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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

HISTORY

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE
Structure is how the aircraft is built and with what material? Aircraft
must be light in weight yet strong enough to withstand varying loads.

Aircraft structural designer builds with two goals in mind:


1. Minimize the load on individual components by load distribution. Such optimization helps in increasing the life of the aircraft as a whole. (safe life) 2. Co-ordinate all pieces in such a way that even if one unit fails other units will take on the load. (fail safe)

Lighter the plane farther it will fly or will carry more payload for the same
distance.

LEONARDO DA VINCI, CONCEIVED A FLYING MACHINE, WHICH HAD FLAPPING WINGS ATTACHED TO A BODY THAT WAS MODELED AFTER A BIRD. WRIGHT BROTHER DEVELOPED A BI-PLANE GLIDER WHICH SOLVED THE PROBLEM OF CONTROLS.

EARLY FLYING MACHINES HAD A COMMON TYPES OF STRUCTURE. EACH A/C WING COMPOSED OF RIBS MADE OF WOOD WHICH FORM THE LIFTING SURFACES.
THE BODIES OF THESE MACHINES WERE OPEN GIRDER FRAME WORKS MADE FROM BAMBOO OR STRIPS OF WOOD AND HELD TOGETHER BY PIANO WIRE. AUXILIARY STRUCTURE ,SUCH AS STABILIZERS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS, WERE SIMILARLY CONSTRUCTED.

UPTO WORLD WAR I MOST AIRPLANES WERE BUILT WITH A TRUSS TYPES STRUCTURE THAT USED STRUTS AND WIRE BRACED WINGS.
THE COCKPIT WAS OPEN WITH A FABRIC COVERED HULL OR FUSELAGE. ENGINE WAS INSTALLED UP FRONT. AUX SURFACE MTD AFTER THE WINGS TO FROM THE TAIL OR EMPENAGE LIGHT WEIGHT STRUCTURE THEN CAME INTO ORIGIN DECREASING THE AIR RESISTANCE , HENCE INCR SPEED. TO RETAIN STRENGTH OF TRUSS STRUCTURE AND ALSO REDUCE WEIGHT ,A SUPERSTRUCTURE OF WOODEN FORMERS AND STRINGERS TO PROVIDE MORE STREAMLINED SHAPE WAS CONSTRUCTED .

AEROFOIL SECTIONS
1.IT IS AN AERODYNAMICALLY EFFICIENT SHAPE WHICH PRODUCES LIFT WHEN IT INTERACTS WITH A MOVING STREAM OF AIR.

2. SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL HAS SAME CURVATURE ON THE TOP AND BOTTOM. 3. THE MOVEMENT OF AIR STREAM AROUND AIRFOIL CAUSES CHANGES IN PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN SURROUNDINGS TO GENERATE LIFT.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF AIRCRAFT
a)

BASED ON FUNCTIONS
PASSENGER A/C

(i)

CIVIL

CARGO A/C

(ii)

MILITARY (aa) BOMBER (ab) FIGHTERS (ac) RECCE

b)

BASED ON CONFIGURATION (i) SHAPE AND POSITION OF WING (ii) TYPE OF FUSELAGE . CONVENTIONAL(HT-2,BO 707) . POD & BOOM TYPE(POCKET,VAMPIRE )

c)

BASED ON TYPE, NO & LOC OF PP (i) TYPE PISTON PUMP (HT- 2 ,DAKOTA, KRISHAK) TURBO - PROP (AN 12 , AVRO, AN 32 ) TURBO JET (MIG, GNAT, AIRBUS) TURBO FAN (JAGUAR, MIRAGE) RAMJET (SLV, SPACE SHUTTLE) ROCKETS (X 15A) (ii) No OF PP SINGLE ENGINE (KIRAN, HUNTER, MIG 21) MULTI ENGINE (BO 707 ,AN 23 TURBO ENGINE (HF 24 , AN -12)

(iii) LOCATION OF ENGINES

NOSE OF FUSELAGE (HT 2, VAK 2 ) PUSHER ENGINE LOCATED IN REAR FUSELAGE. (TRISTAR) ENG SUBMERGED AT WING/WING SPAN. (TU 104, TU 16) ENG SUSPENDED UNDER WING ON (BO 707 , DC 8 ) ENG WITHIN REAR FUSELAGE. (MIG 21 , LIGHTNING)

d)

e)

BASED ON LANDING GEAR (i) RETRACTABLE (DC 9 , TU 114) (ii) NON RETRACTABLE (PUSHPAK, AN 14) BASED ON PERFORMANCE (i) SUBSONIC (ii) HIGH SUBSONIC (iii) TRANSONIC (iv) SUPERSONIC (v) HYPERSONIC

AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS


THE PERFORMANCE REQTS/CAPABILITIES OF SPECIFIED IN TERMS OF CERTAIN INTERDEPENDANT PARAMETERS : RANGE OR RADIUS OF ACTION ENDURANCE MAX SPEED RATE OF CLIMB SERVICE CEILING MANOEUVRABILITY/CONTROLLABILITY LANDING REQTS COMMUNICATION & NAV CAPABILITIES PAYLOAD ( NATURE & QUANTUM) PROVISIONS FOR SAFETY & COMFORT AN AC ARE IDENTIFIABLE

PARTS OF AN AIRPLANE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

FUSELAGE OR BODY THE WINGS OR LIFTING SURFACES TAIL SECTION OR EMPENNAGE PROPULSION SYSTEM UNDERCARRIAGE OR LANDING GEAR

CABIN SECTION A. B. C. ENGINE COMPARTMENT COCKPIT TRANSMISSION COMPARTMENT D. CABIN E. FUEL TANK COMPARTMENT F. BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT G. ELECTRICAL AND RADIO COMPARTMENT

TAIL CONE SECTION


H. FIN , J. TAIL CONE, K. TAIL CONE HOUSING, L. PYLON, M. TAIL END FAIRING

WINGS

WW I Wood-Fabric Construction
Light weight material such as wood or bamboo was used for creating box structure. Chemically treated fabric was strapped around this hollow truss frame structure. Diagonal wires strengthened wings and spar caps at the end conformed with the desired aerodynamic shape. Weaker fabric was affected by weather and used to get damaged. So metal skin replaced the fabric.

ALUMINUM ALLOYED
STRESSED SKIN IS RIVETED TO THE RIBS AND STRINGERS.

IT SERVES NOT ONLY


THE COVERING BUT ALSO AS A PART OF THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE WING.

TO TAKE ADDITIONAL
LOAD, AT TIME THE SKIN IS REINFORCED WITH TYPICALLY HAT SECTION STRINGERS. THE STRINGERS ARE RIVETED TO THE RIBS AND THE SKIN.

WING RIB WING RIB IS A CHORD-WISE MEMBER OF


WING SECTION USED TO GIVE DESIRED SHAPE. IT ALSO TRANSMITS AIR LOADS FROM COVERING TO SPARS.

WING RIBS MAY EXTEND FROM THE LE


TO TE OR MAY EXTEND ONLY UP TO THE REAR SPAR.

BUILT UP METAL RIB IS USED IN


CONJUNCTION WITH METAL SPARS & IS RIVETED TO THEM. STAMPED RIBS HAVE HOLES CUT IN THEM REDUCING THE WEIGHT OF THE RIB.

RIB COULD BE PREPARED IN SEGMENTS


AND SUBSEQUENTLY RIVETED TOGETHER.

oWINGS REQUIRE

Metal Spar Construction

LONGITUDINAL (LENGTHWISE WITH WING) MEMBERS OF GREAT STRENGTH TO WITHSTAND BENDING STRESSES WHICH ARE SIGNIFICANT DURING FLIGHT. USUAL CONSTRUCTION IS CANTILEVER TYPE. CONVENTIONAL WINGS HAVE MONO, TWO OR MULTI-SPAR CONSTRUCTION.

oMODERN AIRCRAFT USES


METAL SPARS OR WING BEAMS AND ARE PREDOMINANTLY I SECTION WITH DESIGNS & MANUFACTURE DEPENDING ON THE LOAD TO BE CARRIED.

Preserve all important aerodynamic shape under extreme stress conditions. Main components: Spars [lengthwise to wing and crosswise to fuselage &
main members], Ribs [support the covering for airfoil shape as well as carry additional load] and Stringers [occasionally used].

Simple wing structure exists for civilian aircraft compared to complex and
strongest wing structure for the military aircraft.

Wings invariably carry fuel inside and engines/rockets externally.


Transmitting various loads to the central structures, fuselage is important.

TRUSS TYPE WING


SPARS, WHICH RUNS THE LENGTH OF WING FROM THE ROOT TO THE TIP ARE MAIN LOAD CARRYING MEMBERS IN A WING TRUSS. IN PAST, SPARS WERE MAINLY CONSTRUCTED FROM WOOD, MODERN DAY A/C USE EXTRUDED AL-ALLOY. LAMINATED SPAR IS CONSTRUCED OF STRIPS OF WOOD GLUED TOGETHER, GRANS RUNNING IN PARALLEL DIRECTION. THE SPARS ARE SEPERATED BY COMPRESSION MEMBERS OR COMPRESSION STRUTS. COMPRESSION RIBS ARE SOMETIMES USED, TO TAKE COMPRESSIVE LOADS.

