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AMERICAN LITERATURE 1900-1945

Survey Course Instructor: Mihai Mîndra

American Modernism I:

Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946) Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961) Scott Fitzgerald (1896 –1940) William Faulkner (1897-1962)

Modernity

Modernism

qualitative changes yet noticeable. .Modernism – Stages   > Art Berman’s Preface to Modernism (1994) 3 stages: Modernism (end of 19th – beginning of 20th century)  Midmodernism (1900s – 1910s)  High Modernism (1920s – 1930s)  Early  No clear-cut stages.

Early Modernism  opposition to Empiricism. not behind language The Platonic realm of ideas (so important for Romantics) is replaced by unformed linguistic energy Modernist art reveals an aesthetic state. Realism. . they express it subjectively one knows only what one says > language is cognition > the issue of “point of view” is essential > the world appears differently from one author to another     Democratic capitalism has totally individualized the ego Meaning is on the surface of language. Naturalism:   words/colors do not mark reality.

despair Mainly paintings: impressionism. Van Gogh.Early Modernism     Optimism replaced with cynicism. Perception (and NOT reason) is cognition. objective analysis. and Cézanne essence of an art object is both the perception of it and the meaning inherently erupting from that perception. Gauguin. .

MIDMODERNISM  Transition: Naturalism: scientific objectivity (E. Dreiser) Psychological Realism (S. Wharton) Phenomenological Subjectivism (Henry James) . Lewis. Th. St. Crane. E. Zola.

MIDMODERNISM   The subject matter of art and literature becomes:  the everyday  the little town  the brief love affair  the single day The characters play minor roles .

 Personal ethical value is the result of personal choice negated by an unethical/nonexemplary environment (e.MIDMODERNISM  One discovers NOT general/encompassing values BUT what one personally values.g. . Wharton‟s House of Mirth).  VALUE= a mode of behavioral motivation.

Humans are still dual (mind and matter) but no corresponding ontological areas exist.MIDMODERNISM     Authenticity and opposition to the crowd = attributes of the modernist author/protagonist. Stein‟s and Pound‟s styles) transcendence exists as awareness of its absence. experience can not be transcended. fauvism.g. pointillism. . Art is the alternative to conformism (e.

High Modernism  The escape from  religious orthodoxy  a morality grounded in theological metaphysics  monarchy  an art whose subject matter has been determined by such limits  Purpose set: liberate humanity. .

.   Only one area for the exercise of freedom: art.High Modernism  Art transcends the human limitations of the artist: speech/written expression free of grammar  artistic representation freed from artistic convention  musical atonality as freedom from tonal structure.

. impressionism)   in turn replaced by theory based on the formation of mentality in individual selfconsciousness (selfhood)  shift from the body-mind relation to the selfworld relation.High Modernism  The art object / text represents the artist’s psyche. realism: how we perceive color and light as well as nature and real people)   replaced by theory based on the universal cognitive and emotional structures of mentality (psychology of perception. not the world.  Theory based on the physiology of the senses (physiology of sensation.

like in classical aesthetic. . What is expressed is not the meaning.   The modernist search: for the particular in the universal NOT. particular meaning/vision. but a personal.High Modernism  Maximum freedom is gained only by knowing the conditions under which freedom can be maximally exercised an exercise which is art. the universal in the particular.

Objects are public. individual interpretations of reality Art in opposition to science (generating non-individual. Vision is private. Modern art: emotion and judgment are inseparable. Limits are conventions. consensual objective descriptions of reality) . Art creates objects that offer a meaning inherent in their source: the artists‟ imagination.High Modernism     There are no imposed limits on the creative imagination.

High Modernism    Art claims a separate cognitive ground for itself Lyricism/sensation/description takes precedence over epic. and explication Interpretation is a form of truth: the individual mind‟s organization of the world. . analysis.

in literature abstruseness.High Modernism  Art = intentional configuration of materials in an arrangement designed to transmit a meaning whose existence does not preexist the specific arrangement through which it is transmitted Modernist art    opposes emotional reality to the middle-class factual one replaces factual representation (superficial similarity to exterior/apparent reality) with deep psyche ones (free imaginative process).  Consequences: in painting > abstraction. .

High Modernism    Imagination achieves complete autonomy: in art nothing is now prohibited. The artwork is the most real of realities for the modernist. . The modernist work is permanent. subjected to contingency. Self is transient.

Darwin‟s (1809–1882) theory of evolution: human beings. rather than being the center of a divinely created universe.The Modernist American Mindset  Relativizing and anti/non-idealizing representation of humanity perceived as subjected to external forces like:    Biology Psychology Economy      = a response to the changes created by startling new theories about human life and behavior: 1. Ch. These theories & the carnage of World War I discouraged people‟s faith in humanity at large . were little better than animals at the mercy of their own biology 2. Karl Marx (1818–1883): economic forces controlled human beings and determined their actions and even their beliefs Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): human beings were not even in full control of their own minds.

  placing Enlightenment optimism (progress) in doubt . But it was checked and in the end only seven thousand died of it in the army” (4).g.The Modernist American Mindset  Modernist writers responded to the culture‟s destruction of faith in humanity (WWI) by dropping the notions of heroism espoused by their parents and turning instead to irony.: the end of the first chapter of A Farewell to Arms: “At the start of the winter came the permanent rain and with the rain came the cholera.  E.

money oriented. between the world that was to have emerged from the Enlightenment (rational. irrational. leading to WW I) The Social is converted into the Personal: dilemmas seen as personal. corrupt. enlightened) and the world that actually emerged (disrupted. humanistic.The Modernist American Mindset     placing Enlightenment optimism in doubt (progress) disjunction between the REAL and the IDEAL. . not social.

shift from the body-mind relation to the self-world relation Art as insight into truth The old forms / aesthetic means were not suitable anymore as they could not transmit this new point of view on the self & the world  aesthetic innovation and radical experimentation:  stream-of-consciousness novels: James Joyce.S. the academy. and William Faulkner  new.. and Ezra Pound  fragmentation > disbelief in a whole. . T.A. institutional story/theory of the world (the government. a canon): Hemingway‟s In Our Time.d.The Modernist American Mindset    The art object / text represents the artist’s psyche. John Dos Passos‟ U. Eliot‟s “The Waste Land” etc. universal. not the world.S. non-rhyming verse forms of h. Virginia Woolf.

exercised through the aesthetic. Aesthetic ideal: the insistence on the autonomy of art. as a self-sustaining realm fully satisfying the artist.The Modernist American Mindset   Ethical ideal: a personal commitment. the World at large being now incapable of so doing. .

Gertrude Stein Gertrude Stein.Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946) Pablo Picasso. late 1890's .

Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946)    Tender Buttons (1914) The Making of Americans (1925) “Composition as Explanation” (1926 -1927) .

 took interest in automatic writing.Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946)  studied at Radcliffe College with William James  the relation mind-object never static. the rhythmic tropes of memory . constantly under “pragmatic” test. conclusions never fixed. part of a developing flux.

e.Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946)  moved to Paris (1903) to continue experiments in the form of imaginative writing. She moved toward a form of tropic (moving) repetition and against “the realistic noun” i. against:  chronological ordering of narrative  chronological remembering .

but the positioning makes a sense of its own.Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946)   Dissociative rhetoric: disrupting conventional uses of language Relational syntax: sentences are placed side by side without a linking adverb that might explain their relationship. .

Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946)    sacramental view of human creativity: words can “vibrate” 1910 onward: tried to dissociate words from conventional context & to render them through inspired perception the new word .to express a new and purified perception of common reality = part of the inward journey into the self tried by the early 20th century artists .

She devised an unconventional narrative form marked by a simplification and fragmentation of plot. rhythmic repetition of words to explore the consciousness of her characters.The Making of Americans (1925)    A novel dealing with the social and cultural history of her own family. including the employment of a flowing. . To evoke feeling and atmosphere she made radical innovations in syntax and punctuation.

The Making of Americans (1925)    "continuous present" /"prolonged present" tense  an accretion (accumulation and increase) rather than a narration (no sequential plot development in its 250 pages ) of a family's existence tried to approach the spatial form: collage like constructs functioning by word associations Her aim: to turn temporal/historical perspectives into spatial structures .

Sometime then there will be a complete history of many women and many men.” (Stein. 269) . Sometime then there will be a complete history of every one who ever was or is or will be living.The Making of Americans (1925)  “Sometime then there will be a complete history of all repeating to completed understanding. Sometimes there will be a complete history of some one having loving repeating to a completed understanding as being. MOA.

... Sometimes many years of knowing some one pass before repeating of all being in such a one comes out clearly from them.. 292)” . This is now more description of the way repeating slowly comes to make in each one a completed history of them (MOA. Sometimes it takes many years of knowing some one before the repeating in that one comes to be a clear history of such a one.The Making of Americans (1925)  “Often as I was saying repeating is very irritating to listen to from them and then slowly it settles into a completed history of them.

By turns quirky.“Composition as Explanation” (1926 1927)    first public attempt to explain herself. and familiarly recondite. . Written as a lecture for the Oxford and Cambridge literary societies. repetitious. it nevertheless attempted to trace her development and to clarify her aims.

no symbolism. no learned allusions. no background information The Sea at L'Estaque. . in the Picasso Museum. Paris. 1878– 79.“Composition as Explanation” (1926 1927)  about Cézanne: "in composition one thing was as important as another thing“  No metaphor. oil on canvas by Paul Cézanne.

in the Tate Gallery. 1914. so to speak. pasting up metonymically by related items as a Picasso collage may place its "subject" in the corner and place primary emphasis on a calling card or a newspaper page. London. not by representing the external event but by. Synthetic Cubist collage on canvas with crayon by Juan Gris. Stein's composition creates its effect. . The Sunblind.“Composition as Explanation” (1926 1927)  Like a cubist collage.

: “A Box” (Tender Buttons)  “Out of kindness comes redness and out of rudeness comes rapid same question. it is not. .Cubist Collage – Metonymy  e. out of selection comes painful cattle. it is so rudimentary to be analysed and see a fine substance strangely. out of an eye comes research. it is so earnest to have a green point not to red but to point again”.g. So then the order is that a white way of being round is something suggesting a pin and it is disappointing.

. “cattle” = leather object “white way. “painful cattle” = shopping for a gift. but then at a closer look it seems adequate The pin / piece of jewelry has green stones “not red” i. meant to erase initial rudeness & to allow for a new start (“point again”) .Cubist Collage – Metonymy        “redness” = embarrassment “question” = attempt to repair “rudeness” “search”.” = ordered it to the clerk (making notes) who does not find it and suggests something else (“pin”) “it is disappointing” – not what she wanted.e.

. movement and the immediate associations stirred in the human mind/soul/psyche.Cubist Collage – Metonymy   everyday.  Freedom of expression necessary as grammar orders and limits communication for exterior needs (utility oriented).  The artist has anyway this problem: how to express via stuff that is commonly used for practical communication inner states. casual activity (buying a gift) rendered in terms of subjective consciousness perceptions:  inner suggestions of color. Modernists are very rigorous about this focus one interiority perceived as uniquely authentic as opposed to historical outer experience of political / intellectual / traditionally artistic discourse (embellishing real human perception of life). sensibility. forms.

“Composition as Explanation” (1926 1927)  The repetition-permutation pattern:  repetition generates meaning  not use words that have definite associations  Repetition as a form of defamiliarization  "beginning again and again and again is a natural thing" .

Summary Sacramental view of human creativity (locus of epiphany): journey into the self & others Relation mind-object never static. Stein .G. part of a developing flux Continuous / Against “the prolonged realistic noun” present Dissociative rhetoric Relational syntax Repetition – permutation Defamiliarization .

Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961) Ernest Hemingway Photograph Portrait in Army Uniform 1918 World War I .

and was assigned for the Italian front. as an ambulance driver. hit by an Austrian trench mortar shell that left fragments in his legs.      left his reporting job after only a few months and tried to join the United States Army failed the medical examination due to poor vision joined the Red Cross Ambulance Corps though. All the while Hemingway tried to get as close to combat as possible 8 July 1918: wounded delivering supplies to soldiers.Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961)  18 years old . and also by a burst of machine-gun fire later awarded the Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) from the Italian government for dragging a wounded Italian soldier to safety in spite of his own injuries  .reporter for The Kansas City Star.

on Hemingway including received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 rare cult-like popularity during his lifetime July 1961: committed suicide at his home in Ketchum. worked for the Toronto Star Anderson gave him a letter of introduction to Gertrude Stein. also known as The Lost Generation G. . Idaho with a shotgun. She introduced him to the "Parisian Modern Movement" located in the Montparnasse Quarter  the beginning of the American expatriate circle. France.Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961)         1920s: settled in Paris. Stein & Ezra Pound exercised a certain influence in this circle.

was not chosen until the typescript   . The Sun Also Rises.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Hemingway considered using “The Lost Generation” as the title for the novel. Stein‟s coinage” “une generation perdue” (A Moveable Feast) The eventual title given the novel.

lured into a bloody and pointless war by the sentimental nationalism of an older generation more concerned with outdated ideals and crass profit than with their own sons‟ lives The Lost Generation‟s primary response to the war was a profound disillusionment and a loss of faith in their parents‟ values.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)   Many members of Hemingway‟s generation felt betrayed. which had led inevitably to the war‟s devastation. .

and another generation cometh. specifically Ecclesiastes (1:4–7). thither they return again”. yet the sea is not full.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  The novel‟s title is taken from the Bible. and the wind returneth again according to his circuits … All the rivers run into the sea. it whirleth about continually. and the sun goeth down. which is also the book‟s second epigraph:  “One generation passeth away. and hasteth to the place where hearose…The wind goeth toward the south. but the earth abideth forever… The sun also ariseth. unto the place from whence the rivers come. . and turneth about unto the north.

