IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST BENIFICIENT, THE MOST MERCIFUL.

GROUP NO. 8

GROUP MEMBERS
 FIZZA AZAM.[GL]  Itrat Fatima.  Hafiza Sidra.  Mehroz Khan.  Iqra Butt.  Harris Khurram.  Anum Fayaz.  Sajeel Bhatti.  Fawaz Qureshi.

PROFESSOR ALLEN S. LEE States that
"...research in the information systems field examines more than the technological system, or just the social system, or even the two side by side; in addition, it investigates the phenomena that emerge when the two interact."

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 What Are ISs?  Components Of IS.  Types Of IS: -Operation Support Systems. -Management Support Systems. -Knowledge Management Systems.  System Development.  How System Works.[NADRA]  Role of IS.

PRESENTER NO.1 Hafiza Sidra Yousaf BT-08-51

WHAT ARE IS?

WHAT ARE

INFORMATION SYSTEMS?
A set of people, procedures and resources that  Collect data  Manipulate data  Disseminate data & information  Provide feedback to meet an objective.  Work together to achieve a common set of objectives.

COMPONENTS OF
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hardware. Software. People. Data. Network.

IS

HARDWARE RESOURCES
All physical devices used in information processing.

SOFTWARE RESOURCES
All information processing instructions including programs and procedures.

Presenter no. 2 SYEDA ITRAT FATIMA BT-08-50

DATA Vs. INFORMATION
oData
 raw facts or

o Information
 informative value  time dependent  human efficient  specific  based on previous

observations  meaningless  time independent  machine efficient  general purpose

knowledge

Different types of information can be derived from the same source of data .

HOW IS DATA PROCESSED?

USEFUL INFORMATION
 Characteristics of useful information

• Relevant • Complete • Accurate • Current • Economical

18

NETWROK RESOURCES
Communication media

PEOPLE /USERS
The people who use the IS or the information from the IS.

• Example: End User, Data Entry,Person, Manager, Programmer, DB Administrator, Cashier, Secretary, Professor.

1-21

TYPES OF
In fo r m a tio n S y s te m O p e r a tio n s In fo r m a tio n S y s te m s T r a n s a c tio n P r o c e s s in g S y s te m s P ro c e s s C o n tro l S y s te m s O ffic e A u to m a tio n S y s te m s In fo r m a tio n R e p o r tin g S y s te m s

IS
M anagem ent In fo r m a tio n S y s te m s D e c is io n S u p p o rt S y s te m s E x e c u tiv e In fo r m a tio n S y s te m s

Knowledge management systems

PRESENTER NO. 3 MEHROZE KHAN BT-08-14

OPERATION SUPPORT
SYSTEMS
Efficiently process business transactions Control industrial processes Support communications and collaboration Update corporate databases process data generated by business operations

CATEGORIES OF OSS
Major categories are 2. Transaction processing systems 3. Process control systems 4. Office automation systems

TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS

Process business exchanges Maintain records about the exchanges Handle routine, yet critical, tasks Perform simple calculations Examples: sales processing, inventory systems, accounting systems

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS
Process control systems control Industrial processes and mechanisms. Example: in a petroleum refinery use sensors to monitor chemical processes.

OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
Office automation systems automate office procedures and enhance office communications and productivity. Example: Invoice scanning, approval process , OCR .

PRESENTER N0.4 IQRA BUTT BT-08-31

MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Management support systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers Management support Systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization.[

TYPES OF MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS
1. Information Reporting System. 2. Decision Support System. 3. Executive Information System.

INFORMATION REPORTING SYSTEMS
Provide:

 Reports and displays to managers  Routine information for routine decisions  Operational efficiency  Use transaction data as main input  Databases integrate MIS
in different functional areas Example: daily sales analysis reports

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Interactive support for non-routine decisions or problems  End-users are more involved in creating a DSS than an MIS Example: A what-if-analysis to determine where to spend advertising dollars

EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM
Systems that support non-routine decisionmaking through advanced graphics and communications.
Strategic-level Systems
5-year sales trend forecasting Sales and Marketing 5-year operating plan Manufacturing 5-year budget forecasting Finance Profit planning Accounting Personnel planning Human Resources

Presenter no. 5 HARRIS KHURRAM BT-08-16

EXPERT SYSTEMS

EXPERT SYSTEMS
ES is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making processes for those who have less expertise. Example: Artificial Intelligence (AI) the application of human intelligence to computers. (Speech recognition and creative responses)

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Knowledge management (KM), is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Most often, generating value from such assets involves codifying what employees, partners and customers know, and sharing that information among employees, departments and even with other companies in an effort to devise best practices.

How a KMS Works

Customer

Help Desk agent

Knowledge Base

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
Expert System Neural Networks Robotics Cognitive/Learning Science Visual & Auditory Processing

Semantic Web. It is an extension of the current Web, in which information is given a well-defined meaning, based in part on NLP, on XML presentation, and new technologies such as resource description framework (RDF).

Natural Artificial neural Language networks (ANNs) Processing simulate massive parallel processes that involve processing elements interconnected in a network.

AI
Chapter 11

Fuzzy logic deals with uncertainties by simulating the process of human reasoning, allowing the computer to behave less precisely and logically 45 than conventional computers do.

Benefits from KM?
• Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas • Improve customer service by streamlining response time • Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster • Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees' knowledge and rewarding them for it • Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes

PRESENTER NO. 6 ANUM FAYAZ BT-08-26

DEVELOPMENT OF
It is a set of activities developers use to build an information system.