THE TRUSS IS HELD TOGETHER WITH HIGH STRENGHT HIGH SOLID STEEL WIRES THAT CROSS THE BAYS FORMED BY THE COMPRESSION STRUTS. THE WIRE RUNNING DIAGONALLY FROM INBOARD TO OUTBOARD OPPOSE THE FORCES THAT TEND TO DRAG AGAINST THE WING AND PULL IT BACKWORD. (DRAG WIRES) WIRES THAT RUN BETWEEN THE FRONT AND REAR SPAR AND RUN DIAGONALLY FROM OUTBOARD TO INBOARD OPPOSE THE FORCE THAT TEND TO MOVE THE TIP OF WING FORWARD (ANTI DRAG WIRES). A WING TRUSS CONSISTING OF SPARS, COMPRESSION MEMBERS, DRAG AND ANTI DRAG WIRES WAS COVERED WITH FABRIC. BOX TYPE SPAR WAS ALSO USED. BOX STRUCTURE BETWEEN THE SPAR CAN CARRY ALL OF THE BENDING AND TORSIONAL LOADS.

STRESSED SKIN WING


WINGS ARE GENERALLY EVOLVED FROM THE TRUSS FORM OF CONSTRUCTION TO ONE IN WHICH THE OUTER SKIN CARRIES THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF STRESSES. SEMI MONOCOQUE CONSTRUCTION IS GENERALLY USED FOR THE MAIN PORTION OF THE WING.

MONOCOQUE FORM OF CONSTRUCTION IS OFTEN USED FOR CONTROL SURFACES.


RIBS ARE MADE OF ALLUMINIUM ALLOY SHEETS AND RIVETED TO THE SKIN TO GIVE BOTH SHAPE AND RIGIDITY.

ALL METAL WING CAN CARRY ALL OF THE FLIGHT LOADS WITHIN THE STRUCTURE SO NO EXTERNAL STRUTS OR BRACES ARE REQUIRED.
INTERNALLY BRACED WINGS NOT REQUIRING EXTERNAL SUPPORT ARE CALLED CANTILIVER WINGS.

THE AIR FOIL SECTION OF A CANTILIVER WING IS NORMALLY QUIT THICK AND HAS STRONG CENTRE SECTION BUILT IN TO THE FUSELAGE.

THE ENGINE IS ATTACHED TO THE CENTRE SECTION.


MOSTLY MULTIPLE SPARS ARE USED TO CARRY FLIGHT LOADS, SPANWISE STIFFNERS ARE USED BETWEEN SPARS TO PROVIDE STRENGTH. CHEMICAL MILLING.

ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING
NOW WING SKINS ARE MADE UP OF COMPOSITES FOR MAXIMUM STIFFNESS AND MINIMUM WEIGHT. LAMINATED WINGS HAVE THIN SHEETS OF METAL BONDED TO A CORE OF METAL HONEYCOMB MATERIAL AND INSIDE OF THE STRUCTURE IS SEALED TO CARRY FUEL. NO RIVETS ARE REQUIRED.

AS THE AIRCRAFT IS MVRE OR ANGLE OF ATTACK CHANGES, THE CENTRE OF LIFT MOVES AND PRODUCESS LARGE TORSIONAL LOADS ON THE WING.

WHILE WEIGHT IS CONCENTRATED ON FUSELAGE, LIFT IS PRODUCED ALONG THE FULL LENGTH OF THE WING, WITH GENERATION OF LIFT, THE WING TENDS TO BEND UPWARD FROM THE ROOT TOWARDS THE TIP.
CAPSTRIPES FORM THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE RIB.

CROSS MEMBER FORM THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TOP AND BOTTOM CAP RIBS.
GUSSET i.e. A THIN PLYWOOD PLATE ATTACHED TO TWO OR MORE MEMBERS TO CARRY STRESSES FROM ONE MEMBER TO ANOTHER ARE ATTCHED TO EACH INTERSECTION OF A CAP STRIP AND A CROSS MEMBER. METAL WING RIBS ARE BUILT BY RIVETTING TOGETHER CAPSTRIPS AND CROSS MEMBERS MADE OF FORMED, THIN SHEETS OF AL- ALLOY OR PRESSED FROM AL-ALLOY SHEETS. NOSE RIBS, FALSE RIBS USED TO PREVENT AIR LOADS FROM DISTORTING THE LEADING EDGE. TE IS NORMALLY FORMED OF AL-ALLOY AND TIES THE BACK END OF THE RIBS TOGETHER TO GIVE THE WING ITS FINISHED SHAPE.

Such an attachment depends on the strength of the wing structure. Strongest wing structure would permit full cantilever where wing is directly
attached to the fuselage. Most of the modern planes would use this type of attachment.

WING ATTACHMENT

Semi-strong wing structure would need couple of


Externally braced wing attachment

supporting wires or struts attachments depending on whether the wing is on the upper or lower portion of the fuselage.

FUSELAGE

TYPES OF FUSELAGE - TRUSS

Truss is an assembly of members forming a rigid frame work which may consist of bars, beams, rods, tubes and wires. All of them will not be able to carry all types of loads (wire can withstand only tension). In Pratt & Warren Truss primary strength members are 4 longerons (longitudinal members) with lateral bracing placed at intervals.These members are capable of carrying both compression as well as tension.

