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Created by ejlp12@gmail.

com, June 2010

1-2-3 Introduction
Project Management Training


The Project Management Institute (PMI) is project management professional association with over 500,000 member. Established in 1969 and located in US. Project Management Professional (PMP) credential recognizes demonstrated knowledge and skill in leading and directing project teams and in delivering project results within the constraints of schedule, budget and resources.

PMI, PMBOK, PMP are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc.

The Project Management Framework

Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Project Life Cycle and Organization Chapter 3 Project Management Process for a Project

References for PMP Study

This course is using following resources as references:

A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition 2008 PMI PMP Exam Prep, Ritas Course in a Book for passing the PMP Exam Sixth Edition 2009 Rita Mulcahy, PMP


Is a standard (formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes and practices) Guidelines for managing individual projects A good practices which are applicable to most project most of the time A common vocabulary within project management profession A foundational project management reference PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct is also requirement for PMP certification

Advantages of Using Formal Project Management

Better control of financial, physical, and human resources Improved customer relations Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Higher profit margins Improved productivity Improved productivity Better internal coordination Higher worker morale (less stress)

What is Project?
A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique, product, service, or result. Temporary = a definite beginning and end. Repetitive elements may be present but has fundamental uniqueness Is progressively elaborated. Distinguishing characteristics of each unique project will be progressively detailed as the project is better understood.

Project Attributes
A project: Has a unique purpose Is temporary Is developed using progressive elaboration Requires resources, often from various areas Should have a primary customer or sponsor The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project Involves uncertainty

Project vs. Operational Work

Projects To attain its objectives and terminate Create own character, organization, and goals Catalyst for change Unique product or services Heterogeneous teams Start and end date Examples Producing a News letter Writing and publishing a book Implementing a LAN Hiring a sales man Arrange for a conference Opening for a new shop Producing the annual report Operations To sustain the business Semi permanent charter, organization, and goals Maintain status quo Standard product or services Homogeneous teams Ongoing Examples Responding to customers requests Writing a letter to a Prospect Hooking up a Printer to a computer Meeting with an employee Attending a conference Opening the shop Writing a progress update memo

What is Project Management?

The application of knowledge, skills, tools and technique to project activities to meet project requirements Project Management is accomplished through the application and integration of the processes which are grouped in the 5 process groups:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing

Due to the nature of change, managing project is iterative and goes through progressive elaboration throughout the projects lifecycle

Managing Project
The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives. Managing a project includes:
Identifying requirements. Establishing clear and achievable objectives. Balancing the competing demands of quality, scope, time and cost. Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders.

Progressive Elaboration -- definition

Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process.

Project Constraints
Every project is constrained in different ways by its:
Scope Schedule/Time Cost/Budget Quality Resources Risk

The Triple Constraint or The Trade-off Triangle

If any one factor changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. It is the project managers duty to balance these competing constraints.

Projects and Strategic Planning

Projects are means of
Achieving organizations strategic plan. Organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizations normal operational limits.

Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations:
Market demand Strategic opportunity/business need Customer request Technological advancement Legal requirements Ecological Impacts Social need

Project Management Framework

Project Management Knowledge Areas

Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives.
Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully. Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completion of the project. Project cost management consists of preparing and managing the budget for the project.

Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.

Project Management Knowledge Areas

Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved.
Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project. Project communications management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information. Project risk management includes identifying, analyzing, and responding to risks related to the project. Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization.

One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas.

Project Management Tools and Techniques

Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management. Note that a tool or technique is more than just a software package. Specific tools and techniques include: Project charters, scope statements, and WBS (scope) Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analyses (time) Net present value, cost estimates, and earned value management (cost)

Project Success
There are different ways to define project success: The project met scope, time, and cost goals. The project satisfied the customer/sponsor. The project produced the desired results.

Relationships Among Project Management, Program Management and Portfolio Management

Project Management Program Management Portfolio Management
Project Management Office

Portfolio Program


Projects & Operation

What is a Program?
A program is: a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. A program manager provides leadership and direction for the project managers heading the projects within the program.

ADVANTAGES Decreased risk Economies of Scale

Portfolios and Portfolio Management

A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. Portfolio managers help their organizations
make wise investment decisions by helping to select and analyze projects from a strategic perspective

Comparative Overview

Projects and Strategic Planning

Projects are means of organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizations normal operational limits. Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations:
A Market Demand & Organizational Need A Customer Request A Technological Advancement A Legal Requirement

Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects. Subproject are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization. Subprojects can be referred to as projects and managed as such

A department that centralizes the management of projects. A PMO usually takes one of three roles: Project Support: Provide project management guidance to project managers in business units. Project Management Process/Methodology: Develop and implement a consistent and standardized process. Training: Conduct training programs or collect requirements for an outside company

Primary Function of PMO

A Primary function of PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways which may include, but are not limited to:
Managing shared resources across all the projects administered by the PMO Identifying and developing project management methodology, practices & standards Coaching, mentoring , training and oversight Monitoring compliance with project management standard policies, procedures , and templates via project audits . Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation ( organizational process assets); and Co coordinating communication across projects

Project Management Office (PMO) Contd

Home for project managers: Maintain a centralized office from which project
managers are loaned out to work on projects.

Internal consulting and mentoring: Advise employees about best


Project management software tools: Select and maintain project

management tools for use by employees.

Portfolio management: Establish a staff of program managers who can

manage multiple projects that are related, such as infrastructure technologies, desktop applications and so on, and allocate resources accordingly.

