ZTE WCDMA Radio Network Optimization Introduction

ZTE University
TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Contents

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

WCDMA radio network optimization process and technology WCDMA radio network optimization software

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Let’s start from the following aspects to understand network optimization:
 What is network optimization?  Service concept of network planning and optimization  Reasons for network optimization  Types of network optimization

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

What is Network Optimization?

Radio network optimization refers to a rational adjustment process on radio communication network planning and design by means of various optimization measures.

Via optimization, network coverage can be improved, network capacity can be expanded, network QoS and network resource utilization enhanced, so that networks will be running more reliably and more economically.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Service Concept of Network Planning and Optimization
A top-notch network is demanded by customers, started from planning, improved during the process and gets its heyday via optimization

Coverage

Network capacity

Operator revenue

Quality of service

¥

Operation cost

Q

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Cause of Network Optimization

The network quality cannot meet the planning design requirements. This generally occurs during the early stage of network construction, in which the network coverage and interference may not reach the requirement standard. The network environment has changed. For example, the increase of voice and data subscribers results in the deterioration of network performance; the actual environment of the city has changed, which deteriorates the network coverage in some areas. When the change of the network environment makes the original designed network unable to meet the requirements of the current environment, the network need be optimized and adjusted and suggests for subsequent network capacity expansion shall be put forward.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Types of Network Optimization

In different stages of UMTS network construction, the objectives of network optimization are also different from each other.

Depending on the time segment, work objectives and work content of its implementation, optimization can be divided into Engineering Optimization and operation/maintenance optimization .

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Classification of Network Optimization

Engineering optimization
 Engineering optimization refers to the network optimization

conducted after the completion of network construction and before
the number allocation. Its major purpose to enable the network to work normally and ensure that the network can fulfill the planned coverage and interference objectives.
 The major work contents of Engineering Optimization include:
 Eliminating the hardware fault of the system  Checking whether the cell configuration is consistent with the planned

objective of the network (Longitude, Latitude, Azimuth, Down tilt,
Connection, Lac, RAC, CI, antenna height, etc )

 Making the coverage and interference reach a satisfactory level

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Classification of Network Optimization

Operation and maintenance optimization
 Operation and Maintenance (O&M) optimization indicates to

improve the network quality and customer’s degree of satisfaction through optimization during the operation of the network.
 It includes three parts of contents:
 Routine maintenance  Stage optimization

 Network operation analysis

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization

At different stages of UMTS network construction, the objectives of network optimization are also different. .

The objectives of (Pre-launch) Engineering Optimization include:
 Enabling the network to work normally  Issues deserving attention: coverage function and

interference

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization

Eliminate the hardware fault of the system:
 It is very important to eliminate any hardware fault from the

system.
 Generally hardware faults are eliminated according to the

division of base station cluster.
 The elimination of hardware faults is the responsibility of the

equipment supplier.
 However, it is also very important for the operator to

understand the process of hardware fault elimination and obtain the ability for checking the equipment.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization

Check the cell configuration:
 Whether the site is in the correct position  Whether the type of the antenna is correct  Whether the installation height, direction angle and

downward tilt angle are all deployed according to the planned solution
 Whether the type of the feeder is correct and whether its

length is appropriate
 Whether parameters (such as common channel power) of

the cell are consistent with the planned parameters.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization
 

Objectives for coverage and interference optimization Typical threshold:
 The intensity of the pilot received in 95% of the coverage

area is greater than -89dBm (in dense urban areas) or 94dBm (in general urban area).
 The pilot Ec/Io measured in 95% of the coverage area is

greater than -10dB.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization

Steps for improving the coverage:
 Conduct drive test and collect the drive test data.  Analyze the drive test data to determine the holes of the

coverage.
 Assess the seriousness of the coverage holes and order

them according to the priority.
 Solve the coverage problems according to the priority till the

objective of the coverage optimization is fulfilled.

