The uniqueness of geophysical well logging technology lies in its ability to carry out direct measurements of large range of rock properties by placing appropriate sensor virtually within the rock through borehole and accomplish their evaluation with speed.and cost effectiveness. efficiency.
The geophysical well logging technology is one innovation among these developments which has received significant attention in the foregoing exploration activities during the 60 years.
Well logging is a method in which geophysical properties of rocks are recorded as a function of depth by moving suitably designed borehole logging probe with the help of an electrical cable in the borehole. a log means recording against depth of any of the characteristics of the rock formations in the well-bore
Logging means recording of information and in oil industry.
were often difficult to interpret.
.HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF WELL-LOGGING:
Phase (1925 – 1945):
The first 20 years saw the introduction and gradual world wide acceptance of the so called ES (Electrical Survey) Logs. These logs were run with simple downhole tools and. while quite repeatable.
through largely empirical basis.Second Phase (1945 – 1970):
This was a majority tool development era. Simultaneously much laboratory and theoretical work was done to place log interpretation on a sound. made possible by the advent of electronics suitable for downhole use.
A variety of acoustic and nuclear tools were developed to provide porosity and lithology information.
. having good bed resolution and various depths of penetration.
There was a progression through second and even third generation tools of increasing capability and accuracy. Focused electrical devices were introduced.
A log processing era. Also. With the advent of computers..
. have been set up by service companies in strategic locations. logging tools have been combined to the point that a full set of logs can be obtained on a single run. Logging trucks have been fitted with computers that permit computation of quick-look log at the well site. it has become possible to analyze in much greater detail the wealth of data sent uphole by the logging tools.
Log processing centers.Third and current phase (1970 -. providing sophisticated interpretation of digitized logs transmitted by telephone and satellite.
break of sedimentation. tectonic stresses Porosity (both primary and secondary) Permeability Hydrocarbon type (oil gas or condensate) Water saturation and hydrocarbon movability Well deviation. texture and composition of rocks. formation heterogeneity Formation dip and post depositional structural deformations Sedimentary environment. fractures Formation temperature and pressure Cement evaluation behind casing
. abnormal pressure zone. diagenesis. borehole geometry. facies of a bed and sequence of beds Stratigraphy.LOGGING OBJECTIVES
Formation Lithology. sand geometry.
. logging provides measurement of:
Flow rate Fluid type Pressure Temperature Oil and gas saturation Points of fluid entry
These measurements help to understand the well behavior and are of great utility to production engineer.In producing wells.
CLASSIFICATION OF LOGS
Non .Wireline logs
Wireline logs or well logs
Non .Wireline logs:
Core & Mud Analysis
Wireline logs or well logs:
Open Hole logs
Cased Hole Logs / Production logs
Natural Gamma Ray Log Conventional Gamma Ray Log Spectral Gamma Ray Log
.Open Hole logs
Electric logging Resistivity Porosity
Nuclear well log
Density Neutron Sonic 1.
Neutron logs Conventional Neutron logs Pulsed Neutron
. Diffused Gamma Ray Log Density log Lithodensity log 3.2.
Cased Hole Logs / Production logs
Cement Bond Log
Variable Density Log Casing Locator
IMPORTANCE OF LOGGING ?
Advantages of Wireline logs over core logging