   Although Hemingway changed the original title of Fiesta to the one known. and Joseph J. Hemingway: Up in Michigan Perspectives. Hemingway explained that he meant for The Sun Also Rises to be tragedy and that the earth was the story‟s hero. 1995: 106). . Frederic J..   the troubles of Hemingway‟s beleaguered generation are necessarily temporary. Hemingway (according to his later comments) saw the characters as sadly damaged people rather than role models. eds. he wanted to "emphasize the optimistic idea of progress of life's cycle" (Svoboda. Waldmeir. Many contemporary readers admired the characters and wanted to emulate their behavior Yet.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  In a letter to his editor. British editions of the novel have used the title of Fiesta from its original publication to the present.

tells Georgette. Jake. “I got hurt in the war” (17) and later thinks to himself. . “Well. who is the most obviously injured character in the novel.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Major themes:   the damage done to Hemingway‟s generation by the institutionalized violence of World War I.  He tells Brett that “what happened to me is supposed to be funny” (26)  The unheroic character of the war. it was a rotten way to be wounded and flying on a joke front like the Italian” (31).

 Jake is not a genuine Roman Catholic  Fighting in the war is not about heroism.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Loss of faith in traditional values:  there  is no genuine love story in the novella  the only stable quality mentioned is that of aficionado: genuine passion for the deadly game of death involved by bullfighting. .

 The Spanish.” machismo. .The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  The bullfight:  invokes many of the elements traditionally associated with Hemingway‟s best work: the test of courage. or Mediterranean. and loss and death. because of the cruelty involved for both the bull and the horses. the ability to withstand pain. which were often fatally gored as their riders (or picadors) approached the bull to stab him with their pics and weaken him in preparation for his final confrontation with the matador. “grace under pressure. tradition of the bullfight evolved from an ancient ritual in which the bull was both worshipped as a god and sacrificed.  Animal rights activists opposed the practice even in the 1920s.

a repetition of the drama of authentic life: fighting for dignity in front of unavoidable death Not a sport. The matador. is a performance artist who exorcises the audience‟s fear of mortality by first inviting death and then triumphing over it as he becomes a killer before the audience‟s eyes.   The attraction of the bullfight lies purely in how the animal is killed: ideally the matador (a Spanish word for “killer”) must courageously risk death by coming as close as possible to the deadly horns of the bull in order to kill the animal. then. .e. in Hemingway‟s view.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  In his nonfiction Hemingway vigorously defended bullfighting and insisted that it be considered a ritual and a tragedy:   i. since after all the bull has no chance and is invariably killed.

 rampant postwar inflation: the exchange rate made it cheaper for Americans to live in Paris than in the United States .The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)   Spain is associated with both:  the positive values of the bullfight and the fishing trip  and the negative value assigned to Jake‟s moral lapse Paris is linked with what Hemingway perceived as decadence:  homosexuality. financial irresponsibility. and sexual carelessness.  Paris had a large expatriate community in the 1920s  The city‟s beauty and its growing importance as a center of literary and visual arts attracted many would-be artists. typified by Brett‟s behavior and Cohn‟s treatment of Frances.

   In America in 1920. Nine months later.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)   rising American stock market in the decade before the Great Depression also made many Americans wealthy. . the ratification of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution made it illegal to manufacture. Congress passed the Volstead Act. which provided for the enforcement of the amendment. sell. that same year. France and the other countries of Europe had no such laws. making overseas travel affordable France was also an attractive refuge at that time for Americans who enjoyed drinking. or transport alcoholic beverages throughout the United States. better known as Prohibition.

1920. .The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Change of gender roles:  began to change dramatically in Western culture during the 1920s  in part as a result of World War I  tireless campaigning by countless suffragists  American women became eligible to vote when the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified on August 26.

Scott Fitzgerald memorialized in the short story “Bernice Bobs Her Hair. and used birth control she might go to college.” Thus was born the “flapper”. and she enjoyed an unprecedented new sexual freedom .The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)     women began to wear shorter skirts and cut their hair short:  an action F. also sometimes referred to as the “New Woman” the New Woman smoked. drank. although few women went on to work.

‟ „Well.‟ „I don‟t believe it.‟ „You talk sort of bitter.‟ I said.‟ „Why not?‟ „I don‟t know.‟” .‟ „I don‟t believe she‟ll ever marry him. and she is going to marry him.‟ „She must have been just a kid then. Her own true love had just kicked off with the dysentery.‟ „When did she marry Ashley?‟ „During the war.D. go to hell.‟ „She‟s thirty four now. He‟s going to be rich as hell some day.‟ „Oh.‟ I said.‟ „Well.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Brett Ashley:  “‟She is a drunk. Have you known her a long time?‟ „Yes. don‟t ask me a lot of fool questions if you don‟t like the answers. in a hospital I was in during the war.‟ „I don‟t believe she would marry anybody she didn‟t love.‟ „I didn‟t ask you that.‟ „Sorry I did not mean to.A.‟ I said. I was just trying to give you the facts.‟ „You asked me what I knew about Brett Ashley. I just don‟t believe it. „She‟s done it twice.‟ „I didn‟t ask you to insult her.‟ I said. „She was a V. „She is in love with Mike Campbell .

The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926)  Modernism and “waste land”:  Modernism as vision of barren contemporary post-war humanity -- .

which is the ultimate reality: “The Waste Land” (1922) Appeared The Holy Grail 1190? The in the aftermath of World War I (1914-1918) / the most destructive war in human history to that point an indictment of  the fundamental modern initiation. brutally brought to impotence by the war.The Sun Also Rises (1926) Jake Barnes’ wound: the central symbol of the intolerable intrusion of pain and history (WWI) into the self.  wounded male sex (speechless King in front of chalice. disillusionment with contemporary  Modernist perception of contemporary Truth about society. female sex) leads to Waste Land=barren country  . Stein) culturally barren. Maimed Fisher King: Pecheur = sinner  the bleeding spear and the chalice. but barren. postwar European culture and as an Jake – Lady Brett Ashley expression of relationship -. which Eliot believed was humanity: its “loving repeating” (G.the only authentic one.

Cowley 9) .  much of-the "fake talk" recorded in the novel concerns itself with "real work" including the work of recording talk--readers can be certain that bohemians do indeed speak "in tough understatements from the sides of their mouths.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. with its sharp focus on the mechanics of reproducing "real" expression. literary and otherwise--and formally.Modernism & Authenticity  The novel inspired its first readers to search for "real talk" within its pages. to validate the "work" of the novel by undertaking roman a clef criticism and literary biography  A desire for narrative authenticity informs the text both thematically--with its recurring attention to "real" expression." (M.

.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. and now he's on all the things he doesn't know" .  At one point in the novel.Modernism & Authenticity  Robert Cohn:  falls short of this standard not so much because he is Jewish. but because Cohn's ideas are derivative. "He's written about all the things he knows. arrived at secondhand via the washed-up criticism of Mencken or the quixotic travel narratives of Hudson. Harvey Stone says of Mencken.

