chivalry – a complex set of ideals. and courteous Tournaments – mock battles that combined recreation and combat training Fierce and bloody competitions . brave. demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters    His feudal lord His Heavenly Lord His Lady  Meant to protect the weak and the poor  Be loyal.

THE AGE OF CHIVALRY  Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood  Page – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained Squire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knight Knight. fidelity. kindness and gentleness .at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments    Set up for men the ideals of courtesy.

French government realized the need of permanent standing army  Black Death • • The Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 – ½ of European population . feudalism in France received a death blow. claim of King Edward III to the French throne Result: spirit of nationalism was strengthened in both countries.HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR     Longest war of the Middle Ages Conflict between France and England marked by several battles followed by peace Controversy centered on the territorial possessions of England in France. new middle class composed of tenants and farmers arose in France.

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