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

Engineering Optimization

Steps for improving the interference:
 Determine the areas where the pilot Ec/Io is lower than the

threshold.
 Check the pilot level in these areas (which may have more than 3

pilots).
 From the pilots received in these areas, find the pilots unexpected

(these pilots come from the cells that are not designed to provide coverage for these areas).
 Reduce the intensity of these “unexpected” pilots (generally by

increasing the downward tilt). Pay attention to the influence resulting therefrom on the coverage within the service range of the cell (the influence can be checked with the planning tool).

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

O&M Optimization

Objectives of post-launch o&m optimization:
 Improving the QoS  Increasing the system capacity  Increasing the coverage range of the service (for example,

increasing the coverage range of high-speed data service)
 Providing better service for hot-spot areas  Maximizing the return of the investment

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

O&M Optimization

The major work contents of the post-launch O&M Optimization include:
 Adding base station  Further sectorizing existing base station  Optimizing the parameters  Reducing the interference  Using more than 1 carriers  Implementing the layered cell structure  Providing the solution for indoor coverage

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

O&M Optimization

Network operation analysis is suitable for a network in formal operation. OMC performance statistic data can be extracted and analyzed periodically, possible equipment and network problems can be analyzed and then network operation analysis report can be submitted to provide a reference for the customer’s network adjustment and optimization. Start

Retrieve background data OMC engineer

Background statistics data

Flow for network operation analysis
Analyze data and network performance Optimizing engineer Network running analysis report

End

Contents
Basic knowledge about WCDMA radio network optimization
WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique WCDMA radio network optimization software

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Optimization Flow
Start Simulation/planning report Preliminary setup Frequency spectrum scan Optimization project plan

Calibration test

Network data collection Data analysis Parameter check Problem locate Making optimization plan Optimizing adjustment plan Optimizing adjustment record Network evaluation report

Carrying out optimization plan Optimization verification Network performance meets the requirements?

Optimization project acceptance

Network optimization report

Data archive End

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Preparations

Analyzing the Requirements
 Understand the coverage and capacity requirements.

 Confirm the setting of the optimization test parameters. (Parameters of test
equipment, and test means)

 Confirm the work division interface with the customer.  Confirm the acceptance standard of each item.

Drawing the work plan
 The work plan should be drawn according to such conditions as the

network scale, human and equipment resources as well as the customer’s objective and requirement for the network optimization. Then output the

Optimization Plan for WCDMA Radio Network in XX Service Area.

A perfect work plan is the guarantee for the smooth implementation of network optimization and can also be used to monitor the optimization progress.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Preparations

Collecting and investigating materials
 Obtain the WCDMA Radio Network Simulation Report in XX Service Area

and WCDMA Radio Network Planning Report in XX Service Area at the network planning stage.
 Obtain the site information, antenna feeder information and the setting of

the system parameters in the current network.
 Know the problems in the current network.

Preparing optimization tool
 DT tools are the basic tools for network optimization test. They include DT

software, test mobile phone, receiver and GPS. Besides, some DT equipment requires a dual-serial-port card.
 Possible signaling analyzer need be used for signaling tracing and locating.

If interference test need be conduct, device such as spectrum analyzer may be required; If the engineering parameters need be adjusted, then devices such as compass may be used.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Spectrum Scanning (Optional)

Spectrum scanning
 With the authorization from the

customer, scan and confirm the
frequencies used by the network at present in the optimization area to ensure that the frequencies are clean and available.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Calibration Test (Optional)

Calibration test
 Calibration test of vehicle-mounted antenna  Calibration test of the external antenna of the test mobile

phone
 Test of the average penetration loss of the vehicle body  Test of building loss

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Collection of Network Data

Source of network optimization data:
 DT data
 CQT data  OMC performance statistic data

 User complaint information
 Alarm information  Other data

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Parameter Requirement for Data Collection
 Only under the same load condition and on the same paging mode, can the comparison be carried out between the network evaluations. Therefore, you should firstly understand the parameter selection of the network data.
The loads in the network evaluation test can be divided into types: on busy, with load and without load (or light load). For the network in running and with large number assignment, the “on busy” evaluation is adopted; for the newly created network, the “with load” or “without load” evaluation is adopted.