Structural members are stronger in


compression & tension than in bending.These are designed to carry end loads than bending loads with the help of truss or a rigid framework covered with fabric.

By arranging the structural members


in triangles, one can ensure alternate members in compression and tension.

Truss comprises of welded tubular


frame with longerons (horizontal) and diagonal braces making the structure rigid, stronger and lighter.

SEMIMONOCOQUE FUSELAGE
IT CONSISTS OF FRAMEWORK OF VERTICAL AND LONGITUDINAL MEMBERS COVERED WITH STRUCTURAL SKIN WHICH CARRIES LARGE % OF STRESS IMPOSED UPON THE FUSELAGE. VERTICAL MEMBERS ARE CALLED FRAMES OR BULKHEAD AND LONGITUDINAL MEMBERS ARE CALLED STRINGERS. STRINGERS PROVIDE NECESSARY STIFFNESS TO THE SKIN TO WITHSTAND STRESS. BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL MEMBERS OF THE FUSELAGE ARE LIGHTER FORMERS AND RINGS TO MAINTAIN UNIFORM SHAPE OF THE STRUCTURE.

SEMIMONOCOQUE FUSELAGE

oModern high performance aircrafts


use this half single shell structure. In this the internal braces as well as the skin itself carries stress.

oInternal braces include longitudinal


(lengthwise) stringers & vertical bulkhead.

oThis structure is easier to streamline


than the truss structure. Skin will be thicker in places where the stress is high as it carries bulk of the load.

MONOCOQUE STRUCTURE

In full monocoque fuselage structure construction involves construction of a metal tube or cone without internal structural members. In some cases former rings may be necessary to retain shape but these are not load bearing members. Very often construction of large fuselage is by riveting two halves together. Occasionally internal pressurized tanks are used for structural support. Such construction is common for missile configurations.

CONTROL SURFACES

CONTROL SURFACES
oStabilizers and control surfaces are
also constructed in similar fashion but on a much smaller scale.

oThese include one or more

longitudinal member spar and ribs attached to it.

oVertical stabilizer may be integral part


of fuselage or separate detachable one.

oPrincipal structural members are front


and rear spars and the ribs.

oAttachments are provided at the


inboard end to secure the unit to the center section which is within the fuselage

CONTROL SURFACE
THE CONTROL SURFACES PRODUCE AERODYNAMIC FORCES TO REDIRECT AN AIRCRAFTS FLIGHT PATH. PRIMARY CONTROLS ie ELEVATOR , AILERON AND RUDDER. SECONDARY CONTROLS ie TRIM TABS. AUX CONTROLS ie FLAPS, SLATS, SPOILERS etc.

TO KEEP THE WEIGHT MINIMUM, THE EARLIER CONTROL SURFACES WERE COVERED WITH THIN COTTON OR LINEN FABRIC.
ALL NEW A/C HAVE THEIR CONTROL SURFACES COVERED WITH EITHER THIN AL-ALLOY, MG-ALLOY SHEETS OR ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS

FABRIC COVERED CONTROL SURFACE


GENERALLY TRUSS TYPE FABRIC COVERED A/C HAVE THEIR TAIL SURFACE INTERNAL STRUCTURE MADE OF WELDED THIN WALL STEEL TUBING.
THE VERTICAL FIN IS BUILT AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF FUSELAGE.

RUDDERS ARE ATTACHED TO THE FIN WITH HINGE PINS THROUGH STEEL TUBES WELDED TO BOTH THE FIN AND THE RUDDER.
THE HORIZONTAL STABILIZER BOLTS TO THE FUSELAGE AND HELD RIGID WITH HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WIRES.

ELEVATORS ARE HINGED TO THE STABILIZERS TE LIKE THE RUDDERS.


AILERONS ARE BUILT IN SAME WAY AS WINGS AND CONFORMS TO THE SHAPE OF THE REAR END OF WING FORMER RIBS. THE HINGE LINE OF AILERON IS USUALLY BEHIND ITS LEADING
EDGE.

METAL COVERED CONTROL SURFACES


MOST MODERN A/C USED THIN SHEET METAL FOR THE CONTROL SURFACES.
THE USE OF CORROGATED EXTERNAL SKIN PROVIDES EXTRA STIFNESS AND REDUCESS THE WEIGHT OF CONTROLS BY MINIMIZING THE AMOUNT OF SUB-STRUCTURE NEEDED. FOR A SUB-STRUCTURE THE CONTROL SURFACES ARE CONSTRUCTED WITH STAMPED OR FORGED RIBS AND SPARS TO FORM A MONOCOQUE OR SEMI MONOCOQUE FRAME.

THE HINGES USE THIN WIRE TO HOLD THE HINGE HALVES TOGETHER, WHICH REQUIRE PERIODIC CHECKS FOR WEAR/ATTACHMENT (FLUTTER).
CONTROL LOCKS ARE PORVIDED WHEN PARKING THE A/C.

