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1-2-3 – Introduction
Project Management Training


The Project Management Institute (PMI) is project management professional association with over 500,000 member. Established in 1969 and located in US. Project Management Professional (PMP) credential recognizes demonstrated knowledge and skill in leading and directing project teams and in delivering project results within the constraints of schedule, budget and resources.

PMI, PMBOK, PMP are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc.

The Project Management Framework
• Chapter 1 –Introduction • Chapter 2 –Project Life Cycle and Organization • Chapter 3 – Project Management Process for a Project

References for PMP Study
This course is using following resources as references:

A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition © 2008 PMI PMP Exam Prep, Rita’s Course in a Book for passing the PMP Exam Sixth Edition © 2009 Rita Mulcahy, PMP


methods.PMBOK Guide • • • • • • Is a standard (formal document that describes established norms. processes and practices) Guidelines for managing individual projects A good practices which are applicable to most project most of the time A common vocabulary within project management profession A foundational project management reference PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct is also requirement for PMP certification .

physical. and human resources Improved customer relations Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Higher profit margins Improved productivity Improved productivity Better internal coordination Higher worker morale (less stress) .Advantages of Using Formal Project Management • • • • • • • • • • Better control of financial.

What is Project? A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique. – Repetitive elements may be present but has fundamental uniqueness – Is progressively elaborated. . service. product. or result. – Temporary = a definite beginning and end. • Distinguishing characteristics of each unique project will be progressively detailed as the project is better understood.

often from various areas – Should have a primary customer or sponsor • The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project – Involves uncertainty .Project Attributes • A project: – Has a unique purpose – Is temporary – Is developed using progressive elaboration – Requires resources.

Operational Work Projects • To attain its objectives and terminate • Create own character. and goals • Maintain status quo • Standard product or services • Homogeneous teams • Ongoing Examples • Responding to customers requests • Writing a letter to a Prospect • Hooking up a Printer to a computer • Meeting with an employee • Attending a conference • Opening the shop • Writing a progress update memo .Project vs. and goals • Catalyst for change • Unique product or services • Heterogeneous teams • Start and end date Examples • Producing a News letter • Writing and publishing a book • Implementing a LAN • Hiring a sales man • Arrange for a conference • Opening for a new shop • Producing the annual report Operations • To sustain the business • Semi permanent charter. organization. organization.

4.What is Project Management? • The application of knowledge. tools and technique to project activities to meet project requirements Project Management is accomplished through the application and integration of the processes which are grouped in the 5 process groups: 1. skills. 2. 3. Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing • • Due to the nature of change. 5. managing project is iterative and goes through progressive elaboration throughout the project’s lifecycle .

Managing a project includes: – – – – Identifying requirements. plans.Managing Project • The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives.definition Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses. Balancing the competing demands of quality. and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders. and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process. . Adapting the specifications. Establishing clear and achievable objectives. time and cost. • • Progressive Elaboration -. scope.

Project Constraints • Every project is constrained in different ways by its: – – – – – – Scope Schedule/Time Cost/Budget Quality Resources Risk The Triple Constraint or The Trade-off Triangle SCOPE/QUALITY • • If any one factor changes. at least one other factor is likely to be affected. . It is the project manager’s duty to balance these competing constraints.

Projects and Strategic Planning • Projects are means of – Achieving organization’s strategic plan. – Organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizations normal operational limits. • Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations:        Market demand Strategic opportunity/business need Customer request Technological advancement Legal requirements Ecological Impacts Social need .

Project Management Framework .

and ensuring timely completion of the project.Project Management Knowledge Areas Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives. – Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work. – Project cost management consists of preparing and managing the budget for the project. . – Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully. – Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken. developing an acceptable project schedule.

. – Project risk management includes identifying. and storing project information. collecting.Project Management Knowledge Areas • Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved. – Project communications management involves generating. disseminating. and responding to risks related to the project. – Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project. analyzing. • One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas. – Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization.

cost estimates. scope statements.Project Management Tools and Techniques • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management. network diagrams. critical path analyses (time) • Net present value. and WBS (scope) • Gantt charts. and earned value management (cost) • • . Specific tools and techniques include: • Project charters. Note that a tool or technique is more than just a software package.

time.Project Success • There are different ways to define project success: – The project met scope. – The project produced the desired results. and cost goals. – The project satisfied the customer/sponsor. .

