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Gaseous Fuel

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

Natural Gas
Natural gas is principally methane, CH4, with some ethane (C2H6) and propane (C3H8), and impurities such as CO2, H2S, and N2 As with petroleum, most natural gas formation is due to the breakdown of prehistoric marine zooplankton.

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

Natural Gas
Produced by methanogenic bacteria produce methane while decompose organic material, and through catagenesis thermal decomposition of kerogen

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

Natural Gas
High temperature and pressure favor the formation of lighter hydrocarbons (natural gas)

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

To locate natural gas reservoirs, recent technology is helping find natural gas more accurately: magnetic measurement - measure of the magnetic field of base rock to determine how much sediment is lying above it satellite imagery - helps identify surface structures and patterns that aid in the search for probable underlying hydrocarbon deposits

Fuel Source or Methods of Manufacture

gravity mapping - determines the thickness of the basin or sedimentary rock layer and helps identify base rock topography; and seismic sound wave reflection - measures the time to various rock units that reflect acoustic energy

Processing Natural Gas

The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline dry gas quality levels can be quite complex, but usually involves four main processes to remove the various impurities: Oil and Condensate Removal Separation of Natural Gas Liquids

Sulphur and Carbon Dioxide Removal

Water Removal

Gas Fired Hot Water Boiler It is used to heat water for a hydronic heating system These boilers can be fuelled either with natural gas or propane (gas-fired) or they can burn fuel-oil (oil-fired).

Natural Gas Fired Boiler Natural gas is most common kind of fuel for firing boilers in North America cheapest heating fuel Why cheapest? normally pumped directly to homes and business through buried pipes

Global Price for Natural Gas

136.23 US Dollars per thousand Cubic Meters

Local Price for Natural Gas

Fuel Characteristics Important to Boiler type and Operation

Advantages of Natural Gas

it can be piped directly into the boiler requires a relatively small boiler space, and the overall plant design is typically compact and simple. Very close to ideal fuel (With a heating value of about 1,000 Btu/ft3 under standard conditions of 60F at atmospheric pressure) low excess-air requirements that contribute to high efficiency


heat given off by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of the fuel at some reference temperature. Types of Calorific Values
Gross Calorific Value (GCV) or Higher Heating Value (HHV) Calorific Value measured when water formed by combustion is in the liquid state. Net Calorific Value (NCV) or Lower Heating Value (LHV) Calorific Value measured when water formed by combustion is in the gaseous state.

Net Calorific Value

GCV Gross Calorific Value Lc Latent heat of condensation

44.04 MJ/kgmol of H2O

Gross Calorific Value

HCi Heat of combustion of component I ni mole fraction of gaseous component I

Natural Gas
Specific gravity compared to air : 0.59 Calorific value (MJ/m3) : 38 39 Flammability limits air/gas ratio % by volume : 5.3 14

Orsat analysis of the gas mixture does not include water or SO3

Important notes on using gaseous fuels

The pressure of gas is important to effective combustion and good burner procedure. Abnormal pressure might result in excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO), fuel-rich combustion, and high accumulation of soot which may decrease the efficiency of steam boiler. The troubles in gas pressure might be started from imbalances supply of gas pressure, unclean regulator of gas pressure or boiler boiler regulation may be is not working. p 70 bar T 460 C Sweet gas should be used

air supply, mixing of air and fuel, proper temperature and time. If one of requirement of combustion is not provided such as does not supply enough air and mixing composition of air and gas will lead to produce carbon monoxide Control range composition by volume of gas and air is the actual step to avoid burn explosively and violently. The danger range of gas is between 8% 13 % and the safe range of gas is between 0 7 %.


IN order for gas to burn efficiently.

Must be mixed with correct proportion of air

Correct proportioning and Mixing is essential and this is accomplished by:

Use of a Burner

Admission of Secondary Air

Gas Burners Classification

Atmospheric Gas Burners

Refractory Gas burners


Utilizes the Bunsen Principle(momentum of incoming low-pressure gas stream is used to draw in part of air needed for combustion)


4 MAJOR PARTS Nozzle/Orifice-purpose is to increase the velocity of gas w/ little energy as possible Injection Tube-causes the intimate mixing or air and gas Air Shutter-ready means of altering the flow of air into the mixing tube Burner Head-function is to receive the air-gas mixture from injector tube distribute it to ports and cause it to burn


Produces a blue flame Combustion occurs rapdily Burner is placed directly under the boiler


Depends on natural/fan draft to draw in all the air required for combustion Uses multiple gas jets to discharge airstream to cause violent agitation in short mixing tube or tunnel of refractory


Turbulence vanes impart a swirling motion to air entering the tunnel


Used in large steam generating UNITS

Low-pressure type of gas burner, gas and air are mixed at one point and then supplied to several burners

Combustion by Products and Environmental Impacts

Gaseous fuels burned in boilers are natural gas. Natural gas is burned in smaller boilers, usually for residential and commercial establishments. Natural gas is used as a back- up fuel for industrial and utility boilers.

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture

methane, other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide

Combustion Products
Natural Gas is the cleanest fossil fuel. The main products of combustion of natural gas are carbon dioxide and water vapor. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals). Human activities are altering the carbon cycle

Combustion Products
Other by- products include nitrogen oxides , sulfur dioxide,, carbon dioxides, carbon monoxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as "oxides of nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx)." In addition to contributing to the formation of ground-level ozone, and fine particle pollution, NO2 is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as oxides of sulfur. SO2 is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas

Environmental Impacts
Natural gas is thus a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide due to the greater global-warming potential of methane. Greenhouse gases are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere causing global warming. a given quantity of methane has 62 times the globalwarming potential of carbon dioxide over a 20-year period, 20 times over a 100-year period and 8 times over a 500year period

According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, in 2004, natural gas produced about 5.3 billion tons a year of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10.6 and 10.2 billion tons respectively. According to an updated version of the Special Report on Emissions Scenario by 2030, natural gas would be the source of 11 billion tons a year, with coal and oil now 8.4 and 17.2 billion