I believe. took every word of "The Purple Land" as literally as though it had been an R. the scenery of which is very well described.G. equipped with a complete set of the more practical Alger books. Cohn.” .The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. Jakes says of Cohn's infatuation with Hudson:  "The Purple Land" is a very sinister book if read too late in life. It recounts splendid imaginary amorous adventures of a perfect English gentleman in an intensely romantic land. Dun report. For a man to take it at thirty-four as a guide-book to what life holds is about as safe as it would be for a man of the same age to enter Wall Street direct from a French convent.Modernism & Authenticity  Elsewhere.

Not even in the newspapers. Nobody that ever left their own country ever wrote anything worth printing. You are an expatriate. You get precious. You've lost touch with the soil... You're an expatriate. Bill tells Jake why he hasn‟t made it yet as a writer:  "You know what you are?" Bill asks..Modernism & Authenticity  Jake and his friend Bill Gorton leave Paris by train to go fishing in the Basque country of Spain (Burg/quete). You drink yourself to death. Fake European standards have ruined you.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -.. "You're an expatriate. Why don't you live in New York? . You become obsessed by sex. see? You hang around cafes" . not working. over morning coffee drunk leisurely before setting off for a day of fishing in the Irati River valley. At Burguete.. You spend all your time talking.

authentic expression stands out against Cohn's fretful inauthenticity. the other talks. Jake is portrayed as the real American writer.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -.Modernism & Authenticity    The novel thematizes literary authenticity in countless ways  But as in Hemingway's article on Left Bank bohemians (“American Bohemians in Paris”. Toronto Star Weekly: 25 March 1922). Jake's solid. One works. His expatriate status and wide-ranging interests notwithstanding. Jake never mimics. .   one is either a bohemian who writes (authentic) or a wouldbe writer who dabbles in bohemianism (inauthentic). always returns to the question of a writer's lifestyle. of the two. not once does he wallow in decadence in spite of his seeming excesses.

Modernism & Authenticity  In Pamplona he proves again his authenticity as a real aficionado (devotee of bullfighting).   Ironically. we witness Jake's induction into a quasi-religious order of true believers: . At the Hotel Montoya.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. he must travel from Paris to Pamplona for us to recognize his authenticity fully as it is there that his authenticity comes under intense scrutiny.

He might simulate it or confuse it with excitement.' But nearly always there was the actual touching. and there was no password..The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. there was this same embarrassed putting the hand on the shoulder. . but he could not really have it.. An aficionado is one who is passionate about the bull-fights. Somehow it was taken for granted that an American could not have aficion.. When they saw that I had aficion. It seemed as though they wanted to touch you to make it certain”. no set questions that could bring it out. rather it was a sort of oral spiritual examination with the questions always a little on the defensive and never apparent.Modernism & Authenticity  “Aficion means passion. or a `Buen hombre.

indulge in showy. For one who had aficion he could forgive anything" [137]. (15) Aficion sets apart the "buen hombre" ("[a]ll the good bullfighters" stay at Montoya's [136]) from those who practice false flattery.Modernism & Authenticity  The Hotel Montoya thus serves as a secular version of the cathedrals Jake visits in order to pray or to seek penance    The priestly "Montoya could forgive anything of a bullfighter who had aficion..The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. "false aesthetics" (219).. . or. The hotel provides sanctuary for those with "aficion." the semantic equivalent of "authenticity" in the novel's Spanish.. even more damning.

anyone can--but on what one believes in with passion.The Sun Also Rises / Fiesta (1926) -. The Sun Also Rises suggests that cultural practices do not depend on what one is--if an American can show aficion. . but it can be learned.Modernism & Authenticity    discussing authenticity in terms of aesthetics (or an "oral spiritual examination"): aficion is a difficult code.

Begin over again and concentrate. she said. she said” (Stein 262) . Toklas): “There is a great deal of description in this. and not particularly good description. she responded bluntly (The Autobiography of Alice B.Literary Influences  Gertrude Stein influenced Hemingway to experiment with automatic writing and free association to stimulate his writing:   techniques similar to the free-writing taught today in composition classes when he first brought her some poems and the beginning of a novel to read.

” she told Hemingway.Literary Influences  After reading a draft of “Big Two-Hearted River. “remarks are not literature” (Stein 270) and advised him to cut the introductory material (published after his death as “On Writing”) from the beginning of the story.  also strongly encouraged him to give up his job as a reporter for the sake of his art. .

Green Hills of Africa: 22) Hemingway himself may have owed his use of vernacular American English to Twain. 139) “All modern literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.” (Hemingway.S. Eliot. . whom he once called “the man who taught me to distrust adjectives” (A Moveable Feast. from whom he claimed to have learned the art of allusion (Death in the Afternoon. 134) T.Literary Influences     Ezra Pound.

sentimental Victorian style.  Much popular American fiction was written in a sweetly sentimental late-Victorian prose that seemed stale and laughable after the horror and disillusionment of World War I. naturalistic way rather than in the overblown.Literary Influences  Stephen Crane‟s The Red Badge of Courage: how to write about war in an honest. . Frances Hodgson Burnett‟s 1886 classic Little Lord Fauntleroy is typical of this flowery style.

and an emphasis on the concrete rather than the abstract the importance of the concrete: Death in the Afternoon –  “I was trying to write then and I found the greatest difficulty. a preference for simple. aside from knowing truly what you really felt. was to put down what really happened in action.Technique   Hemingway‟s style: short declarative sentences. what the actual things were which produced the emotion that you experienced” . and had been taught to feel. often one-syllable words. rather than what you were supposed to feel.

very white and straight ahead. 1918)   E. continuous / prolonged present (“Composition as Explanation”. authenticity. and there were trees along both sides of the road.g. and a stream and ripe fields of grain. 1926)  Pound‟s definition of the image [“An „Image‟ is that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.” (“A Retrospect”. and the road went on. . and then lifted to a little rise. and off on the left was a hill with an old castle. with buildings close around it and a field of grain going right up to the walls and shifting in the wind (continued on the next slide).: descriptions – Pamplona: After a while we came out of the mountains.Technique  modernist source of these literary principles: Stein‟s ideas about natural.

