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Quality Basics

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Defining Quality

ASQ - quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition Whats your definition?

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Defining Quality

In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:

the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs, and a product or service free of deficiencies

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Defining Quality - Gurus

Deming - non-faulty systems

Out of the Crisis Quality Control Handbook

Juran - fitness for use

Crosby - conformance to requirements

Quality is Free

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Defining Quality- Different Views

Customers view (more subjective)


the quality of the design (look, feel, function) product does whats intended and lasts conformance to requirements (Crosby) costs of quality (prevention, scrap, warranty) increasing conformance raises profits products should be safe not harmful to environment

Producers view

Governments view

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Stouts View

Quality =

Performance Expectation

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Value-based Approach

Manufacturing dimensions

Service dimensions

Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality

Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles

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Our Textbook Definition

Armand Feigenbaum

author: Total Quality Control (1961) quality is a customer determination based on the customers actual experience with the product or service, measured against his or her requirements - stated or unstated, conscious or merely sensed, technically operational or entirely subjective - and always representing a moving target in a competitive market.

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Shift to Quality

Isolated Economies Focus on quantity

Period of change from quantity to quality

Global Economy Focus on quality

Pre-World War II

1945

1990s

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History of Quality Paradigms

Customer-craft quality paradigm:


design and build each product for a particular customer. producer knows the customer directly. focus on designing and building products for mass consumption. larger volumes will reduce costs and increases profits. push products on the customer (limit choices). quality is maintained by inspecting and detecting bad products. potential customers determine what to design and build. higher quality will be obtained by preventing problems

Mass production and inspection quality paradigm:


TQM or Customer Driven Quality paradigm:


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Need for a New Strategy

Foreign markets have grown

Import barriers and protection are not the answer. They have become more discriminating. They demand new and better products.

Consumers are offered more choices

Consumers are more sophisticated

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Why Quality Improvement?

Global Competition

Economic and political boundaries are slowly vanishing The 1950s slogan Built by Americans for Americans is very far from reality in the 2000s.

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Why Quality Improvement?

On the stroke of midnight on December 31, 1992, the United States will become the second-largest economy in the world for the first time in a century.

Quote from a 1990 Xerox quality conference.

More than corporate profits are at risk; the challenge is to the American standard of living.

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Why Quality Improvement?

It pays Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials In United States today, 15 to 20% of the production costs are incurred in finding and correcting mistakes.

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How Do Organizations Compete?

Most common competitive measures:

Quality (both real and perceived) Cost Delivery (lead time and accuracy) safety, employee morale, product development (time-to-market, innovative products)

Other measures

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Contrasting Approaches

Passive / Reactive

Proactive / Preventive

Setting acceptable quality levels Inspecting to measure compliance

Design quality in products and processes Identify sources of variation (processes and materials) Monitor process performance

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The Quality Hierarchy


Prevention SPC

Total Quality Management Quality Assurance Quality Control

Incorporates QA/QC activities into company-wide system aimed at satisfying the customer

Actions to insure products or services conform to company requirements


Operational techniques to make inspection more efficient and to reduce the costs of quality. Inspect products

Detection

SQC

Inspection

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