CONTROL LOCKS TO BE MARKED IN DISTINCTIVE FASHION TO BE LEFT IN PLACE DURING FLIGHT.

AIRFOIL CONTROLS

PRIMARY CONTROLS

AILERON

They are primary flight control surface used to provide lateral (roll) control of the a/c. They are usually mounted on the TE of the wing near the tip and rigged so that when one is moving upward on one wing, the other is moving downward on opposite wing. Downward moving aileron increase the camber and lift and the upward moving aileron decrease the camber and lift. Leftward movement on the stick, or wheel in cockpit raises the left aileron and lower the right, thereby banking the plane to the left.

There are two sys in use to decr aileron drag.


Frise aileron: An aileron with its hinge line set back from the leading edge, so that when it is deflected upward, part of the leading edge projects below the wing and produces parasitic drag to help overcome adverse yaw. Rudder aileron interconnecting spring:- Since aileron drag is produced each time the control wheel deflects the aileron, many mfrs connect wheel to the rudder control sys through an inter connecting spring. When wheel is moved to produce right roll, the interconnect cable and spring pulls forward on right rudder pedal just enough to prevent the nose of airplane yawing to the left. Flaperons: Control surface which serve as both aileron and wing flaps mainly on swept wing airplane. Ailerons that are rigged to serve as ailerons or flaps are also called flaperons. When employed as ailerons, flaperons move in opposite dirn. The use of flaperons allows the wings to vary the camber.

ADVERSE YAW A condition of flight at the beginning of the turn in which the nose of an airplane momentarily yaws from the dirn in which the turn is to be made. When a/c is subjected to a roll to the left, the down going port wing will experience a new relative wind and increase AOA. The inclination of lift vector produces a component force fwd on the down going wing. The up going wing has its lift inclined with a component force aft. The resulting yawing moment is opposite to role and hence is adverse yaw. The aileron of an a/c are rigged for differential control, causing the up moving aileron to move a greater distance than down moving aileron. The differential is sufficient to bal the drag between the aileron, thus elimating yaw.

Elevators: They provide for pitching movement/longitudinal control around the lateral axis. A backward pull on the control stick or on the wheel column raises the elevators, thereby depressing the tail and lifting the nose of the a/c for the climb. Fwd motion of the stick produces opp effect. They are normally attached to the hinges on the rear spar of the horz stabilizer. The Eng determines the rate of climb of a/c rather than the posn of elevator. If the elevators are held at in affixed position, the throttle alone can be used to make climb or dive. The posn of the elevator is important, to establish most efficient ROC and good gliding angle when power is off. It is almost essential when breaking the glide and holding airplane in landing posn. The TE of elevator may have a trim tab to adjust the down load of tail for hands off flying at any desired airspeed. Another means of trimming is to adjust the entire horz stabilizer by rotating it about a pivot point.

Elevons:The control surface that functions as both an elevator and an aileron. Hinged control surfaces on the wing TE of delta wing a/c which are moved in unison to act as elevator and differentially as ailerons. They are especially needed for all wing airplanes or flying wing. Stabilators:The controls are same type as those with elevators. The main difference with elevators control sys is that the entire horz surface pivots when ctrl forces are applied. It is an all moving tail that works by changing the AOA of ctrl surface and there by changing the amount of downward lift generated by the tail. It is an aerofoil that replaces the normal elevator and serves as a elevator as well as stabilizer.

RUDDERS

It is a vertical control surface that is usually hinged to the tail post of the vert stabilizer. It is designed to apply yawing movements to the air plane that is left or right move. It is operated by pedals operated by feet. When right pedal is pressed, the rudder swing to the right, thus bringing an incr of dyn air pressure on its right side. This incr press causes the a/c to swing to the left and nose to turn to the right. When rudder is applied in flight, the a/c will turn, but continue to travel in same dirn as before unless a correcting force is applied. Thus with rudder only, the a/c will turn sideways and skid. In order to prevent skid in a turn, the ailerons are used to bank the airplane.

RUDDER VATORS Movable control surfaces on a V-tail a/c that are controlled by both the rudder pedal and control yoke. When the yoke is moved in and out,the ruddervators move together and acts as rudder.

AUXILLARY CONTROLS

AUXILLARY OR TRIM CONTROLS


TRIM TABS SMALL MOVEABLE PORTION OF THE TE OF A CONTROL SURFACE. THEY ARE CONTROLLED FROM TH E COCKPIT TO ALTER THE CAMBER OF THE SURFACE AND CREATE AN AERODYNAMIC FORCE THAT WILL HOLD THE CS DEFLECTED. THEY CAN BE INSTALLED ON ANY PRIMARY CS. NORMALLY ON THE ELEVATOR, TO PERMIT ADJUST MENT OF THE TAIL LOAD SO THAT A/C CAN BE FLOWN HANDS OFF AT ANY GIVEN SPEED.