Role of a Project Manager

The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives. Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals Depending on the organization structure , a project manager may report to functional manager. In other cases project manager may be one of the several project managers who report to a portfolio or program manager that is ultimately responsible for enterprise wide projects . In this type of structure, the project manager works closely with the portfolio or program manager to achieve the project objectives

Project Expediter and Coordinator

Project managers role can very limited

Project Expediter
acts primarily as a staff assistant as communications coordinator. cannot personally make or enforce decisions.

Project Coordinator
has some power to make decisions Has some authority reports to a higher-level manager

Stakeholders are persons or organizations who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project. Stakeholders have varying levels of responsibility and authority and can change over the project life cycle Project management team must continuously identify both external and internal stakeholders Project manager must manage the influence of various stakeholders in relation to the requirements and balance stakeholders interest

Some examples of project stakeholders

Enterprise Environmental Factors

Refer to both internal & external environmental factors that surround or influence a projects success As an input in almost all project management process May enhance or constrain project management options May have positive or negative influence on the outcome Examples:
Organizational culture, structure, and processes Government or industry standards Infrastructure Existing human resources Personnel administration Company work authorization systems Marketplace conditions Stakeholder risk tolerances Political climate Organizations established communications channels Commercial databases Project management information


The Project Life Cycle

The project life cycle is the agglomeration of all phases in the project
All projects are divided into phases, and all projects, large or small, have a similar life cycle structure.: Starting the project , organizing and preparing , carrying out the project work and closing the project At a minimum, project will have a beginning or initiation phase, an intermediate phase or phases, and an ending phase.
Each phase has a defined endpoint

Characteristics of Project Life Cycle

Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak as the work is carried out, and drop rapidly as the project draws to a close. Stakeholder influences, risk, and uncertainty, are greatest at the start of the project. These factors decrease over the life of the project. Ability to influence the final characteristics of the projects product, without significantly impacting cost, is highest at the start of the project and decreases as the project progresses towards completion. or The cost of changes and correcting errors typically increases substantially as the project approaches completion.

Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle

A project life cycle is a collection of project phases that defines:
What work will be performed in each phase What deliverables will be produced and when Who is involved in each phase How management will control and approve work produced in each phase

A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project

Project phases evolve through the life cycle in a series of phases sequences called handoffs, or technical transfers. The end of one phase sequence typically marks the beginning of the next.

Phase-to-Phase Relationships
There are three basic types of phasetophase relationships : A Sequential relationship : where a phase can only start once the previous phase is complete An Overlapping relationship : where the phase starts prior to completion of the previous one (Fast tracking). Overlapping phase may increase risk and can result in rework . An Iterative relationship : where only one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase and deliverables

Organizational Influences
Some organizational aspects that influence how project are performed: Culture and style (Cultural norms) Organizational structure Degree of project management maturity Project management systems

Types of Organizational Structures (1)

Organization is grouped by areas of specialization Project generally occur within a single department

Entire company is organized by projects Personnel are assigned and report to a project manager

Types of Organizational Structures (2)

Weak Matrix
Power rest with the functional manager Power of project manager = coordinator or expediter

Balanced Matrix
Power is shared between the project manager and the functional manager

Types of Organizational Structures (3)

Strong Matrix
Power rest with the project manager


Organizational Structure
Influences of organizational structure on projects

Organizational Structure
Advantages Functional
Easier management of specialists Team members report to only one supervisor Similar resources are centralized, as the company is grouped by specialties Clearly defined career paths in areas of work specialization Efficient project organization Loyalty to the project More effective communication than functional Highly visible project objectives Improved project manager control over resources More support from functional area Maximum utilization of scarce resources Better coordination

People place more emphasis on their functional specialty to the detriment of the project No career path in project management The project manager has little or no authority


No home when project is completed Lack of professionalism in disciplines Duplication of facilities and job functions Less efficient use of resources Extra administration is required More than one boss for project teams More complex to monitor and control Tougher problems with resource allocation Need extensive policies and procedures


Organizational Process Assets

Processes & Procedures
Organizational standard processes such as standards, policies Standardized guidelines, work instruction, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria Templates Financial control procedures Procedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorization Etc.

Corporate Knowledge Base

Process measurement databases Project files Historical information & lesson learned knowledge bases Issue and defect management databases Configuration management knowledge bases Financial databases Etc.


Project Management Process

Two categories of project process:
Product-oriented process should be considered in project but not explained in PMBOK Project management process
Monitoring & Controlling Processes

Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Project Boundaries

Process Interaction


Project management processes are represented as discrete elements with well-defined interface In practice, they overlap and interact

Process Groups & Knowledge Areas Mapping

Knowledge Area Integration Process Initiating
Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Management Plan

Direct and Manage Project Execution

Monitoring & Control

Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control

Close Project


Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activities Resources Estimate Activities Duration Develop Schedule Estimate Costs Determine Budget Plan Quality Develop Human Resources Plan Perform Quality Assurance Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Distribute Information Manage Stakeholders Expectations

Verify Scope Control Scope Control Schedule

Cost Quality Human Resource Communication Risk

Identify Stakeholders

Control Costs Perform Quality Control

Plan Communications

Report Performance

Plan Risk Management Identify Risk Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Response Plan Procurements Conduct Procurements

Monitor and Control Risks


Administer Procurements

Close Procurements

Next topic: Project Integration Management

Thank You