 In terms of call duration, the call modes can be divided into continuous long call and periodic call. The difference between this two call modes is the duration. The call duration for the continuous long call is as long as possible, while that for the periodic call is fixed (the duration is determined by the real situation. The times of periodic call reflects the processing capability and the result is closer to the user’s usage, while the continuous long time call reflects the system’s handover capability.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

Drive Test (DT) refers to the process to move along a selected path in the coverage area and then record various test data and

location information through DT equipment. The items in CS
service DT assessment include coverage rate, call success rate, call drop rate, conversation quality and handover success rate.

The major items in PS service DT assessment include PDP
context activation success rate and the average uplink/downlink transmission rate.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

The DT data to be collected includes:
 Ec/Io, Pilot Power, UE TX Power, Neighbours, Call

Success/Drops and Handover statistics; FER/BLER, Delay

DT devices include: Scanner, test mobile phone, DT software and GPS. As for the on-site test software, the special test software for WCDMA radio network optimization ZXPOS CNT1(UMTS Edition) can be adopted.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

Both scanner and test mobile phone can be used for network data collection. However they are different from each other in some way.

 Scanner is used for to collect complete radio network information, and implement pilot analysis test and spectrum analysis test.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

 Test mobile phone is used to understand the use situation of the users and collect the downlink information on the network. It implements the following functions: Collecting the measurement data of the mobile phone, including pilot power, Ec/Io, UE Tx power, neighbor cells, RSSI and FER/BLER. Call class event and performance statistics: including the statistics of call drop rate, blocking rate, call success rate, handover success rate, voice service quality and data service rate. Collecting the signaling of air interface: decoding L3 messages such as access, paging, synchronization and downlink/uplink service messages.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

DT Principles
 WCDMA system is a self-interference system. On different

network load conditions, the DT result will also be different. Thus, before the test the network load need be confirmed.
 An appropriate test time need be selected according to the

load selection of different networks.
 Based on the area that the test path belongs to, DT can be

divided into urban DT and artery DT.
 The test conditions shall be kept consistent for tests

conducted before and after the optimization.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

Selection of test path
 Radial path and ring path shall be selected as the DT path.  The radial path can reflect the variation of the signal quality

according to the change of the base station distance.
 The ring path can provide the prediction of the signal quality in

different directions of the base station.
 During the optimization test, generally three test paths need be

defined for each base station cluster. Besides, the test paths before and after the optimization shall be kept consistent.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data

Consistency requirement for test conditions
 The same test tool and parameter setting shall be adopted before and

after the optimization whenever possible.
 The same test antenna and feeder shall be adopted before and after the

optimization.
 The same analyzers shall be sent to process the data.
 The test path shall be selected before and after the optimization.  To guarantee the consistency of the UE movement speed, the distance-

based sampling mode instead of time-based sampling mode is adopted for sampling the data. The DT tool cannot sample data in the distance-based mode, data collected can be paused when the vehicle stops in the case of red light.
 Check whether the loaded test is conducted in the test area. Ensure that

the test is conducted at the same time segment in each day to obtain the basically the same network load conditions.
 Conduct the test in the same period.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection- DT Data
 Features of DT data
 Including the geographical location information

 Subject to the restriction of selected test path, which influences the accuracy of the test result

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-CQT Data
CQT refers to the fixed-point test conducted at important places in the coverage area.

    

Scenic spot, airport, railway station, bus station and port Important hotels (star-level hotels) Catering and entertainment sites, large shopping malls Important residential communities and office areas Other important areas

Conduct the CQT at a fixed places and record various data at each place. At each test place several calls shall be originated. Fixed-point CQT includes CS service test and PS service test. The specific test contents are related to the customer’s requirement and shall be determined according to the actual situation.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-CQT Data
 CQT principles
 Test time requirement  The following factors shall be considered during the selection of test site: The traffic of the area where the test point is located: for a network in formal operation, generally a site with large traffic shall be selected. Geographical sector of the area where the test site is located: 80% of the test sites shall be indoor while 20% shall be outdoor. Besides, the sites shall be geographically distributed evenly. Radio environment of the area where the test site is located: a place where repeater or indoor distribution system is installed shall be preferred as the test site.

