 American society of refrigeration engineers (ASRE) define refrigeration as the science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of surrounding temperature.  Refrigeration is the process of producing low temperatures. It takes place when heat is removed from a substance. Cooling can be achieved with ice or snow or by machine.

In other words “refrigeration is the process of cooling a substance”. The machine used for this .  Refrigerator is a machine which is used to extract heat from a body at low temperature and then reject this heat temperature body thereby cooling the body.REFRIGERATION BASIC CONCEPTS  Refrigeration is defined as the process of providing and maintaining a temperature well below that of surrounding atmosphere.

 Refrigerant is a substance which is used as a working fluid in refrigerators. the rate at which the refrigeration can be produced.  Ton of refrigeration is defined as the quantity of heat removed (refrigeration effect) to freeze one ton of water at 00C in 24 hrs.  Standard unit is Ton of refrigeration.  Capacity of Refrigerator it may be defined as the rate at which heat can be removed from the cold body i. continued 1 ton of refrigeration = 12600 .e.

continued  Co-efficient of performance (COP) COP of a refrigeration system is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in a given time (refrigeration effect) to the work input.  COP = heat extracted / work done  COP = Refrigeration effect (N) / Compressor work (q)  COP can be any value above zero.  It normally ranges from 0 to 10 .

 Refrigeration effect N = Heat removed Time taken .continued  Refrigeration effect. It is defined as the ratio of the quantity of heat removed and the time taken.

PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANTS  It should be non-flammable  It should be non explosive  Non toxic  Should not react with lubricating oil  Should not react with moisture to form acids  Non contaminate the food  Low boiling temperature  Freezing point should be low  Low specific heat & high value of latent heat of vapourisation.  Low specific volume in vapour state .

REFRIGERANTS Commercially available Refrigerants  Ammonia  Carbon dioxide  Freon – 12  The standard comparison of refrigerants as used in refrigeration applications is based on an evaporating temperature of -150 C and a condensing temperature of +300C .

brass in the presence of humidity .REFRIGERANTS continued Ammonia (NH3)  It is widely used in ice storage and cold storage plant  It boils at -330C  It is also cheaper than Freon – 12 Demerits  Toxic  Explosive at high temperature  Irritating to eyes . Zn. nose . throat  Corrosive to alloys such as Cu.

60C  It is one of the first refrigerant used in refrigerating systems  Recent days use of carbon dioxide is limited in use  It is particularly used in the production of solid CO2 (dry ice)  This gas is colourless and odourless  It is non flammable  Non explosive & non toxic  It brings suffocation when in high .REFRIGERANTS continued Carbon dioxide (CO2)  It has a boiling point of -73.

REFRIGERANTS continued Freon – 12 (F 12)  It has a boiling point of -300C  Freon-12 is fluoro carbon of methane and ethane series  It is a combination of the halogens – chlorine and fluorine  F 12 is the commonly used refrigerant in domestic refrigerators  It’s formula is 12 [C CL2 F2]  Chemical name is dichloro difluoro methane  Non toxic .

REFRIGERANTS continued Freon – 12 (F 12) Non irritant to human body No objectionable odour is produced Note : Freon-12 condenses at moderate pressure and under normal atmospheric temperature conditions  This property makes the refrigerant suitable for most refrigeration application. .


WORKING PRINCIPLE High Temperature Reservoir Heat Rejected R Work Input Heat Absorbed Low Temperature Reservoir .

VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Condenser 4 Expansion Device 3 High Pressure Side Compressor 1 2 Evaporator Low Pressure Side .

Low pressure liquid refrigerant in evaporator absorbs heat and changes to a gas Condenser 4 Expansion Device 3 High Pressure Side Compressor 1 2 Evaporator Low Pressure Side .

The superheated vapour enters the compressor where its pressure is raised 3 High Pressure Side Condenser 4 Expansion Device Compressor 1 2 Evaporator Low Pressure Side .

The high pressure superheated gas is cooled in several stages in the condenser Condenser 4 3 High Pressure Side Expansion Device Compressor 1 Evaporator 2 Low Pressure Side .

Liquid passes through expansion device. which reduces its pressure and controls the flow into the evaporator Condenser 4 Expansion Device 3 High Pressure Side Compressor 1 Evaporator 2 Low Pressure Side .

This is the most widely used cycle for refrigerators. A-C systems.THE IDEAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is the ideal model for refrigeration systems. Unlike the reversed Carnot cycle. 20 . the refrigerant is vaporized completely before it is compressed and the turbine is replaced with a throttling device. Schematic and T-s diagram for the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. and heat pumps.


Choice of compressor. design of condenser. evaporator determined by  Refrigerant  Required cooling  Load  Ease of maintenance  Physical space requirements  Availability of utilities (water. power) .