2012 Tree Inventory of Roanoke Park

Funded by a Missouri Department of Conservation T.R.I.M. Grant And your generous tax-deductible contributions
www.roanokeparkkc.org/plans/tree-inventory

What is a Tree Inventory?
Arborist and Mapmaker working together:
• • • • • Identification (Genus species) Location (Sub-meter GPS) Condition (Maintenance / Condition) Snapshot in time GIS Data

Why a Tree Inventory in Roanoke Park?
Help the Ecological Restoration of the Park:
• • • • Identify the biggest / oldest trees (Past) Baseline of data (Present) Guide management / plantings (Future) Consistent with goals of Master Plan

Tree Inventory Results
• • • • • • 2,100 Trees Recorded and Mapped 35 Native + 10 Non-Native Species 215 Invasive Trees Located Mapped on arcgis.com i-Tree Structural Analysis & Dollar Benefits 9 Critical Maintenance Trees

RP’s Trees: $153,061 Annual Benefit

Species Distribution
Shade-Tolerant species are dominant

What trees? How many?
Common Name Black ash Maple Shingle oak Silver maple Littleleaf linden Red maple Sugar maple Swamp white oak Eastern white pine Juniper Pin oak Kentucky coffeetree Northern catalpa Black Locust White mulberry White as h Oak Shagbark hickory White oak Austrian pine Buckthorn Bur Oak Eastern Cottonwood Tree Count 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 7 7 9 10 10 10 13 14 16 16 Common Name Hawthorn Scotch pine Boxelder Mulberry Honeylocust American sycamore Black cherry Red Oak Norway maple Siberian Elm Hickory Black Walnut Green As h Red Mulberry Chinkapin oak Eastern hophornbeam American basswood Eastern redbud American Elm Tree of Heaven Hackberry Non-Native Invasive Non-Native Tree Count 18 19 22 23 28 32 32 32 36 41 50 64 71 80 88 101 110 115 128 165 691

Size Distribution
Shade-INTOLERANT species are producing fewer young

The Past: What was here?
Research on Konza Prairie, Kansas gallery forests: When fire is excluded, Hackberry and Redbud increase and Oaks decline.

© travelks.com

Research on “Succession” in Prairie/Forest border region: Blue River & Rocky Point > Prairie Glades > Woody Shrub > Oak Dominant (Open Canopy) > Hackberry/Maple Dominant (Closed Canopy)

© Dylan Lehrbaum

Shrub Honeysuckle Effects on Trees
Tree seedlings suffer increased mortality and many trees suffer reduced growth rate. “…the overall effect of this invasive shrub is increased mortality of native tree seedlings, suggesting it impacts the natural regeneration of secondary forests.” Gorchov & Trisel, 2003
Plant Ecology 166: 13-24, 2003

“The rate of radial growth in invaded sites was 58% less than non-invaded sites … and the rate of BAI (Basal Area) growth was 53% less in invaded vs non-invaded sites…” Hartman & McCarthy, 2007
Applied Vegetation Science 10: 3-14, 2007

The Past: What was here?
Compiled from 1843 Surveyor’s Notes of Roanoke Park area and nearby properties:
Common Name Hackberry "Coffee Nut" Ironwood Black Walnut Post Oak Red Oak Bur Oak Chinkapin Oak Hickory Ash White Oak American Elm Sycamore (?) Black Oak Oak-Hickory total All Others total Tree Count 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 10 21 13

Why NATIVE Trees?
birds.audubon.org/common-birds-decline

Millions

1966

http://www.fwrc.msstate.edu/bobwhite/index.asp

2008

Native Trees to the rescue:
NATIVE trees are for the (baby) birds!

More NATIVE Trees = More Insects = More Birds
Read Bringing Nature Home by Douglas Tallamy
• Baby birds EAT insects: 96% of terrestrial birds feed their young on insects / arthropods & larvae. • 90% of insects are specialists: They’ve co-evolved with particular plants, eating only 1-3 genera. • Foreign plants/trees are ecologically inert: Can be poisonous to local specialist insects (90%) and not favored by generalist insects (10%).