Areas where there may be network problems: areas that may become coverage blind areas, for example, street canyons between high buildings or places in areas with multiple carriers

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-CQT Data
 Features of CQT data
 Including geographical location information

 Subject to the restriction of the selected test path, which influences the accuracy of the test result

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-OMC Performance Statistic Data
Concept
 The extraction of OMC performance statistic data is suitable for a network that has already been commercially applied on a large scale. The data are objective and abundant and reflect the operation quality of the whole network from the point of view of statistics. The network performance index obtained in this way can be used as the most important basis for evaluate the network performance.  The counter value required for calculating the network KPI can be extracted flexibly. Besides, the statistics can be conducted flexibly according to different statistic range, or performance statistics table can be made according to the customer’s requirement.

Extractio n

 Based on the statistics of large amount of sampling data, the background NMS reflects the operation quality of the network under its management.

Features

 The statistic range varies from one another. In some cases the statistic unit is RNC and in other cases the unit is logic cell.  Counters for calculating various network performance indices are provided.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-User Complaint Information
As the end user of the network service, ordinary user has more direct experience of the network performance.


 

The user complaint information most directly reflects the disadvantage of the network. Users are most concerned with the problems included in the complaints, which need be solved as soon as possible. The complaint includes geographical location information. Generally the problems complained include poor signal coverage quality, difficulty for call completion and frequent call drop.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-Alarm Information

Alarm information includes the alarm information of the RNC, Node B and CN background NMS.

It reflects the abnormal or near-abnormal status in equipment use or network operation. During network optimization, the alarm information deserves close attention and need be viewed periodically, so that warning information or problems can be found in time to avoid the occurrence of accident.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Data Collection-Other Data

In addition to the data listed above, there are data obtained through the signaling analysis system, network flow test system and voice quality assessment system.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis

Data analysis indicates to make clear the network operation quality, assess the network performance, find and locating the possible network problems and provide suggestions for network optimization by analyzing the DT data, CQT data, OMC performance statistic data, user complaint information and alarm information.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis- DT Data
 Conduct geographical analysis, DT data table analysis, graphical analysis, userdefined event analysis and statistic analysis for the network data collected through signal receiver and test mobile phone.  The major network indices obtained through DT data analysis include:

CS domain service: including coverage rate, call success rate, call drop
rate and handover rate

PS domain service: PDP content activation success rate, downlink/uplink average transmission rate

By analyzing these indices with reference the test conditions, we can basically know the coverage holes, interference and pilot solution of the network.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis- DT Data
 ZXPOS CNA1(UMTS Edition) is a special analysis software for WCDMA radio network optimization. Based on the DT data and other auxiliary data, it can conduct several kinds of intelligent analysis for the radio network to locate the network problems quickly and accurately and implement network optimization.

Geographical Analysis

Electronic Table Analysis

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis- DT Data

Graphical Analysis

User-defined Event Analysis

Statistic Analysis

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-CQT Data
Adopt special network optimization analysis software ZXPOS CNA1(UMTS Edition) to analyze the CQT test data. The items to be analyzed include:
     Call event analysis Delay analysis User-defined event analysis Geographical analysis of events Geographical analysis of delay Analysis of various statistic indices

 CQT data analysis be used to obtain the call success rate, call drop rate, call delay, conversation quality and average rate of data service. Base on this, we can know the indoor coverage and interference of the network in the selected area.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-CQT Data

Call success rate

 Call success rate =[number of successful calls /the total number of calls]×100%

Call drop rate

 Call drop rate =[number of call drop times/total number of successful calls]×100%

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-CQT Data

 Average call delay
WCDMA network optimization analysis software ZXPOS CNA1 can be used for the statistic analysis of the average call delay. It is also the statistics of the average interval between the time the calling terminal receives the Alerting signaling directly transmitted by the CN and the time when the calling terminal sends the first RRC Connection Request.

As different network load will result in different radio environment quality, there will also great difference in random access delay. Therefore, the statistics of the average call delay is conducted on the base of network load.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data

OMC performance statistic data analysis can generate the General Performance Index (GPI) and Key Performance Index (KPI) of the radio network. They are important data for assessing the network performance.

Through the analysis of OMC performance statistic data, the area where the problem has occurred can be directly located on the OMC platform. This helps accurately locate the problem..