We came into the town on the other side of the plateau. and the walls of the city. the road slanting up steeply and dustily with shade-trees on both sides. and then came into the big square by a side street and stopped in front of the Hotel Montoya. and every way you looked there were other mountains. We passed the bull-ring. and away off you could see the plateau of Pamplona rising out of the plain. In back of the plateau were the mountains. and then levelling out through the new part of town they are building up outside the old walls. Robert Cohn was asleep. high and white and concrete-looking in the sun. . and ahead the road stretched out white across the plain going toward Pamplona. and the broken skyline of the other churches. and the great brown cathedral. Then we crossed a wide plain. and there was a big river off on the right shining in the sun from between the line of trees. but Bill looked and nodded his head.Technique  I was up in front with the driver and I turned around.

white. road.Technique  Repetitions: mountains. overlapped on the white bull-ring (dissociative rhetoric)  Does the description transmit any state of mind? . river(s). fields of grain. trees  Stein‟s use (and theory on) repetition  nouns very rarely used in conjunction with adjectives: concreteness & presentness  except for the image of the white road.

the emotion is immediately evoked. in other words. such that when the external facts. a chain of events which shall be the formula of that particular emotion. S. . which must terminate in sensory experience. are given.”  Emotional states objectified in external reality symbols/images.Technique  Hemingway‟s technique was analogous with the modernist poetic doctrines of “impersonality” and the “objective correlative”  T. a situation. Eliot in an essay on Hamlet (1919) : “The way of expressing emotion in the form of art is by finding an „objective correlative‟. a set of objects.

 In 1942.Technique – „The Concrete‟  Hemingway wrote something very similar in a letter to his father from Paris in March 1925:  he was trying not to depict life but to make an experience come alive for the reader (Selected Letters 153). should produce a truer account than anything factual can be” (xiv). “A writer’s job is to tell the truth. in his introduction to Men at War:  . out of his experience. His standard of fidelity to the truth should be so high that his invention.

(…). unreliable one: E. truths   Emphasis on contingency in constructing various statements / facts as truths  impossible to have an omniscient narrator  replaced with the first-person. but he learned it painfully and thoroughly to counteract the feeling of inferiority and shyness he had felt on being treated as a Jew at Princeton. In his last year at Princeton he read too much and took to wearing spectacles. Do not think that I am very much impressed by that as a boxing title.g. I never met any one of his class who remembered him.Technique – „Truth‟ vs. He cared nothing for boxing. They did not even remember that he was middleweight boxing champion. but it meant a lot to Cohn.: Robert Cohn was once middleweight boxing champion of Princeton. (cont‟d on the next slide) . in fact he disliked it.

Technique – „Truth‟ vs. truths

(..) I mistrust all frank and simple people, especially when their stories hold together, and I always had a suspicion that perhaps Robert Cohn had never been middleweight boxing champion, and that perhaps a horse had stepped on his face, or that maybe his mother had been frightened or seen something, or that he had, maybe, bumped into something as a young child, but I finally had somebody verify the story from Spider Kelly. Spider Kelly not only remembered Cohn. He had often wondered what had become of him”.

Technique – The Omission Theory / Principle

The theory of omission:

“I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. There is seven-eighths of it underwater for every part that shows. Anything you know you can eliminate and it only strengthens your iceberg. It is the part that doesn’t show. If a writer omits something because he does not know it then there is a hole in the story” (Conversations with Ernest Hemingway. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli, 125). “I sometimes think my style is suggestive rather than direct (..) The reader must often use his imagination or lose the most subtle part of my thought” (article reprinted in Linda Wagner-Martin, 275).

Technique – The Omission Theory / Principle

A Moveable Feast: in writing the short story “Out of Season” (published in In Our Time), he had described an actual fishing trip that went wrong because of a drunken guide, but had left out the real-life aftermath, the guide‟s suicide after he was fired as a result of Ernest‟s complaints:  “This was omitted on my new theory that you could omit anything if you knew that you omitted and the omitted part would strengthen the story and make people feel something more than they understood” (75)

" I said. don't get drunk.“ "I'll finish this. I poured a little in my glass." she said. "You don't have to.“ "I'm not getting drunk. "I haven't seen Madrid.g. I like to drink wine." she said. "Bung-o!" Brett said.: "Let's get two bottles. "You'll be all right. I drank my glass and poured out another. "Jake." Brett said. The bottles came." I said.“ "Don't get drunk.“ "How do you know?“ "Don't.“ "Want to go for a ride?" I said." she said. Brett put her hand on my arm. then a glass for Brett. Jake." I said.Technique – The Omission Theory / Principle   E. We touched glasses. . I should see Madrid. then filled my glass. "Want to ride through the town?“ "Right. "Don't get drunk. "I'm just drinking a little wine.

"Isn't it pretty to think so?" . "Yes. Jake. We turned out onto the Gran Via. and got in beside Brett. I tipped him and told the driver where to drive. It was hot and bright. Brett moved close to me. He raised his baton. "Oh. I settled back. "we could have had such a damned good time together. I put my arm around her and she rested against me comfortably. We sat close against each other." I said. The car slowed suddenly pressing Brett against me.Technique – The Omission Theory / Principle  Down-stairs we came out through the first-floor dining-room to the street. A waiter went for a taxi. and the houses looked sharply white. The driver started up the street. It was very hot and bright. A taxi came up the street. the waiter hanging out at the side. Up the street was a little square with trees and grass where there were taxis parked." Brett said.“ Ahead was a mounted policeman in khaki directing traffic.

Technique – The Omission Theory / Principle   What is omitted from the fragment above? What are the words / phrases that may indicate an omission? .

Technique  Hemingway‟s tight linguistic economy set limits on:   false experience rhetorical impulse. awareness of nada:  all meaning lost except that which can be arduously reconstructed.  The tight style complements a tragic stoicism. This manner of writing is a kind of existential realism:  seems to derive directly from experience but implies acquaintance with a new historical condition leading to a world of trauma. .

notably Paris and the French Riviera. notably Ernest Hemingway Died of a heart attack when 44 F. S.Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940)      Catholic dropped out from Princeton in 1917 to enlist in the United States Army when the US entered World War I war ended shortly after Fitzgerald's enlistment 1920s: made several excursions to Europe. Fitzgerald and his wife Zelda. January 1921 . and became friends with many members of the American expatriate community in Paris.

The Great Gatsby (1925) .

or intentionally losing. The following year. major league baseball's annual championship series  in 1919 the Cincinnati Reds beat the Chicago White Sox in eight games. seven White Sox players were accused of fixing. 1919 . . the series in return for bribes from professional gamblers.The Great Gatsby (1925)  Documentary Info (Where in the novel have you encountered these?):   Prohibition: May 19.the National Prohibition Act passed in Congress  outlawed alcoholic drinks and began the age of Prohibition in America The fixing of the 1919 World Series:  World Series.

from the Navy Department to the Department of the Interior. World War I (1914 / 1916 – 1918) . Wyoming. California. In 1922 Secretary of the Interior Fall leased the Elk Hills reserves and the Teapot Dome fields without competitive bidding.000 from oil companies for his services. and at Elk Hills. The Senate investigation that began in 1923 revealed that Fall had received more than $400.The Great Gatsby (1925) – Documentary Info   the Teapot Dome case:  greatest political scandal of Warren Gamaliel Harding's administration (1921-1923)  In 1921 Harding had been induced by Secretary of the Navy Denby to sign an order that transferred control of the naval oil reserves stored at Teapot Dome near Casper.

