Matchmaking for Women: Linking skills training and job opportunities

AusAID-funded experiences in promoting genderresponsive labour outcomes through training
Annemarie Reerink Senior Sector Specialist – Gender Equality, AusAID
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB’s part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB’s terminology.

Outline of the presentation:

- AusAID thematic gender strategy - What we already know… - Lessons learned from previous work… - Emerging good practice: example of Vanuatu - Factors influencing success…

1. AusAID strategy for the promotion of gender equality
Gender Thematic Strategy (November 2011): • • • • Advancing equal access to gender-responsive health and education services Increase women’s voice in decision-making, leadership and peace-building Empowering women economically and improving their livelihood security Ending violence against women and girls at home, in their communities, and in disaster and conflict situations.

1. AusAID policy and strategies around promotion of gender equality (continued)
Guiding Principles:
- Focus strategically within country programmes… - Support programmes to address specific priority issues… - Work with government and civil society to help them put in place and achieve their own gender equality goals and objectives, and protect women’s rights; - Work with our partners… to contribute to, influence, or add value to their work to maximise impacts… - Help collect evidence to contribute to formulation of policies… - Participate in the global debate - Raise awareness of gender issues internationally…

2. What we already know Human capital formation is one of the most important pathways for women and men to escape poverty, but… … in and of itself it will not lead to women’s empowerment, because gender disparities often across the board and mutually reinforcing We need integrated and holistic approaches, but… … many agencies are ill-equipped to implement programmes that comprehensively address human capital formation, economic outcomes, as well as gender disparities.

2. What we already know: the broader context and some emerging questions

• Work on supply and demand: in TVET institutions and in labour markets/enterprises (issues of sequencing and partnerships
• Technical/vocational skills + business skills (and support services) + gender and life-skills • Direct and indirect discrimination: both to be addressed • Life-cycle vulnerabilities / school-to-work transition • Post-conflict countries: risks, costs, and opportunities • Stakeholder engagement: role of private sector • Data… but also analysis and dissemination • Beyond numbers of women think gender!

3. Lessons learned from previous investments on gender - Need explicit gender-related vision, objectives, indicators or strategy - Need for gender analysis

- Engagement with partners on gender, and inclusion of local gender advocates (institutional or individual)
- Set aside funds for staff, special initiatives, positive action, demonstration/pilots

- Ensure staff have expertise or budget for capacity development
- Build in incentives for organizations and individuals

4. Vanuatu: women’s economic empowerment Context: rural (73% of population), isolated islands, difficult access to markets, importance of small-scale agriculture to livelihoods, lack of employment opportunities; increasing need for cash High women’s labour force participation (>75%, mostly in agriculture), gender parity in basic education, but disparities in tertiary and TVET. High rates of VAW; customary law favours men; women under-represented in formal and traditional leadership positions.



5. Vanuatu TVET Sector Strengthening Program – Phase II (2008-2012)

• Model for delivering high-quality, flexible, and demand-driven TVET services in two provinces (Malampa and Sanma)
• Strategic objective: “Employment and training services provide increased employment and income earning outcomes for clients”

5. Vanuatu TVET Sector Strengthening Program – Phase II (continued) Key results sought: 1) increased productive activities; 2) increased economic development initiatives identified and pursued by provincial government/NGO networks together; 3) training providers respond to demand for skills to support productive activities; and 4) employment and training services sustained by GoV. Intended outcomes: - TVET Centres as a replicable model for delivery; - Integrated and articulated TVET system reflecting national policy; - Increased economic activities in the provinces; - Greater social inclusion in TVET programs.

6. Lessons learned from Vanuatu and other positive experiences General lessons: • Importance of long-term engagement • Programme results and policy dialogue • Identifying advocates for change • Experimental design, with programme modification in response to lessons learned from M&E findings

6. Lessons learned from Vanuatu and other positive experiences (continued)

Gender-specific lessons:
Gender focus: respond to women’s needs Identify gender objectives and spell out necessary activities in design, with clear allocation of appropriate resources and funding (pre-project gender analysis) Give clear and consistent messages to program staff and follow them through; work with staff and partners who have clear commitment Put effective accountability systems in place to ensure that gender results can be measured; M&E (gender-responsive baseline)



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