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data

Indices that reflect the resources utilization include: ratio of worse cells, ratio of over busy cells, ratio of over idle cells and

utility of cell code resources.

Indices extracted from the OMC background also include other indices that reflect network operation quality: access success

rate, call success rate, call drop rate and call delay.

Indices that reflect system handover performance (handover success rate) include: softer handover success rate,, cross-lur

interface software handover success rate, hard handover
success rate and inter-system handover success rate.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data
 Rate of worst cells
Index description

Worst cell refers to a cell whose service call drop rate is greater than a% or whose service congestion rate is greater than b% in the case of a given traffic. The ratio of worst cells refers to the percentage of the number of worst cells among the total number of available cells in the system.
Calculating formula

Ratio of worst cells = the total number of worst cells /number of available cells * 100%

The total number of worst cells refers to the number of cells whose service drop rate is greater than a% or whose service congestion rate is greater than b%. a% and b% can set in the

configuration. The total number of available cells refer to the number of available cells in the
system at present.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data
 Ratio of over busy cells
Index description
Over busy cell refers to a cell where the utility of carrier transmitting power is greater than c%. The ratio of over busy cells is the percentage of the over busy cells in the total number of cells.

Calculating formula

Ratio of over busy cells = total number of over busy cells /total number of available cells *100%

The total number of over busy cells refers to the number of cells where the utility of the carrier transmitting power is greater than c%, in which c% can be set during the configuration. The total number of cells refer to the number of available cells in the system at present.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data

 Soft handover success rate
Index description
Soft handover occurs between different NodeBs, while the diversity signals are selectively combined at
the RNC. The soft handover success rate reflects the mobility performance of the system and can be indirectly felt by the user.

Calculating formula

Soft handover success rate =number of active update completion times /number of active update times *100%

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data

 Softer handover success rate
Index description
Softer handover occurs between different cells in the same NodeB, while the diversity signals are
combined based on the maximum gain rate at the RNC. The softer handover success rate reflects the mobility performance of the system and can be indirectly felt by the user.

Calculating formula

Softer handover success rate = number of successful softer handover times /number of softer handover attempts *100%

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data
 Access success rate
Index description
Access success rate (RRC connection success rate) reflects the UE access ability of the radio network. Successful RRC connection means that the UE has established signaling connection with the RNC. This index is also important for measuring the call completion rate and is included in the latter. It will influence the call success rate and can be directly felt by the user.

Calculating formula

Access success rate = number of RRC connection success times / RRC connection attempts* 100%

Here the influence of the retransmission is omitted.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data
 RAB connection success rate
Index description  RRC connection success means that the UE has established signaling connection with the network, which is the first step for establishing call connection. On the other hand, RAB connection success means that user plane connection has been successfully allocated to the user (RAB refers to the user plane bearer and is used to transmit voice, data and multimedia services between UE and CN). It is the last step for establishing call connection.  RAB connection success rate is a performance index that can be directly felt by the

user. It can be divided into CS domain RAB connection success rate and PS domain
RAB connection success rate. Besides, each of the two types can be further divided according to the specific services.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-OMC Performance Statistic Data

 Formula for calculating RAB connection success rate
CS domain RAB connection success rate = number of CS domain successful RAB connection times /number of CS domain RAB connection attempts×100% PS domain RAB connection success rate = number of PS domain successful RAB connection times /number of PS domain RAB connection attempts ×100%
RAB connection success rate =(number of CS domain successful RAB connection times + number of PS domain successful RAB connection times ) /(number of CS domain RAB connection attempts + number of PS domain RAB connection attempts )×100%

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-User Complaint Information
As the end user of the network service, ordinary users can feel the network performance most directly. Due to the diversity and individuality of each problem described by the user, the user complaint data involve not only the base station side, but also the billing system and transmission system. Therefore, the complain data need be carefully identified to find the data that can actually reflect the network status.

