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Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Dan Feinberg Spring 2010

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Overview Overview Confronting the issue Virtues Approach Prevention Approach Police Approach

Overview
What is academic integrity? How, and how often, are students academically dishonest? What can be done to promote academic integrity?

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview

What is Academic Integrity?

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview

What is Academic Integrity?


Five fundamental values: Honesty Both intellectual and personal Trust Mutual trust stimulates the free exchange of ideas Fairness Interactions should be grounded in clear standards, practices, and procedures Respect A wide range of opinion and ideas are welcome Responsibility Personal accountability on the part of all members
Center for Academic Integrity http://www.academicintegrity.org

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview

Academic integrity must be a two way street!

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview

What is Academic Dishonesty?


A range of unethical behaviors that students engage in to gain an advantage. This may include Plagiarism Cheating on exams Misrepresenting someone elses work as your own Impersonation Inappropriate collaboration Faking technical issues with an online assessment

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview Is there more academic dishonestly in online courses?

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview Is there more academic dishonestly in online courses?
The perception is yes.
73.8% of students surveyed felt that it was easier to cheat in an on-line class (King, Guyette, & Piotrowski 2009)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Overview Is there more academic dishonestly in online courses?
The perception is yes.but the data is conflicting
Some studies say students cheat less online (Stuber-McEwen 2009) Some studies say students cheat more online (Lanier 2006) Other studies say there is no significant difference (Grijalva et al. 2006)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Overview Confronting Confronting Issue thethe issue Virtues Approach Prevention Approach Police Approach

Confronting the Issue


How often are students academically dishonest? In what ways are students academically dishonest? What is the trend over time?

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Technology has made academic dishonesty easier

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Academic dishonesty has become an epidemic


80% of college students admit to cheating at least once.

Center for Academic Integrity

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Academic dishonesty has become an epidemic


54% of students admitted to plagiarizing from the internet; 74% of students admitted that at least once during the past school year they had engaged in "serious" cheating; 47% of students believe their teachers sometimes choose to ignore students who are cheating
Education Week, 2008

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Academic dishonesty has become an epidemic


90% of students believe that cheaters are either never caught or have never been appropriately disciplined

US News & World Report

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

The problem of academic dishonesty is getting worse


In 1969, 58.3% of high school students let someone else copy their work. In 1989, 97.5% did so.

The State of Americans: This Generation and the Next (1996)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

The problem of academic dishonesty is getting worse


From 1992 to 2002, the number of high school students who admitted that they cheated on an exam in the past year increased from 61%to 74%.

Josephson Institute of Ethics (2002)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue
Students turn to the Internet for advice

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue Students turn to the Internet for answers
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Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue Students turn to the Internet for help

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Is promoting academic integrity an unwinnable battle?

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Is promoting academic integrity an unwinnable battle?


Yes..

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Confronting the Issue

Is promoting academic integrity an unwinnable battle?


Yes..and No

Virtues approach
Prevention approach

Police approach

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Overview Confronting the issue Virtues Virtues Approach Approach Prevention Approach Police Approach

Virtues Approach
Develop and nurture students who do not want to cheat

Have faculty model ethical academic conduct

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Virtues Approach

Discuss with students what academic integrity is

There is a correlation between students perceptions of faculty attitudes toward academic dishonesty and the incidences of academic dishonesty within their courses.
McCabe (1997)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Virtues Approach

Explain to students why academic integrity matters

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Virtues Approach

Enact an honor code or have students sign an honor pledge

Universities that have implemented a Student Honor Code have decreased levels of cheating by 25% to 35%.

McCabe, et. al. (2001)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Virtues Approach

Communicate with students and create an environment of trust

Students want to do the right thing. They resent other students who take the easy way out through dishonest practices such as cheating and plagiarism

Kennedy & Nowak (2000)

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Overview Confronting the issue Virtues Approach Prevention Prevention Approach Approach Police Approach

Prevention Approach
Eliminate or reduce the opportunities to cheat

Reduce the pressure to cheat

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Educate faculty on why students cheat

Poor time management and research skills. Lack of interest in the subject or low selfconfidence. Lack of knowledge or ability to write/research a paper. Mistakes made in note-taking/research. Others plagiarize and are not caught. Laziness or blatant disregard for copyright regulations. Over-emphasis of grades vs. learning. Lack of knowledge of what constitutes plagiarism or AI. Educators show lack of integrity themselves. Pressure from family, competition for scholarships/jobs. Culturally based attitudes toward ownership of knowledge.
Penn State Library

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Educate students on what is plagiarism

Clarify the distinctions between plagiarism, paraphrasing, and direct citation Let students know you are aware of how students plagiarize from the Internet Direct students to resources where they can get additional help

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Make students feel as is they can succeed without having to resort to dishonesty

Give more frequent assessments Vary the type of assessment Communicate with students who are having difficulties Do not use exams or grades as a threat

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Design writing assignments to be specific and unique

Assign specific topic or limit student choices Have students submit a proposal in advance Require a minimum number of sources from a variety of mediums, or require a specific source Require students to reference the class discussion Have students incorporate information you provide (a data set) Require citations to all be recent and in a specific format

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Interact with students throughout the writing process

Collect a writing sample early in the semester to learn the students voice Require students to turn in multiple drafts or outlines Require an annotated bibliography in advance Have students defend their ideas through a question and answer session

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Have students complete nontraditional assignments

Ask for a multimedia presentation instead of a paper Have student adopts the point of view of an historical character Have students conduct a fake interview Have students write a newspaper account of an issue or event Have students create portfolios Preventing plagiarism encourages originality!!

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Prevention Approach

Take advantage of your LMS built in security tools

Randomize questions from a test bank Use algorithms to generate unique questions Randomize answer choices Do not allow students to backtrack Disable printing and copying Limit accessibility to the test to certain periods of time

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Overview Confronting the issue Virtues Approach Prevention Approach Police Police Approach Approach

Police Approach
Catch and discipline those who are caught cheating

Develop strong deterrents


Use strategies and tools to check for cheating

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach

Explain your academic integrity policy in the syllabus

Include a list of consequences in case of academic dishonesty

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach

Without violating student privacy, let other students know if someone has been disciplined

90% of students believe that cheaters are either never caught or have never been appropriately disciplined

US News & World Report

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach Utilize Online Plagiarism Checkers
PlagiarismChecker.com ArticleChecker.com PlagiarismDetect.com Quote Finder DocCop.com Plagium.com

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach Utilize Computer Code Verifiers
Moss (Measure of software similarity) jPlag

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach

Keep good records of your course and student interactions

Keep electronic copies of correspondence Back-up and archive the course once it is complete Keep a copy of student written assignments

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online


Police Approach

Trust but verify

Maintaining Academic Integrity Online

Questions or comments?