BALANCE TABS

IT IS USED TO DECREASE EXCESSIVELY HIGH CONTROL FORCES IN SOME A/C. LOC IN THE SAME PLACE AS TRIM TAB. CONTROL ROD IS CONNECTED TO THE FIXED SURFACE ON THE SAME SIDE AS THE HORN ON THE TAB. IF THE CONTROL SURFACE IS DEFLECTED UPWARD, THE CONNECTING LINKAGE WILL PULL THE TAB DOWN. WHEN TAB MOVES IN OPP DIRECTION OF THE CONTROL SURFACE, IT WILL CREATE A AERODYNAMIC FORCE THAT AIDS THE MOVEMENT OF CONTROL SURFACE.

SERVO TABS

LARGE A/C USE HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS TO OPERATE CONTROL SURFACES . AN ARTIFICIAL FEEL SYS GIVES RESISTANCE TO PILOT WHICH IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE FLIGHT LOADS ON THE CONTROL SURFACES. IN CASE OF HYDRAULIC SYS FAILURE, THE CONTROL SURFACES ARE CONTROLLED BY SERVO-TABS. (MANUAL REVERSION) IN MANUAL MODE, THE FLT CONTROL COLUMN MOVES THE TAB ON CONTROL SURFACE, AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES CAUSED BY DEFLECTED TAB MOVE THE MAIN CONTROL SURFACE.

SPRING TABS

IT AIDS THE PILOT OF HIGH SPEED A/C.

CONTROL HORN IS FREE TO PIVOT ON THE HINGE AXIS OF CONTROL SURFACE, BUT IS RESTRAINED BY A SPRING.
WHEN CONTROL FORCES ARE LIGHT, SPRING IS NOT EXTENDED, THE HORN ACTS AS A RIGID LINK. AT HIGH SPEED WHEN CONTROL SURFACES ARE TOO HIGH, THE SPRING EXTENDS AND THE CONTROL HORN DEFLECTS THE TAB TO PRODUCE AN AERODYNAMIC FORCE THAT AIDS THE PILOT.

GROUND ADJUSTABLE TABS MANY SMALL AIRPLANES HAVE A NON-MOVABLE METAL TRIM TABS ON THE RUDDER. THE TAB IS ADJUSTED ON GROUND TO APPLY A TRIM FORCE TO THE RUDDER. THE CORRECT ADJUSTMENT IS WHEN THE A/C IS NO LONGER SKIDDING LEFT OR RIGHT DURING CRUISING FLIGHT.

SECONDARY CONTROLS

LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES


LIFT MOD DEVICES GIVE US SOME GOOD COMPROMISE BETWEEN HIGH CRUISING SPEED AND LOW LANDING SPEED AS THEY CAN BE DEPLOY WHEN NEEDED. FLAPS :- MOST COMMONLY USED LIFT MOD DEVICES ON TE THESE SURFACES CHANGE THE CAMBER OF WING. INCREASING LIFT TO DRAG FOR GIVEN AOA. PLAIN FLAPS MERELY SECTIONS OF THE TE OF THE WING, INBOARD IN THE AILERONS. THEY ARE OF SAME SIZE OF AILERON AND ARE HINGED SO THEY CAN BE DEFLECTED, USUALLY IN MOMENT OF 10,25 AND 40 DEGREE. EFFECT IS MINIMUM, HARDLY USED ON MODERN PLANES.

SPLIT FLAPS A PORTION OF THE LOWER SURFACE OF THE TRAILING EDGE OF THE WING FROM ONE AILERON TO THE OTHER, COULD BE HINGED DOWN IN TO THE AIRSTRAEM. LIFT CHANGES ARE SIMILAR TO THAT OF PLAIN FLAPS. SLOTTED FLAPS MOST COMMONLY USED. THE LIFT COEFFICIENT INCREASE MUCH MORE AS COMPARED TO PLAIN FLAPS. WHEN THE FLAP IS LOWERED, THERE IS A TENDENCY FOR THE AIRFLOW TO BREAK FROM ITS SURFACE, AIR FROM THE HIGH PRESSURE AREA BELOW THE WING FLOWS UP THROUGH THE SLOT AND BLOWS BACK OVER THE TOP OF THE FLAP. THIS HIGH ENERGY FLOW PULLS AIR DOWN AND PREVENTS FLAP STALLING. LARGE A/C USE DOUBLE/ TRIPLE SLOTTED FLAPS TO ALLOW MAXIMUM INCRAESE IN DRAG WITHOUT AIRFLOW SEPERATION AND DESTROY ANY LIFT THEY PRODUCE.

FOWLER FLAP

THEY ARE TYPE OF SLOTTED FLAP. IT CHANGES THE CAMBER OF WING AND ALSO THE WING SURFACE AREA, THEREBY INCREASING LIFT INSTEAD OF ROTATING DOWN ON A HINGE, IT SLIDES BACKWARDS ON TRACKS. IT INCREASE THE DRAG VARY LITTLE, BUT INCREASING THE LIFT A GREAT DEAL AS IT INCREASE BOTH THE AREA AND CAMBER. AS THE EXTENSION CONTINUE, THE FLAPS DEFLECTS DOWNWARDS AND DURING THE LAST PORTION OF ITS TRAVEL, IT INCREASE THE DRAG WITH LITTLE INCREASE IN LIFT.