The user complaint can directly reflect the problem phenomena and geographical information. From the complaint the following information can be collated out:

Area of poor signal coverage Area of low call success rate Area of high call drop rate Area of poor conversation quality

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis-Alarm Information

Alarm information includes a large amount of abnormal warning information during network operation. It can help the optimization engineer to quickly locate the problem and find the direction and method for solving the problem. Besides, OMC performance statistic indices may also be abnormal. When the relation between the OMC performance statistic indices and the relevant alarm information is found, it will greatly help locate the network fault and solve the problems.

 If it can be determined from the alarm information that the problem lies in the base station (for example, alarm for standing wave ratio), then the faulty base station should be checked and trouble-shooting should be conducted for the equipment.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Data Analysis- Other Data

Other data include the data obtained through the signaling analysis system, network flow test system and voice quality assessment system.

By tracing the signaling of such network interfaces of the network as Uu, Iub and Iur interfaces, we conduct statistics of the signal traffic and message of each interface, find the abnormal signaling flow; with reference to other statistic data, we can locate the fault more accurately and can find various problems that are generaly difficult to find and eliminate potential faults.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods

Common optimization analysis methods include:
 Multi-dimensional analysis  Tendency analysis  Accident analysis  Comparative analysis  Grading analysis  Cause and influence analysis

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods

 Multi-dimensional analysis
 “Dimension” here refers to the standing point of problem handling and the direction problem solution.  The data can be analyzed from several different angles and the combinations of them.

For example: to solve the call drop problem, we shall not only pay attention to drop, but also handover and access problems.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods
 Tendency analysis
 Analyze the tendency of the change according to the change of time from the angle of time sequence and find the regularities.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods
 Accident analysis
 Find abnormal data such as over-high /over-low data and too drastic change
from a large amount of data and, and find the data of the cause.

The call drop rate is abnormally high. We should check whether there is problems in this time segment.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods
 Comparative analysis
 It indices to compare different data sets from the same view and find the difference. If necessary, we can further find cause of the difference. This method is generally used in signaling flow analysis.

 Grading analysis
 Find the Top N and Bottom N data from a large amount of data according to a certain classification method. These data deserve special attention, for example, the common worst cell method.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Common Analysis Methods

 Cause and influence analysis
 Find the influence factors from a large amount of data for a specific
result already generated and analyze the importance of the different factors and or their combinations.

Each method has its orientation and restriction for problem analysis. Thus, it is difficult to only use a single method to locate a specific equipment problem parameter configuration problem (including engineering parameter and radio parameter) and network resources utility problem. Instead, the above analysis methods shall be combined and used together.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Network Assement
 First summarize the network test and analysis conducted at the early stage and output the WCDMA Radio Network Assessment Report in XX Service Area.  The comprehensive score of the network assessment shall be obtained by weighting and summating the DT score, CQT score and OMC background index score.  The assessment is used to discover the problems in the network, provide guide for the network optimization at the next stage and facilitate the comparison of the performance before and after the network optimization.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Parameter Check (Optional)
Data analysis can help find bad indices in the network. If it is found that the parameter
configuration is unreasonable and influences the network performance, the parameter configuration of the abnormal base station must be checked. The contents of the check include:

 Check the base station
 Check whether the base station is in the correct location, whether the type of the antenna is correct, whether the height, direction angle and downward tilt of the antenna are consistent with the planned solution, whether the type of the feeder is correct and the length is appropriate and whether the standing wave ratio of the antenna feeder is appropriate.  Check whether the radio configuration parameter of the cell is consistent with the planned value.  Check the relevant configuration parameters of the voice service and data service.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Problem Locating

The problems of radio network are found in the following major aspects:
 Equipment software and hardware problems  Engineering parameter problem  Radio parameter problem  Network capacity problem

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Making Optimization Solution

The major adjustment policies for network optimization includes:
 Adjust the software and hardware of the equipment.  If software problem is found through parameter check, the software version shall be confirmed and updated in time. Hardware problem is generally board fault, in which case the faulty board need be replaced by a normal one.