IS

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PHASES
Initiation Analysis Design
Quality

Analysts Role

Implementation
Documentation

Review Maintenance
49

Ethics Project Management

PARTICIPATION

INITIATION
• Is this project worth doing?
Planned development project Steering Committee Unplanned development project System Users

Survey Project Feasibility
Feasibility Report (scope defined)

Constraints

Problem/opportunity details

ANALYSIS
51

System Owners

ANALYSIS
• Define the client’s requirements .
INITIATION
Feasibility Report Problem/opportunity details System Users

System Requirements Specification Report

Analyse the problem and define requirements

System Requirements Specification Report

DESIGN
System Owners
52

DESIGN
• Define how the system will be implemented
ANALYSIS
System Requirements Specification Report Various Sources Design ideas/opinions

System Vendors

Hardware/Software deals

Select a design strategy and specify details

Design Options Selected Design Option

Technical Design Report

Design in Progress Report

IMPLEMENTATION

SystemOwners/ Users
53

IMPLEMENTATION
• Build and deliver the system
DESIGN
Technical Design Report User acceptance testing User Documentation System Users

System Vendors

Hardware/ Software

Build, test, install and deliver the new system
System and Technical Documentation

User Training

Production System System Owners

Project Report

MAINTENANCE

54

MAINTAINANCE
• Fix it / Make it better
Fixes and enhancements Problems/New ideas System Users

Maintain the new system
Technical problems and new technology Project staff Escalating maintenance

Additional training and documentation

Modifications

PRODUCTION SYSTEM
55

back to INITIATION

PRESENTER NO. 7 FIZZA AZAM BT-08-77

HOW SYSTEM WORKS? NATIONAL DATABASE AND REGISTRATION AUTHORITY (N A D R A )

CURRENT PRODUCTS
Computerized National ID Cards (CNIC) National ID Cards for Overseas Pakistanis (NICOP) Pakistan Origin Card (POC) Children Registration Certificate (CRC) Machine Readable Passports (MRP) Vehicle Identification and Monitoring System (VIMS) Online Bill Payment KIOSK Driving liscence (computrized) Geographical Information System •\

IS RELATED POWERS
 Multipurpose Databases  Data Warehouses  Country wide data communication network.  Interfacing of Databases and Related Facilities  Information Sharing

COMPONENTS OF IS
HARDWARE
        Camera Thumb Digitizer Signature Scanner Form scanner Sattelite Fiber Optics Web server Printing facility

SOFTWARE
 MS 2000 Advance server  SQL server  Perl language  PDMS urdu font  CRm applications  Online Verification Applications

NETWORK
NSRC Using Dialup Reverse Population Data Filter PRI RHQ

FTP Islamabad

FTP Multan Daily Reports & other Important Documents

Islamabad Server Using Satellite

1.Batches 2. CRM Files 3.Daily Reports

RWP I PKN ISL

KWL HQ
Islamabad

CHK

VHR

AJK
Th ro

SWL PKN LHR 1
Th r

gh ou

t Sa

li el

te

KVL RWP II

MUR

ug h

Sa

PKN
te te

SWL lli

KWL

KWL RHQ Lahore LHR 2

QSR
Connected with Satellite

BWP RHQ Multan
Multan

VHR

GUJ

KVL

NRV PAT

GUW

RYK
Connected Using FTP

MCN SQB

DATABASES
 Modes/ Types of Data
 English  Urdu/ Sindhi  Numeric  Date & Time Stamps  Images  Facial Recognition

MAIN DATABASES
 Fast Track Registration Centre (FTRC)  Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

FTRC Database

Computerized ID Scheme

BACKUP
     Keeping the Network Moving Main task of the IS People Backup Routine Recovery Multiple Backups

Vision
A Catalyst for Change NADRA is the most modern organization which will provide base for the better

governance of Pakistan and will also prove as a model organization for Public Sector of Pakistan.

PRESENTER NO.8 SAJEEL ANJUM BHATTI BT-08-69

ROLES OF IS
 A major part of the resources of an enterprise and its cost of doing business.  An important factor affecting operational efficiency, employee productivity, customer service, etc.  A major source of information needed to promote effective decision making.  An important ingredient in developing competitive products and services that give an organization a strategic advantage in the marketplace.

BUSINESS ARE BECOMING INTERNETWORKED
• The internet and Internet-like networks (intranets and extranets) have become the primary information technology infrastructure that supports the business operations of many organizations. • Electronic commerce:
– The buying and selling, and marketing and servicing of products, services, and information over a variety of computer networks.

• Globalization:
– Global markets, global production facilities, global partners, global competitors, global customers.

Measuring success of an IS
• Efficiency – Minimize cost, time and use of information resources • Effectiveness – Support business strategies – Enable business processes – Enhance organizational structure and culture – Increase the customer and business value
1-75

ETHICAL CHALLENGES

Presenter no. 9 FAWAZ QURESHI BT-08-75

What does IS do for a business?

1-78

FUNCTIONAL AREA OF BUSINESS
• • • • Finance and accounting Sales and marketing Manufacturing Human resource management

Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

79

SYSTEMS IN INDUSTRY
• • • • • Airline industry Investment firms Banks Transportation industry Publishing companies

• Healthcare organizations • Professional services

GLOBALIZATION
• • • • Management Control. Competition in World Markets. Global Work Groups. Global Delivery System.

Ch 1. 81

OVERVIEW
Information Systems are indispensable to the business, industry, academia and any organization to meet the future challenges.

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