The Great Gatsby (1925)  The American Dream    The 1920s perversion of the American Dream: moral success and the frontier experience leading to organized crime: Hopalong Cassidy: Henry Gatz carries this wild western book about cowboys with him that belonged to his son as a child. The book's pages are tattered and worn. . Inside Gatsby had written a daily schedule and listed plans for self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin: compare schedules.

...00 A... 4.. 6.00 {crossed out} $3.. 1906):  “Rise from bed ....00-9.15-6.. . ....30-5.... 8...... poise and how to attain it 5..M.30 " Study electricity... .158. etc .... . 6... . . .00 " Study needed inventions . .. .30 P.15 " Work .. indecipherable] No more smokeing or chewing Bath every other day Read one improving book or magazine per week Save $5. . Baseball and sports .00-6... 7.00 " Practice elocution. .. .00 "  GENERAL RESOLVES No wasting time at Shafters or [a name..00 per week Be better to parents” (174) ...M.The Great Gatsby (1925)  Gatsby as a young boy (September 12... . 7. Dumbbell exercise and wall-scaling .30-4..

Work Evening Question: What good have I done today? Night 6 -9 10 -4 Put things in their places. Sleep . prosecute the present study. and take the resolution of the day. Supper. Music or diversion. and breakfast Work The Morning Question: What shall I do this day? Noon 12 -1 2 -5 Read. and dine. Examination of the day.The Great Gatsby (1925)  Benjamin Franklin: 5 6 7 8 . wash and address Powerful Goodness! Contrive day’s business. or conversation.11 Rise. or overlook my accounts.

of despair and hysterical vitality. of a piece with the spirit of the United States in the 1920s:  strange mixture of cynicism and outraged idealism. in part at least.The Great Gatsby (1925)    Fitzgerald's world view in The Great Gatsby is.  At the same time poets and philosophers yearned for the nobility and self-sacrifice (romantic notions of the Genteel Tradition) that they believed war produced World War I & American intellectuals (see Lecture 9) . Soon there would be no more wars. Primary reason: World War I.  For the preceding two generations there had been a feeling that civilization was at last outgrowing war.

For most Americans at this time getting rich seemed the natural purpose of life. they agreed wholeheartedly.The Great Gatsby (1925)  Average Americans at this time were opposed to war and to any further involvement with Europe. When President Coolidge (1923-1929) told them that the business of the country was business. but politically they opposed any sort of governmental activity that might limit business freedom. .   willing to experiment with new sexual freedom and to drink bootleg liquor.

The Great Gatsby (1925)  Yet. was controlled by communists. .  The war had shattered the smug Victorian belief that civilization was constantly progressing. a major world power.  In the United States there were paralyzing strikes and a series of bombings. Russia. especially the young and the educated. in the excitement of all this business-oriented vitality.  For the first time. shared with many Europeans a belief that Western civilization was at an end. There were unsuccessful socialist revolutions in Germany and in Italy. many Americans. and the English lived in fear of one. Federal authorities responded with mass arrests and deportations.

the German thinker Oswald Spengler argued in The Decline of the West (1918-1922) that:    cultures had an approximate life span of one thousand years and that Western culture. believed that while the forms of government and social structure might survive this death. was now dying.The Great Gatsby (1925)  On the right.. The decadent West was concerned primarily with money and was falling under the control of the financially successful. which began in the tenth century A. . the values of the culture ceased to provide meaning for the lives of the people.D.

The Great Gatsby (1925)

Fitzgerald thought Spengler accurately explained the international situation at the beginning of World War II.

Spengler believed that German militarism would play a dominant role in the last stages of Western civilization. Fitzgerald died expecting that the Nazis would easily conquer a decadent England and France and that the United States would fight the Germans in South America.

The Great Gatsby (1925)


Similar point of view: T. S. Eliot, “The Wasteland” (1922) Both had a profound influence on F. S. Fitzgerald In 1940 Fitzgerald claimed to have read Spengler while writing The Great Gatsby and to have been permanently affected by him.  however The Decline of the West was not translated into English until 1926  Fitzgerald did not read German.  The least attractive explanation for this discrepancy: Fitzgerald realized that his novel could be taken as Spenglerian and decided to claim that the resemblance was intentional.  The more likely explanation is that Fitzgerald read descriptions and analyses of Spengler's work in magazines, and later remembered incorrectly that he read Spengler before he actually did.

The Great Gatsby (1925)

Fitzgerald admired Eliot greatly and sent him a copy of The Great Gatsby. Eliot responded: the book was "the first step that American fiction has taken since Henry James." Eliot's approval may have been based partially on the fact that the novel is saturated with symbols and images from “The Wasteland”. What these works have in common is the belief that life in modern Western civilization has become meaningless. There are no genuine spiritual values remaining.  Please illustrate Spengler‟s and Eliot‟s influence with fragments from the handout on modernist fiction

Through Gatsby's experience Fitzgerald is describing what the American Dream has become in his time. has become dead (and deadly) materialism. The American Dream. and it fails. The dream is misguided. His pathetic belief that if he can only reconstruct some point in the past everything will be all right reflects modern man's continuing search for meaning in a culture that no longer has meaning. one of the last and finest fruits of Western culture. .The Great Gatsby (1925)  Gatsby's version of the American Dream (Where in the handout?):     about only two things: money and Daisy.

money. like in The Sun Also Rises :      Daisy – Tom (money) Nick – Jordan (erotic attraction) Daisy – Gatsby (misapprehended money – desire complex) Tom – Myrtle (sex.The Great Gatsby (1925)  There is no AUTHENTIC LOVE in The Great Gatsby . social position) George Wilson – Myrtle (love meeting interest) .

The Great Gatsby (1925)  Gatsby‟s adolescent dream (the end) . from the Puritan (William Bradford‟s vision of Mount Pisgah in Of Plymouth Plantation)/adventurer‟s dream (John Smith) via Ben Franklin‟s and Emerson‟s moral and spiritual versions of awakening to the modern materialistic one.American dream/basic premises of AMERICAN CHARACTER:  both failed due to the permutations of man‟s capacity for wonder. .

The Great Gatsby (1925)   Gatsby is a Faustian man who has found nothing in his experience to match his longings. Gatsby's counterpart-the observer who tells Gatsby's story--has not been destroyed by his own efforts. but he is alone in a wasteland with no dreams and no hopes. as Gatsby has. Nick. Certainly the larger issue it raises is universal: Can anything in real human experience live up to human hopes and human imagination? Are any of us. with our dreams. really very different from Gatsby? > UNIVERSAL MEANING  .

 Influenced by James Joyce (1882 – 1941) / Ulysses (1922):  suspension of chronology  Gatsby‟s and Daisy‟s past are revealed through cinematic flash-backs via non-creditable / subjective narrators: Gatsby and Jordan Baker. images. evocation of objects and experiences. . ideas suggested through characters.Literary Technique  Influenced by Joseph Conrad (1857 – 1924):  no comment.