Cottonwood
Populus deltoides Largest Trees in Park, Only 16 in Inventory
• Large aspen-like leaves • Thick, deeply-fissured bark • Often largest and fastest growing tree • 8 of the biggest 12 trees in the park are Cottonwoods • Biggest in RP is 5’8” dbh, in grass area below Coleman Highlands, closest Cottonwood to sidewalk. (Area champ is 8’1” dbh)

358

Chinkapin Oak
Quercus muehlenbergii #7 Species in Park, #1 Oak

• Chestnut-like leaves, lighter undersides • Light colored bark, somewhat flaking • Very drought tolerant • Long-lived, up to 400+ years • Palatable acorns, loved by squirrels • Spreading gnarled branches, open crown

518

Hop Hornbeam
Ostrya virginiana #6 Species in Park

• Elm-like leaves, retained in winter. • Petioles and undersides of leaves are hairy • Hop-like seed clusters, late winter food for birds • Flaking bark • Sm-Med sized tree, common below Roanoke Drive point. • Also called Ironwood

91

American Basswood
Tilia americana #5 Species in Park, after Redbud

• Large heart-shaped leaves with paler or whitish undersides • Drooping fruits hang from the middle of an elongated floral bract • Bark furrowed with flat-top ridges • Many insects visit flowers and eat leaves • Birds and small mammals eat fruit

142

© missouriplants.com

Eastern Redbud
Cercis canadensis #4 Species in Park

• Magenta flowers all along the twigs and branches • Heart shaped leaves • Gray bark, rusty and flaking on mature trees • Seed pods all along the twigs and branches, retained through the winter

19

American Elm
Ulmus americana #3 Species in Park

• Pointed oblong serrated leaves with asymmetrical bases (Siberian Elm has smaller symmetrical leaves) • Seeds in papery disks • Bark has ridges that criss cross, mature bark more deeply furrowed • Dutch Elm Disease?

206

Tree of Heaven
Ailanthus altissima #2 Species in Park: INVASIVE

• Smooth bark with lighter “stretch marks” • Thick twigs with large leaf scars • Smooth compound leaves similar to common sumac or black walnut (both toothed), with gland notch at the base • Short lived, weedy

6

Common Hackberry
Celtis occidentalis Dominant Species in the Park

• Warty, corky bark • Oblong leaves with pointed tips, rough textured, toothed on pointed half • Good wildlife value, birds eat copious “berries” • Leaf galls common (psyllids)

41

American Persimmon
Diospyros virginiana KC Area Champion ? ? ?

• Blocky bark, gray to brown • Pointed oblong leaves • Edible fruits, highly astringent when unripe
© missouriplants.com

44

http://bit.ly/10KL4c0

http://bit.ly/TE2nrt

The Future: What should be here?
Glades, Woodlands, Wildflowers? Which Trees?

© Kevin Sink

© Missouri Botanical Garden / Shaw Nature Reserve

Area examples?
Trice-Dedman Memorial Woods > Isley Park Woods v

Flikr: ContinuouslyOptimistic

Kansas City Wildlands

The Future: How to get there?
Possible Management Strategies:
• Maximize Diversity of Native Trees (protect against future Blights or Borers)

• Replace Ailanthus/Buckthorn with Oaks
• Replace Norway Maple with Sugar Maple • Restore Understory Layer (Missing species) • Replace Wintercreeper etc. with Native Grass and Wildflowers (Pollinator Focus)

How can I help?
Fundraising Needs:
• $1,090 still needed for Tree Inventory
• $1,000 tree planting, spring 2013 • Roanoke Park Conservancy general fund

Help with the Weeding, Native Seeding and Planting:
• April 13 Park Cleanup Day, work on your own • Kill all wintercreeper & shrub honeysuckle

Offer your expertise:
• Share your board member / fundraiser / architect / biologist / hydrologist / etc. SKILLS