 Adjust the network engineering parameters.  This includes the adjustment of the direction angle, downward tilt angle, height and location of the antenna. After the network construction is completed, coverage and interference problems in the pre-launch network optimization shall be solved by adjusting the network engineering parameter.
 Adjust the network radio parameters.  This includes the adjustment of the access parameter, paging parameter, power control parameter, handover parameter and search parameter.  Adjust the neighboring cell list of the system.  Optimize the neighboring cell list of the network through DT data analysis.  Capacity analysis or busy analysis.  Possible measures include cell splitting, adding cells and micro cells, RF extension and use of multiple carriers.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Carrying out Optimization Plan

If the network scale is large, the network need be divided into different base stations clusters to locate and solve the network problems in different areas. After the all base station clusters have been optimized, the global network can be optimized to solve global network problems and problems across different clusters. Then assess the performance of the global network after the optimization and verify whether the network performance indices have meet the acceptance standard and reached optimization objectives.

The cluster division principles shall be adjusted according to the actual situation, generally according to the topography of the local area. neighboring areas that have special requirements for data or voice service shall be grouped in the same cluster to facilitate optimization debugging. Besides, cluster division can also be conducted according to the problems found in the network assessment before the optimization. There shall be overlap between two neighboring clusters.

The optimization of different clusters can be implemented either parallel or serially depending on the resources and time requirement.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Optimization Verification

After the network optimization solution is implemented, it is
necessary to verify whether the network problems have been solved or whether the network performance is improved.
 To implement the optimization verification, also first collect the

network operation data and analyze the collected data.
 After the optimization solution is implemented, assess the network

performance again by analyzing the DT data, CQT data, OMC

performance statistic data, user complaint and alarm data.
 Compare the network performance indices before and after the

optimization and verify whether the network problems are solved or the network performance has met the requirement after the optimization.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Project Acceptance

Acceptance test shall be conducted for the required

network performance indices according to the contract
requirements. Contents of the test such as the test path, test point and call mode shall be set according to the

principle determined at the contract or requirement
analysis stage. In principle the customer shall participate in the acceptance test.

WCDMA radio network optimization flow and technique

Documentation Archiving

After the optimization verification and project acceptance, the network optimization report need be submitted and relevant documentations need be archived.

The network optimization report includes such contents as problem analysis, locating process, optimization measures adopted, comparison of the indices before and after the optimization, remaining problems of the network and suggestions for subsequent construction.

Contents

Basic knowledge on WCDMA radio network optimization

WCDMA radio network optimization process and technology
WCDMA radio network optimization software

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Network Optimization Software

Two sets of optimization software that reach the commercial application standard:
 ZXPOS CNT1(UMTS Edition)
 It is the special test software for WCDMA radio network optimization. It can accurately and display various kinds of network data in a real time way so that the user can know the network performance and

diagnose network faults quickly.

 ZXPOS CNA1(UMTS Edition)
 It is the special analysis tool for WCDMA radio network optimization. It is based on DT data and other auxiliary data and can conduct

various kinds of intelligent analysis for radio network to help
implement the network optimization quickly and effectively.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Major Features of CNT1

Support mobile phones that comply with the Qualcomm serial data control protocol and quickly implement the test and configuration of mobile phones. Support the simultaneous test of several mobile phones and implement independent control and display for each mobile phone. Provide convenient indoor test function: support the pre-definition and modification of the path. Powerful geographical display function: dynamically color the test parameter, display call events graphically, draw neighboring lines in real time way and support the MapInfo format and geographical display of base station information.

Support the GPS that complies with the NMEA standard and adopts RS-232 communication interface and implement GPS test and configuration quickly and intelligently.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Major Features of CNT1
Support automatic link disconnection test and recovery of equipment.
Provide powerful message analysis function, support the thorough decoding, filtration and classified display of RRC and NAS messages and able to assembly system information blocks transmitted in segments. Quickly and accurately collect mobile phone diagnostic test data and GPS positioning data, and display L1, L2 and L3 data in geographically in a dynamic-static combined way based on graphs and tables. Provide powerful service test function and support the customization of voice/data service automatic test plan; analyze the cause of voice call failure intelligently and quickly locate the problem.

Provide the data review function to read the files recorded in the test and show the test process again.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Indoor Test

Support indoor analog GPS
Support path predefinition and modification.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Geographical Display

Support the display of Best Ec/Io, Aggregated Ec/Io, UE receiving power, UE transmitting power, block error rate of the transmission channel and downlink/uplink RLC throughput along the test path. Support the display of message events. Support the immediate line connection between data point and service cell and the the immediate line connection between data point and relevant cell (the cell corresponding to the activation set).