Program Management and Portfolio Management – Project Management – Program Management – Portfolio Management – Project Management Office Portfolio Program PMO Projects & Operation .Relationships Among Project Management.

” • A program manager provides leadership and direction for the project managers heading the projects within the program. • ADVANTAGES – Decreased risk – Economies of Scale .What is a Program? A program is: • “a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.

Portfolios and Portfolio Management • A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. • Portfolio managers help their organizations – make wise investment decisions – by helping to select and analyze projects from a strategic perspective .

Comparative Overview .

Projects and Strategic Planning • Projects are means of organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizations normal operational limits. • Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations: – – – – A Market Demand & Organizational Need A Customer Request A Technological Advancement A Legal Requirement .

– Subprojects can be referred to as projects and managed as such .Subprojects • Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects. – Subproject are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization.

– Project Management Process/Methodology: Develop and implement a consistent and standardized process. A PMO usually takes one of three roles: – Project Support: Provide project management guidance to project managers in business units.PMO • A department that centralizes the management of projects. – Training: Conduct training programs or collect requirements for an outside company .

Primary Function of PMO • A Primary function of PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways which may include. mentoring . training and oversight – Monitoring compliance with project management standard policies. and other shared documentation ( organizational process assets). procedures . and – Co coordinating communication across projects . practices & standards – Coaching. and templates via project audits . but are not limited to: – Managing shared resources across all the projects administered by the PMO – Identifying and developing project management methodology. templates. – Developing and managing project policies. procedures.

such as infrastructure technologies. desktop applications and so on. • Project management software tools: Select and maintain project management tools for use by employees. • Portfolio management: Establish a staff of program managers who can manage multiple projects that are related. . • Internal consulting and mentoring: Advise employees about best practices. and allocate resources accordingly.Project Management Office (PMO) – Cont’d • Home for project managers: Maintain a centralized office from which project managers are loaned out to work on projects.

In other cases project manager may be one of the several project managers who report to a portfolio or program manager that is ultimately responsible for enterprise wide projects .Role of a Project Manager • The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives. In this type of structure. the project manager works closely with the portfolio or program manager to achieve the project objectives • • • . a project manager may report to functional manager. Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope. time. and cost goals Depending on the organization structure .

– cannot personally make or enforce decisions.Project Expediter and Coordinator • Project manager’s role can very limited • Project Expediter – acts primarily as a staff assistant – as communications coordinator. • Project Coordinator – has some power to make decisions – Has some authority – reports to a higher-level manager .

Stakeholders • Stakeholders are persons or organizations who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project. Stakeholders have varying levels of responsibility and authority and can change over the project life cycle Project management team must continuously identify both external and internal stakeholders Project manager must manage the influence of various stakeholders in relation to the requirements and balance stakeholders’ interest • • • .

Stakeholders Some examples of project stakeholders .

Enterprise Environmental Factors • • • • • Refer to both internal & external environmental factors that surround or influence a project’s success As an input in almost all project management process May enhance or constrain project management options May have positive or negative influence on the outcome Examples:  Organizational culture. and processes  Government or industry standards  Infrastructure  Existing human resources  Personnel administration  Company work authorization systems  Marketplace conditions  Stakeholder risk tolerances  Political climate  Organization’s established communications channels  Commercial databases  Project management information . structure.


and an ending phase.The Project Life Cycle • The project life cycle is the agglomeration of all phases in the project – All projects are divided into phases. an intermediate phase or phases. project will have a beginning or initiation phase. and all projects. large or small. have a similar life cycle structure. carrying out the project work and closing the project – At a minimum.: Starting the project . • Each phase has a defined endpoint . organizing and preparing .

without significantly impacting cost. These factors decrease over the life of the project. • Stakeholder influences. are greatest at the start of the project.Characteristics of Project Life Cycle • Cost and staffing levels are low at the start. and uncertainty. peak as the work is carried out. risk. . • Ability to influence the final characteristics of the project’s product. …or… The cost of changes and correcting errors typically increases substantially as the project approaches completion. and drop rapidly as the project draws to a close. is highest at the start of the project and decreases as the project progresses towards completion.

Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle • A project life cycle is a collection of project phases that defines: – – – – What work will be performed in each phase What deliverables will be produced and when Who is involved in each phase How management will control and approve work produced in each phase • A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project .

Handoffs • Project phases evolve through the life cycle in a series of phases sequences called handoffs. or technical transfers. . The end of one phase sequence typically marks the beginning of the next.

Overlapping phase may increase risk and can result in rework . – An Iterative relationship : where only one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase and deliverables .Phase-to-Phase Relationships • There are three basic types of phase–to–phase relationships : – A Sequential relationship : where a phase can only start once the previous phase is complete – An Overlapping relationship : where the phase starts prior to completion of the previous one (Fast tracking).

Organizational Influences • Some organizational aspects that influence how project are performed: – Culture and style (Cultural norms) – Organizational structure – Degree of project management maturity – Project management systems .

Types of Organizational Structures (1) Functional • Organization is grouped by areas of specialization • Project generally occur within a single department Projectized • Entire company is organized by projects • Personnel are assigned and report to a project manager .

Types of Organizational Structures (2) Weak Matrix • Power rest with the functional manager • Power of project manager = coordinator or expediter Balanced Matrix • Power is shared between the project manager and the functional manager .

Types of Organizational Structures (3) Strong Matrix • Power rest with the project manager • Composite .

Organizational Structure Influences of organizational structure on projects .

as the company is grouped by specialties • Clearly defined career paths in areas of work specialization • Efficient project organization • Loyalty to the project • More effective communication than functional • Highly visible project objectives • Improved project manager control over resources • More support from functional area • Maximum utilization of scarce resources • Better coordination Disadvantages • People place more emphasis on their functional specialty to the detriment of the project • No career path in project management • The project manager has little or no authority Projectized • No “home” when project is completed • Lack of professionalism in disciplines • Duplication of facilities and job functions • Less efficient use of resources • Extra administration is required • More than one boss for project teams • More complex to monitor and control • Tougher problems with resource allocation • Need extensive policies and procedures Matrix .Organizational Structure Advantages Functional • Easier management of specialists • Team members report to only one supervisor • Similar resources are centralized.

and performance measurement criteria – Templates – Financial control procedures – Procedures for prioritizing.Organizational Process Assets • Processes & Procedures – Organizational standard processes such as standards. work instruction. • Corporate Knowledge Base – – – – – – – Process measurement databases Project files Historical information & lesson learned knowledge bases Issue and defect management databases Configuration management knowledge bases Financial databases Etc. and issuing work authorization – Etc. approving. . proposal evaluation criteria. policies – Standardized guidelines.


Project Management Process • Two categories of project process: – Product-oriented process  should be considered in project but not explained in PMBOK – Project management process Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes Enter phase/ Start project Initiating Processes Closing Processes Exit phase/ End project Executing Processes Project Boundaries .

they overlap and interact .Process Interaction I P E M&C C • Project management processes are represented as discrete elements with well-defined interface • In practice.

Process Groups & Knowledge Areas Mapping Knowledge Area Integration Process Initiating Develop Project Charter Planning Develop Project Management Plan Executing Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitoring & Control Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Closing Close Project Scope Time Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activities Resources Estimate Activities Duration Develop Schedule Estimate Costs Determine Budget Plan Quality Develop Human Resources Plan Perform Quality Assurance Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Distribute Information Manage Stakeholders Expectations Verify Scope Control Scope Control Schedule Cost Quality Human Resource Communication Risk Identify Stakeholders Control Costs Perform Quality Control Plan Communications Report Performance Plan Risk Management Identify Risk Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Response Plan Procurements Conduct Procurements Monitor and Control Risks Procurement Administer Procurements Close Procurements .

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