LEADING EDGE DEVICES

WHEN ENERGY IN THE AIR FLOWING OVER THE WING CAN NO LONGER PULL AIR DOWN TO THE SURFACE, STALLING OCCURES . SEPERATION CAN BE DELAYED TO A HIGHER ANGLE OF ATTACK BY RE-ENERGIZING THE AIR. A SLOT i.e. A DUCT IN THE LE FOR AIR TO FLOW FROM BELOW TO TOP IN A HIGH VOLUME STREAM. IS UTILIZED FOR DELAYING STALLING. IT IS ALSO USED AHEAD OF THE AILERON TO KEEP THE OUTER PORTION OF WING FLYING AFTER ROOT HAS STALLED, THIS KEEPS THE AILERON EFFECTIVE AND PROVIDES LATERAL CONTROL DURING MOST OF THE STALL.

SLATS
MANY HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRPLANES HAVE A PORTION OF WING LE MTD ON TRACKS TO CREAT DUCT. AS THE AOA INCREASE, THE LOW PRESS JUST BEHIND THE LE ON TOP OF WING INCREASE AND PULLS THE SLAT OUT OF WING. WHEN SLAT MOVES, IT DUCTS AIR FROM HIGH PRESS BELOW TO THE UPPER SURFACE AND INCREASE VOLUME OF THE AIR IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER. THESE SLATS PREVENTS THE AIRFLOW BREAKING WAY FROM UPPER SURAFCE WHEN THE TE FLAPS INCREASE THE CAMBER OF THE WING.

LEADING EDGE FLAPS

THEY MAY BE DEFLECTED DOWNWARDS TO INCREASE THE CAMBER OF WING. THEY ARE ELECTRICALLY OR HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED . UED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE TE FLAPS.

SPECIAL WING TIPS


AIR FLOWING OVER THE TOP OF A WING CREATES A LOW PRESSUERE, WHILE THE AIR PASSING BELOW CREATS HIGH PRESSURE.
THIS DIFFERENCE IN PRESSURE CAUSES AIR TO SPILL OVER THE WING TIP AND CREAT VORTICES THAT EFFECTIVELY KILL SOMEOF THE LIFT AND CREATEDRAG, ESPECIALLY AT HIGH AOA AND LOW AIRSPEED.

METHODS TO REDUCE
TIP FUEL TANKS

WINGLETS.

STALL STRIPS
IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WING STALL AT THE ROOT JUST SO THAT AILERON WILL STILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE LATERAL CONTROL THROUGH OUT STALL. IT CAN BE DONE BY INSTALLING SMALL TRIANGULAR STRIPS ON LE OF THE WING IN ROOT AREA. WHEN AOA IS INCREADED ENOUGH FOR STALL TO OCCUR, THE STRIPS PROVIDES ENOUGH AIR DISTURBANCE TO HASTEN THE STALL ON SECTION OF WING BEHIND THEM. THIS LESS OF LIFT WILL DIP THE NOSE OF A/C WHILE OUTER PORTION OF WING IS STILL FLYING AND AILERONS ARE EFFECTIVE.

THIS WILL CAUSE VIBRATION AND GIVE FEELING TO PILOT OF IMPEDING STALL.

SPOILERS
ARE CONTROL DEVICES THAT DESTROY LIFT BY DISRUPTING THE AIRFLOW OVER AIR PORTION OF THE WING. SIMPLE STRUCTURAL SLABS. WHEN OPERATED BY THE PILOT, THEY SWING UPWARD IN TO THE AIR STREAM, THEREBY REDUCING LIFT ON A PORTION OF WING, THEREBY ALLOWING INCRESED ROD, WHILE STILL MAINTAINING SPEED AND DIRECTION CONTROL.

WHEN RETRACTED, THEY FOLD DOWN TO ELIMINATE THE DISRUPTED AIR FLOW AND DRAG.
TPT A/C USE SPOILERS AS A PART OF SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM IN AID TO AILERONS, TO RELIEVE CONTROL PRESSURE AND TO INCREASE OR DECREASE LIFT. ALSO USED AS SPEED BRAKES BY INCREASED PARASITIC DRAG. ON GROUND USED TO INCREASE BRAKING EFFICIENCY

VORTEX GENERATORS
STALLS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH AOA BUT SHOCK INDUCED STALL OCCURS DUE TO CRITICAL MACH NUMBER. A SHOCKWAVE TYPICALLY FIRST FORMS ON THE UPPER CAMBER OF THE WING AND TENDS TO OSCILLATE BACK AND FORTH RESULTING IN SEPARATION OF FLOW. LOW ASPECT RATIO AIR FOILS ARRANGED IN PAIRS AT THE POINT WHERE SEPERATION IS LIKELY TO OCCUR. THE TIP VORTICES OF THESE AIR FOILS PULLS HIGH ENERGY AIR DOWN IN TO THE BOUNDARY LAYER, PREVENTING SEPARATION.