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Display of L1 Message

 

Display the pilot information and multi-path information.
Display the uplink and downlink physical channels. Display the information about the power parameter.

Multi-path Information

Power Parameter Curve

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Display of L2 Message

   

Display the uplink/downlink transmission channels. Display the uplink/downlink logical channels. Display parameters related to RLC and MAC. Display cell reselection information. Display the information about periodical report and event-based report.

Parameters of uplink/ downlink logic channels

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Display of L3 Message

Display RRC-related parameters.
Display parameters related to NAS status and QoS.

Display of RRC Status

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Signaling Tracing

Support the decoding, filtration and capture of RRC and NAS messages.

Signaling Tracing Interface

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Voice Service Test
 

Support the customization of test plan. Support the display of the process, time and statistic information of the call, as well as the call originating, hook-on, aerial interface message and status information. Support time statistics and record in a real time way various statistic information during the CQT of voice service, including number of connection requests, call connection time, link release time and idle time.

Voice service test

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Data Service Test

Support the customization of test plan. Support the service test of traffic display of PPP, PING, FTP and HTTP. Provide traffic monitoring function at IP, TCP and UDP levels.

Data service test

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Data Review

Support the review of the test process data and re-display
the test process.

Data Review

WCDMA radio network optimization software

GPS Status Information

Support the display of GPS satellite signals.
Support the display of GPS positioning information.

GPS Status Window

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Major Analysis Parameter Items of CNA1

Receiving power, transmitting power, aggregate Ec/I0, best Ec/I0, best Ec and best PSC Pilot pollution analysis, coverage rate analysis, call drop rate analysis and handover analysis Downlink block error rate, the respective number of multiple paths of the activation set, monitoring set and check set, downlink/uplink RLC throughput and downlink/uplink PDU retransmission rate PSC scanner parameters: the corresponding Ec , Ec/Io, Io of 512 PSCs

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Basic Analysis Methods of CNA1

Geographical analysis

Graphical analysis

Electronic table analysis

User-defined event analysis

Statistic analysis

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Powerful Pilot Analysis Function -coverage coloring of a specified PSC

It includes the best coverage of the specified PSC (PSC’s Ec/Io
is best) and all coverage of a specified PSC (PSC’s Ec/Io in NBList)

Best

All

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Powerful Pilot Analysis Function -coloring the best coverage of all PSCs

This function displays the best Ec/Io (Best Ec/Io in NBlist) and the PSC
with the best Ec/Io (Best PSC in NBlist) along the whole test path.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Powerful Pilot Analysis Function-pilot pollution analysis

At present the system supports 2 common pilot pollution algorithms
GPPA1 and GPPA2 and one special pilot pollution algorithm SPPA1.

n>Ec/Io>mand shall be greater than X.

Pilot pollution algorithm GPPA2

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Powerful Pilot Analysis Function -pilot pollution analysis
Special pilot pollution algorithm SPPA1

The conditions below shall be met: Count(Ec/Io>m)>n And X>its difference value>y.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Analysis of Lacking Neighboring Cell

When a certain PSC is not in the neighboring cell list but PNScanner
finds that though it is not in the neighboring cell list, its strength has exceeded the preset threshold, then it is considered as lacking.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Message Browsing

The message analysis window is divided into two parts. The upper part is the MessageList sub-window, while the lower part is the Decode sub-window.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Message Analysis

It includes message filtration, user-defined event analysis, delay
analysis and KPI analysis.

Delay Analysis (CS is separated from PS)

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Message Analysis

It includes message filtration, user-defined event analysis, delay analysis and KPI analysis.

KPI Analysis (CS is separated from PS)

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Data Query

It is used to query the appearance record and ratio of the data that meet certain conditions. When used together with MAP, the detailed query result required can be obtained and the result will be selected in small checks in the MAP.

WCDMA radio network optimization software

Automatic Report Output

The analysis item selected can be automatically exported in a Word

document in the mode of a MAP, table or curve graph according to the pre-defined template.

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