Nick Carraway. One obtains a recording serene. universalizing experience through mythical reference:  Gatsby‟s story critically revises national myths like that of the frontiersman (Dan Cody suggests William Frederick Cody. one objectifies the narrative self via fictional narrator (by constructing a referential balanced point of view (as Conrad did in his Marlow stories). the first person narrator. is objective and morally correct. elegiac voice .  Influenced by Henry James (1843 – 1916):  impersonal narration. the legendary Buffalo Bill) and the American dream but also problematically discusses human condition in point of time/history (see final book passage).Literary Technique  juxtaposition of events.

flash – backs in Gatsby‟s and Jordan Baker‟s memories  sometimes combined with cinematic technique:   modernist too as sheer artistic means of reaching the reader‟s sensitivity (like the use of nonreferential color and atonal sound in modernist painting and music). .Literary Technique  aural and visual symbolism:  e. Ecleburg‟s eyes close-ups of Gatsby‟s and Tom Buchanan‟s houses.g. Daisy‟s moneyed voice. Dr.

eliminated and replaced by aesthetic suggestions and dialogue. Ecleburg). concerning Nick Carraway‟s character : “I told myself that I was studying it all like a philosopher. a sociologist. the “green light” across the bay. associations instead of authorial commentary intrusions:  see attempt at classical omniscience in the first draft.g. elemental and profound. that there was a unity here that I could grasp…a new facet. symbols:  e.”  This thought is rendered in the last version of the book suggestively through action and dialogue.: Technology and its deadly effects suggested through the recurrent appearance of cars and car/train accidents .  E.Literary Technique   Images.g. the super eyes of Dr.

STYLE    Actual perception instead of intellectual reconstruction.  E.g. last paragraph Alternate stylistic strain:  juxtaposing passages of romantic wonder with those suggesting disenchantment at a deeper level.” / He sees “a great flock of white sheep turn the corner. Symbols: billboard of Doctor Eckleburg.” . the descriptions of New York combining pastoral nostalgia with contempt for commercial values > Nick: “a city rising up across the river in white heaps and sugar lumps all built out of non-olfactory money.

STYLE   Absence of cliché and jargon Evoking the essence of a character in a single epithet/phrase suggesting associations (Baudelaire‟s symbolism):  Daisy‟s voice “full of money” / Tom Buchanan‟ body: “”capable of enormous leverage – a cruel body” .

William Faulkner (1897-1962) .

William Faulkner (1897-1962)  Born in New Albany. Mississippi  his work reflects the history & the culture of the South as a whole:  Oxford. town in Lafayette County.the model for the fictional town of “Jefferson”  Lafayette County – the model for his “Yoknapatawpha County” . state of Mississippi -.

politics and official history •Art replacing & subverting all official discourses . Absalom!) •Role of the modernist writer and his relation with the actual geographies. who claimed to be its "sole owner and proprietor“ (Absalom.A map of Yoknapatawpha County drawn by Faulkner.

.William Faulkner (1897-1962)  World War I: rejected by the U. Army because of his height  Joined the Canadian and then the Royal Air Force. but did not take part in much wartime actions   1949: the Nobel Prize for Literature 2 Pulitzer Prizes:   1955: A Fable 1963: The Reivers  2 National Book Awards:   1951: Collected Stories 1955: A Fable.S.

I refuse to accept this. that of his puny inexhaustible voice still talking. I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice. but because he has a soul. a spirit cabaple of compassion and sacrifice and endurance”.William Faulkner (1897-1962)  Excerpt from his Nobel Prize acceptance speech:  “I decline to accept the end of man. He is immortal. It is easy enough to say that man is immortal simply because he will endure: that when the last dingdong of doom has clanged and faded from the last worthless rock hanging tideless in the last red and dying evening. that even then there will still be one more sound.  the humanist side of American modernism .

Jason & other Compsons) in stream of consciousness technique + an adequate one (Dilsey) in classical omniscient narrative technique . Quentin.The Sound and the Fury. 1929   Three types of inadequate relation to EXPERIENCE (Benjy.

and all of a sudden he started bellering." Dilsey said." Luster said. "Teasing him.“ What you want to get her started for. "He was playing with that bottle full of dogfennel and all of a sudden he started up bellering." Luster said.    What section of the novel does this fragment belong to? Explain stream of consciousness What is / are the referent(s) for the personal pronouns written in green? What is their role? . He was just looking at the fire." She set the cake on the table." Luster said. I knows you didn't. "He was playing there. You heard him." Dilsey said. now.The Sound and the Fury. "I aint touched his graveyard. "I aint been teasing him. Dont you touch nothing till I get back. Dilsey said. Mother was telling him his new name. You let my things alone." "You aint done nothing to his flowers. "Aint you shamed of yourself. Dilsey said. We didn't mean to get her started. Him at one end of the house and her at the other. 1929  "I aint done nothing to him. Caddy said. Whyn't you keep him out of there.

Because no battle is ever won he said. 1929  “WHEN THE SHADOW OF THE SASH APPEARED ON THE curtains it was between seven and eight oclock and then I was in time again. They are not even fought. hearing the watch. I give you the mausoleum of all hope and desire.”    What section of the novel does this fragment belong to? Explain stream of consciousness Discuss / explain the bits in green . The field only reveals to man his own folly and despair. and victory is an illusion of philosophers and fools. It was Grandfather's and when Father gave it to me he said. I give it to you not that you may remember time. it's rather excrutiatingly apt that you will use it to gain the reducto absurdum of all human experience which can fit your individual needs no better than it fitted his or his father's.The Sound and the Fury. but that you might forget it now and then for a moment and not spend all your breath trying to conquer it. Quentin.

The Sound and the Fury, 1929

“When I finished my cigar and went up, the light was still on. I could see the empty keyhole, but I couldn't hear a sound. She studied quiet. Maybe she learned that in school. I told Mother goodnight and went on to my room and got the box out and counted it again. I could hear the Great American Gelding snoring away like a planing mill. I read somewhere they'd fix men that way to give them women's voices. But maybe he didn't know what they'd done to him. I dont reckon he even knew what he had been trying to do, or why Mr Burgess knocked him out with the fence picket. And if they'd just sent him on to Jackson while he was under the ether, he'd never have known the difference. (…) Well, like I say they never started soon enough with their cutting, and they quit too quick. I know at least two more that needed something like that, and one of them not over a mile away, either.”
  

What section of the novel does this fragment belong to? Explain stream of consciousness Explain the phrases written in green.

The Sound and the Fury, 1929

  

“ „Eight oclock,‟ Dilsey said. She ceased and tilted her head upward, listening. But there was no sound save the clock and the fire. She opened the oven and looked at the pan of bread, then stooping she paused while someone descended the stairs. She heard the feet cross the diningroom, then the swing door opened and Luster entered, followed by a big man who appeared to have been shaped of some substance whose particles would not or did not cohere to one another or to the frame which supported it. His skin was dead looking and hairless; dropsical too, he moved with a shambling gait like a trained bear. His hair was pale and fine. It had been brushed smoothly down upon his brow like that of children in daguerrotypes. His eyes were clear, of the pale sweet blue of cornflowers, his thick mouth hung open, drooling a little.” What section of the novel does this fragment belong to? What kind of narrative is there in this excerpt? Who is “the big man”? Comment on the phrases / sentences written in green.