AIRCRAFT STATION NUMBERS


IN THE SERVICE , MAINTAINANCE AND REPAIRS OF AN AIRCRAFT, IT IS NECESSARY TO ESTABLISH A METHOD OF LOCATING COMPONENT OR REFERENCE PTS ON THE A/C.THIS IS ACCOMPALISHED BY ESTABLISHING REFERENCE LINES AND STATION NUMBERS FOR THE FUSELAGE , WINGS , NACELLES, EMPENNAGE AND LANDING GEARS. FOR LARGE TRANSPORT A/C ATA(AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA) HAS SET FORTH ZONING SPACIFICATIONS. FUSELAGE STATIONS: LONGITUDINAL POINTS ALONG THE FUSELAGE OF AN AIRPLANE ARE DETERMINED BY REFERENCE TO A ZERO DATUM LINE (FS 0.00) USUALLY AT OR NEAR THE FORWARD POSITION OF FUSELAGE. THE POSITION OF DATUM LINE IS SET FORTH IN THE TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET OR AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE AIRPLANE AND ALSO IN THE MANUFACTURERS DATA. STATION NUMBERS ARE GENERALLY GIVEN IN INCHES FWD OR AFT OF THE DATUME LINE. FUSELAGE STATIONS NUMBERS FORWARD OF THE DATUME LINE ARE VE AND STATION NUMBERS AFT OF THE DETUMLINE ARE +VE.

WING STATION(WS) : - TO LOCATE POINT ON THE WING OF AN AEROPLANE, THE WING STATION (WS) NUMBERS ARE MEASURED FROM THE CENTRE LINE OF THE FUSELAGE WHICH IS ALSO CALLED THE BUTT LINE (BL). WING STATION ARE INDICATED IN INCHES EITHER RIGHT OR THE LEFT OF THE FUSELAGE CENTRE LINE. WATER LINE:-

THE WATER LINE (WL) IS A LINE ESTABLISHED FOR LOCATING THE STATIONS ON A VERTICAL LINE .
VERTICAL MEASURMENT ON AN AIRPLANE MAY BE EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE , DEPENDING UPON WETHER THE POINT IS ABOVE OR BELOW THE WATER LINE. WL STATIONS ARE USED TO LOCATE POSITION ON THE LANDING GEAR , VERTICAL STBLISER AND AT ANY OTHER POINT AT WHICH IT IS NECESSARY TO LOCATE A VERTICAL DISTANCE.

BUTT LINE(BL):THE BUTT LINE IS THE CENTERLINE OF THE FUSELAGE. POSITION ON THE HORIZONTAL STABLISHER AND ELEVATOR ARE GIVEN BUTT LINE STATION NUMBERS. COMPONENT STATIONS:SOME A/C COMPONENTS ARE GIVEN THEIR OWN STATON REFERENCE LINE e.g.AN AILERON MAY HAVE AILERON STATION ESTABLISHED ACROSS ITS SPAN STARTING WITH AILERON STATION(AS)0.00 LOCATED AT THE INBOARD EDGE OF THE AILERON . POSITIONS OUT BOARD OF THE INBOARD STATIONS ARE INDICATED IN INCHES. OTHER EXAMPLES MAY INCLUDE ENGINE STATIONS , AND VERTICAL STABILZER / RUDDER STATIONS. NACELLE BUTT LINE(NBL):IT IS ESTABLISHED AT THE CENTERE LINE OF THE NACELLE FOR LOCATING POSITION IN THE NACELLE.

ZONING:-

A ZONE IS IDENTIFIED BY ONE OF THE THREE INDICATORS:1. MAJOR ZONE, 2. MAJOR SUB ZONE , 3. SIMPLE ZONE. MAJOR ZONE ARE IDENTIFIED BY THRE DIGIT NUMBERS e.g. 100,200,300 MAJOR ZONE ARE DIVIDED INTO MAJOR SUB ZONE BY THE ADDITION OF THE SECOND NON ZERO DIGIT TO A MAJOR ZONE NUMBER e.g. THE 300 MAY BE SUB ZONED IN TO SUBZONES 310,320,330.etc. SUBZONES ARE DIVIDED BY THE USE OF A THIRD NON ZERO DIGIT IN THREE DIGIT NUMBERS, THE SUB ZONE 320 MAY BE DIVIDED IN TO ZONES 321,322,323,etc. BY REFERING TO ZONE NUMBER ON THE INSTRUCTIONS THE TTECHNICIAN CAN EASILY LOCATE THE AREA IN WHICH INSP OR MAINT IS TO BE DONE.