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Device which convert one form energy converted to another quantity or Device which converts one physical quantity or condition to another

Physical quantity heat , intensity of light, flow rate, liquid level, humidity etc
Sensor : sense physical quantity

Classification of transducers
1. 2. 3. 4. Based on nature of output Active & passive Analog & digital Inverse transducer

Based on nature of output

1. Mechanical transducer if output signal are mechanical in nature 2. Electical transducer if output signal are electrical in nature

Passive transducer
Device which derive power reqd. for transduction from external source - externally powered Eg : resistive, inductive, capacitive Without power they will not work

Active transducer
No extra power reqd. Self generating Draw power from input applied Eg. Piezo electric xtal used for accelartion measurement

Analog transducer
convert I/p quantity into an analog o/p Analog o/p- a continuous fn. Of time Eg. Strain gauge, L VDT, thermocouple

Digital transducer
Converts I/p into an electrical o/p in the form of pulses

Inverse transducer
Which converts electrical signal to physical quantity

Transducer for pressure measurement

What is pressure? force/ unit area Unit (N/sq.m) Pa Pressure measured can be absolute , gauge or differential depending on type of reference

Types of pressure transducers

Gravitational eg : manometer Elastic force converted to strain eg. Diaphragm, capsule, bellows, bourdon tubes

Common pressure sensing elastic element Thin circular plate stretched & fastened at its periphery Made of elastic alloys of bronze,phosphor bronze, stainless steel or alloys like Monel, Nickel span -C


Two corrugated metal diaphragms sealed together at periphery Forms a shell like structure One diaphragm has a port at centre to admit pressure to be measured Other diaphragm linked to a moveable mechanical part.

Displacement proportional to difference b/w outer & inner pressure.

Bourdon tubes
curved or twisted metallic tubes with elliptical cross section Sealed at one end Tends to straighten when pressure applied. Angular sensitivity proportional to pressure applied

Spirial bourdon tubes

Bourdon tubes C type

Helical type
Tube in the form of helix

Bourdon tube
More sensitive to shock & vibrations Good repeatability


Thin walled cylindrical sheets with deep convolutions sealed at one end Sealed end moves axially when pressure is applied No. of convolution s vary from- 2 to 50 depends on range, operating temp Used for low pressure measurement

displacement y = 2.n. A q P Rx 2 /( Et 2 .) where n no. of convolutions A q- effective area Et - youngs modulus of elasticity Rx radius of diaphragm P pressure ie, Y P

Resistive type
Eg. Strain gauge

Inductive type

Measurement of velocity
Velocity linear or angular

Linear velocity
Electromagnetic transducers O/p voltage E = /t = N I/ R2 . dR/dt where N I/ R2 is a constant R- reluctance so E proportional to reluctance R proportional to air gap & air gap proportional to velocity

Types Moving coil Moving magnetic

Angular velocity
Tachometer - types Mechanical Electrical MHD sensor magneto hydrodynamic sensor highly sensitive High precision

Transducer for vibration

Vibrations give early warning of impending conditions which may develop &vlead to complete failure & destruction of equipment Used in power plants, turbines

Most vibrations are sinusodial in nature Got amp & freq. Amp gives displacement By measuring displacement, velocity or acceleration - vibrations measured

Vibration transducer
Accelometer measures shock or vibration Pot type or LVDT type

Pot type accelrometer

1. Accuracy: This is a measure of the accuracy of the transducer output representing the true value being measured. It is defined a Ea = (Ot - Om)/Ot x 100% where Ea is the error, Ot is the true value being measured, Om is the transducer or system output.

2. Precision: This is a measure of the deviation from a mean value computed from a set of readings obtained for a single given input. In other words the repeatability of a transducer reading is defined by the precision specified for a specific transducer.

3. Resolution: This is a measure of smallest incremented unit of the input signal that can be measured by the transducer. 4. Sensitivity: The ratio of the output to the input gives a measure of a transducer systems sensitivity to a given input.

5. Drift: The change in the transducer output for a zero input or its sensitivity over a period of time, change in temperature, humidity or some other factor.

6. Span: The operational full scale range of the transducer is known as the span. The span is therefore defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum outputs of the transducer.

7. Linearity: The degree to which a given calibration curve fits a straight line within a range of the full scale output of the transducer. Linearity is often a desirable trait in instrumentation design. A transducer output may be non-linear over its entire range, but a portion of its curve over a limited range may be fairly linear; this range may be used in instrumentation design.

8. Distortion: The difference of the actual output from the expected result as defined by a known linear or non-linear relationship (curve) of input and output for the transducer.


Output Reading

Measured Variables Dead Space

Defined as the range of input reading when there is no change in output (unresponsive system).

When the reading of an input is increased from the input reading will reach a certain value before change occurs in the output. The minimum limit of the input reading is threshold.