The Sound and the Fury, 1929

  

“Doomed and knew it, accepted the doom without either seeking or fleeing it. Loved her brother despite him, loved not only him but loved in him that bitter prophet and inflexible corruptless judge of what he considered the family's honor and its doom, as he thought he loved but really hated in her what he considered the frail doomed vessel of its pride and the foul instrument of its disgrace; not only this, she loved him not only in spite of but because of the fact that he himself was incapable of love, accepting the fact that he must value above all not her but the virginity of which she was custodian and on which she placed no value whatever: the frail physical stricture which to her was no more than a hangnail would have been. Knew the brother loved death best of all and was not jealous, would (and perhaps in the calculation and deliberation of her marriage did) have handed him the hypothetical hemlock. Was two months pregnant with another man's child which regardless of what its sex would be she had already named Quentin after the brother whom they both (she and the brother) knew was already the same as dead, when she married (1910).” What section of the novel does this fragment belong to? What kind of narrative is there in this excerpt? What are the referents for “he”, “she” and “Quentin”?

The Sound and the Fury. . 1929    Source of dramatic tension and focal point of various perspectives: Caddy‟s surrender to Dalton Ames The sequence of events is not caused by her acts but by the significance which each of her brothers attributes to it As a result: the four sections appear quite unrelated even though they repeat certain incidents and are concerned with the same problem: Caddy‟s loss of virginity.

There is no development of either character or plot in the traditional manner.The Sound and the Fury (1929)    Each of the sections is static. but through their reading the plot reveals progressively. The consciousness of a character is the agent illuminating and being illuminated by the central situation .

.

As related to the central focus. e. Quentin.The Sound and the Fury (1929)     fixing the structure while leaving the central situation ambiguous  forcing the reader to reconstruct the story and to apprehend its significance for himself The reader recovers the story while he is grasping the relation of Benjy. but with respect to the central situation they are quite distinct and self-sufficient. each of the 1st 3 sections presents a version of the same facts which is at once the truth and a complete distortion of the truth. and Jason to it.g: . with respect to the plot the 4 sections are inextricably connected.

said. looking after them and trying to say. He want to go down yonder and look through the gate. Benjamin. I tried to say. What is it he wants. Done got married and left you. said. You will just have to play with him and keep him quiet. trying to say. he cannot do it. Nonsense. Miss Caddy come back." You cant do no good looking through the gate. Mother said. "You. Mother said. and I went along the fence." Luster said. "Come back here. Mother said. where the girls passed with their booksatchels. P. . the daughter‟s family & his own family would misinterpret his intentions  taken to Jackson (see slide 11 & Jason‟s perception and interpretation of the event. She cant hear you. his missing Caddy will lead to his running after one of the girls. T. They looked at me. P. T. Then they were running and I came to the corner of the fence and I couldn't go any further. but they went on. P. to the gate. and they went faster. T.The Sound and the Fury (1929)  “I went along the fence. I went out the door and I couldn't hear them. Aint nothing going to quiet him. I could hear them talking. Cant you play with him and keep him quiet. Miss Caddy done gone long ways away. It's raining. You cant do no good. Well. and I went down to the gate. where the girls passed with their booksatchels. Benjy. said. You. He think if he down to the gate. walking fast.  Benjy‟s voice – silenced in terms of plot. and I held to the fence. holding to the gate and crying. P. T. with their heads turned.

the voice that breathed She ran right out of the mirror. If you attend Harvard one year. Roses. Give Jason a year at Harvard. but dont see the boat-race. Not virgins like dogwood. Mr and Mrs Jason Richmond Compson announce the marriage of. out of the banked scent. Roses. I said I have committed incest.The Sound and the Fury (1929)  “The month of brides. Cunning and serene. there should be a refund. Roses.”  Quentin‟s version of Caddy‟s story . Roses. Let Jason have it. milkweed. Father I said.

But of course if you want me to follow her around and see what she does." I says. I never had time to go to Harvard like Quentin or drink myself into the ground like Father."  Jason‟s version of Caddy‟s story via Quentin‟s (Caddy‟s daughter) . And Mother says. "How do you expect to begin this late. I says she ought to be down there in that kitchen right now. Then I can watch her during the day and you can use Ben for the night shift." I says. WHAT I SAY. gobbing paint on her face and waiting for six niggers that cant even stand up out of a chair unless they've got a pan full of bread and meat to balance them. when she's seventeen years old?" (…) "Sure." I says. "You cant. I had to work. instead of up there in her room. to fix breakfast for her. I can quit the store and get a job where I can work at night.The Sound and the Fury (1929)  “ONCE A BITCH ALWAYS A BITCH. can you? You never have tried to do anything with her. I SAYS you're lucky if her playing out of school is all that worries you. "I never had time to be. that I cant--" "Well. "But to have the school authorities think that I have no control over her.

But I didn't believe that he would have been so selfish as to--I didn't dream that he--" "Maybe he knew it was going to be a girl. I always told your father that they were allowed too much freedom. "And that one more of them would be more than he could stand. And then when her troubles began I knew that Quentin would feel that he had to do something just as bad. They were always conspiring against me." I says. though you were too young to realise it." she says.“  Their mother‟s version via Jason‟s. It was vanity in her. She couldn't bear for any of you to do anything she couldn't. "It was always her and Quentin. vanity and false pride. so she could be with him. When Quentin started to school we had to let her go the next year.The Sound and the Fury (1929)  "They deliberately shut me out of their lives. what is it that Quentin (Caddy‟s brother) did and proved to be “selfish”? . to be together too much. Against you too. like they did your Uncle Maury. They always looked on you and me as outsiders.

It is a matter of shifting perspective: for each man creates his own truth. It only means that truth is a matter of the heart’s response and the mind’s logic  MODERNISM Dilsey’s responses seem to be nearest to it. as humanly round and really moral. as revealed by its structure. between the event and the interpretation. is: the relation between the act and man’s apprehension of the act. This does not mean that there is no truth.The Sound and the Fury (1929)  each of the 1st 3 sections presents a version of the same facts which is at once the truth and a complete distortion of the truth    the theme of the novel. . or that truth is unknowable.

 For Quentin: honor ( an abstract and emotional perceiver of morality)  For Jason: money (or the means to obtain it: logic and social communication are his antennae) . who is central to all three.The Sound and the Fury (1929)   each of the 1st 3 sections presents a well demarcated and isolated world built around one of these splinters of truth communication is difficult. means something different to each.  For Benjy: smell of trees (Benjy‟s perception is sensorial)  innocence & maternal protection. if not impossible:  Caddy (with everything entailed by this character and its doings).