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09104007 Anish Nangia 09104011 Anubhav Aggarwal 09104020 Gaurav Manchanda 09104040 Payal Niharika 09104050 Sanjoli Jain
Introduction Classification Electric Traction Railway Traction Third rail system Overhead system
Traction is defined as…
“…a physical process in which a tangential force is transmitted across an interface between two bodies through dry friction or an intervening fluid film resulting in motion, stoppage or the transmission of power”
Classification Traction NonElectric Electric .
Application Electrification in traction (in India) is used with three types of locomotives: Using single phase AC commutator motor Using DC with tapped transformer and rectifier Using phase converter and induction motor .
Pros & Cons of Electric Traction Pros: High torque-to weight ratio Regenerative braking is possible Lesser noise Less maintenance Cons: High Capital cost .
Motors used for Electric Traction Permanent Magnet Motors: High power density and power factor High Efficiency High Cost Switched Reluctance Machine: Robust Rotor Structure High Torque Ripple Poor Power Factor Induction Machine Low Cost Robust Rotor Structure Low Power Density Inferior power factor and efficiency .
Railway Traction Voltage DC Current Railway Traction AC Third Rail Contact System Overhead .
especially for railway traction Easy control Easier to maintain Expensive (for long run) Sparking and corrosion Unsuitable for regenerative braking AC Efficient and cheaper for long distances Less or no maintenance Reliable Higher level of adhesion Complicated control .Supply for traction systems DC Simpler.
More efficient for some H. because of the following reasons: 1.P. .Trends in Traction System Existing Traction Systems use DC motors. Rail conductor track system is less costly for DC than for AC. 3. Less expensive 2.
Advantages of AC motor over DC motors Commutators-prone to fail due to vibration and shock DC motor not suitable for regenerative braking. requires complex and bulky extra components DC motors tend to inject harmonics in the system IM doesn’t use commutators Fairly easy to use regenerative braking Simpler construction .
7 Hz AC.16.Standard voltage levels Voltage 600 V Type DC 750 V 1. 50 Hz .5 kV 3 kV 15 kV 25 kV DC DC DC AC.
Railway Traction in India 1500 V DC overhead traction system used around Mumbai Delhi Metro uses 25 kV AC overhead lines with ground level and elevated routes Kolkata Metro.750 DC third rail Kolkata trams.550 DC overhead with underground conductors .
Third rail system Third rail or “conductor rail” placed alongside the rail track. Generally placed outside but sometimes placed inside .
Third rail Systen .
Shoe and Shoegear “Shoe” is used to collect the current on train. shoe is given a ramp for smooth transistion . Wherever conductor rails are interrupted.
Third rail breaks Gaps usually leads to the loss of power Power loss can be lessened by using locating shoes along the train and connecting them .
Benefits and Disadvantages Benefits: Easier to install Cheaper Lesser prone to power surges Disadvantages: Hazardous Weather affected Practical limit on speed .
Overhead System .
bow collecters or trolley poles The wire must be weather durable.Overhead system In overhead system. there are overhead lines that supply electricity Trains collect the electricity through pantograph. and withstand wind .
Catenary Catenary are overhead wires that form a support structure Helps maintain the lateral and horizontal tension .
Catenary suspension systems .
Pantograph Used to collect electricity Easier to isolate Contact maintained by spring or air pressure .
Pantograph Horns Horns provide balance to the contact wires They also protect the pantograph from obstructions like tree limbs etc The horns have no current conducting function They are directed downwards so that they don’t tangle with overhead lines .
fault prone Double Arm Pantograph: More power. fault tolerable .Types of Pantograph Single Arm Pantograph: Less power.
Block Diagram of Modern AC Electric Locomotive .
mounted on the roof of the locomotive All the OHE are connected/disconnected by the means of this CB .Circuit-Breaker Electro-pneumatic contractor type High voltage.
Loco Transformer Main Transformer of the locomotive 25kV supply fed to this transformer via main bushing Winding divided into 32 taps (generally) Taps attached to tap changer .
Schematic of a Single-Phase AC Smoothens and Filters the DC output Steps down the 25 kV AC Converts AC to specified DC Voltage .
if needed by the traction motors .DC Link This is essentially a bank of capacitor and inductor to give a smooth DC output It also eliminates/reduces the harmonics produced by drive converters and traction motors The capacitor bank in this section can also provide a small amount of reserve power in the transient situations.
Drive Converter Inverter with three thyristor based components Three components produces three phase AC Thyristor components controlled by microprocessorcan produce a wide range of AC frequency and voltage .
AC Electric Locomotive with DC motor .
track magnets are used Track magnets automatically switch off the supply when train reaches neutral section .Track Magnet To reduce arcing at neutral section.
Neutral Section It is a short section of insulated and dead overhead equipment which separates the area fed by adjacent substation or feeding post. Neutral Section is also present when DC supply changes over to AC supply. and the links are joined by only a neutral section .
Benefits and Disadvantages Benefits Robust Less hazardous Efficient Disadvantages Prone to lightening surges Capital extensive May require reconstruction .
Thank you Any queries? .