Quantum Mechanics:Uncertainty Principle sem 2

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Quantum Mechanics:Uncertainty Principle sem 2

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Uncertainty Principle

References :

1.Concept of Modern Physics

by Arthur Beiser

2. Modern Physics

by Kenneth Krane

2

4

3

A localized wave or wave packet:

Spread in position Spread in momentum

Superposition of waves

of different wavelengths

to make a packet

Narrower the packet , more the spread in momentum

Basis of Uncertainty Principle

A moving particle in quantum theory

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

___________________________________

- The Uncertainty Principle is an important

consequence of the wave-particle duality of

matter and radiation and is inherent to the

quantum description of nature

- Simply stated, it is impossible to know both the

exact position and the exact momentum of an

object simultaneously

A fact of Nature!

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

__________________________________

Uncertainty in Position :

Uncertainty in Momentum:

x A

x

p A

t 2

h

p x

x

> A A

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

- applies to all conjugate variables

___________________________________

Position & momentum

Energy & time

t 2

h

p x

x

> A A

t 2

h

t E > A A

Uncertainty Principle and the Wave Packet

___________________________________

p

h

=

t 2

h

p x

x

> A A

p

p A

=

A

x A

Some consequences of the Uncertainty Principle

___________________________________

The path of a particle (trajectory) is not well-defined in

quantum mechanics

- Electrons cannot exist inside a nucleus

- Atomic oscillators possess a certain amount of energy

known as the zero-point energy, even at absolute zero.

Why is nt the uncertainty principle apparent to

us in our ordinary experience?

Plancks constant, again!!

___________________________________

Plancks constant is so small that the

uncertainties implied by the principle are also

too small to be observed. They are only

significant in the domain of microscopic

systems

J.s 10 x 6 . 6

34

= h

t 2

h

p x

x

> A A

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

The uncertainty principle states that the position

and momentum cannot both be measured,

exactly, at the same time.

Where h (6.6 x 10

-34

) is called Plancks constant. As h is so small, these

uncertainties are not observable in normal everyday situations

Ax Ap > h

The more accurately you

know the position (i.e., the

smaller Ax is) , the less

accurately you know the

momentum (i.e., the larger

Ap is); and vice versa

h or

2

h

or

t

For

Numerical

For

Applications

Historic importance

Increasing levels of wavepacket localization, meaning the

particle has a more localized position.

In the limit 0, the particle's

position and momentum become known

exactly. This is equivalent to the

classical particle.

p is less

p is more

12

The wave nature to particles means a particle is a wave packet,

the composite of many waves

Many waves = many momentums, observation makes one

momentum out of many.

Principle of complementarity: The moving electron will

behave as a particle or as a wave, but we can not observe both

aspects of its behavior simultaneously. It states that

complete description of a physical entity such as a

photon or an electron can not be made in terms of

only particle properties or only wave properties, but

that both aspects of its behavior must be considered.

Exact knowledge of complementarities pairs (position, energy,

time) is impossible.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Same situation, but baseball replaced by an electron which has mass 9.11

x 10

-31

kg

So momentum= 3.6 x 10

-29

kg m/s and Ap = 3.6 x 10

-31

kg m/s

The uncertainty in position is then

Example

A pitcher throws a 0.1-kg baseball at 40 m/s

So momentum is 0.1 x 40 = 4 kg m/s

Suppose the momentum is measured to an accuracy of 1 % , i.e.,

Ap = 0.01

p = 4 x 10

-2

kg m/s

The uncertainty in position is then

No wonder one does not observe the effects of the uncertainty principle in

everyday life!

Example: A free 10eV electron moves in the x-direction with a speed of

1.8810

6

m/s. assume that you can measure this speed to precision of 1%.

With what precision can you simultaneously measure its position?

the momentum of e- is

p

x

= m v

x

= 9.1110

-31

kg 1.8810

6

m/s

= 1.71 10

-24

kg m/s

The uncertainty A p

x

in momentum is 1%

Ax > h/4t A p

x

=3.1 n m

Example: A golf ball has a mss 45gm and speed of 40 m/s, which you can

measure with a precision of 1%. What limits does the uncertainty principle

place on your ability to measure its position.

Calculations yields Ax > 6 10

-31

m. this is very small distance,

14

15

Applications of uncertainty principle

1. Non-existence of electrons in the Nucleus

Assume that the electron is present in the nucleus. The radius of

the nucleus of any atom is of the order 5 fermi (1 fermi = 10

-15

m). For

the existence of electron in the nucleus, the uncertainty Ax in its

position would be at least equal to the radius of the nucleus, i.e.

uncertainty in the position

According to the uncertainty principle.

Ap > h/4tAx= 1.05410

-20

kg-m/sec

If this is the uncertainty in momentum of the electron then the

momentum of the electron must be at least of the order of its

magnitude, that is , p ~ 1.05410

-20

kg-m/sec, an electron having so

much momentum should have a velocity comparable to the velocity

of light. Hence, its energy should be calculated by the relativistic

formula

E

2

=p

2

c

2

+m

o

2

c

4

15

x R 5 10 m

A = =

16

pc= 1.05410

-20

310

8

= 20 MeV

The rest energy of electron 0.51 MeV, is very small as compared to

pc. Hence second term in relativistic equation can be neglected.

Thus, if the electron is the constituents of the nucleus, it should

have an energy of the order of 20 MeV.

However, from experiment of decay it is found that the

electrons emitted from the radioactive element do not have more

than 2-3 MeV. Therefore, it is confirmed that electrons do not

reside inside the nucleus.

Applications of uncertainty principle

4. Particle in a Box Problem

Find the minimum energy for a particle confined to a box of size L

Macroscopic: 1 g particle confined to 1 m E

min

~ 10

-29

eV

Microscopic: Electron confined to 0.1 nm E

min

~ 4 eV

2 2

2 2

min

34 16

2

min

2

Using (Uncertainty Principle) and

where

(for 0),

2 2

1.05 10 J s or 6.58 10 eV s

2

p p p p

x

p p

E

m m

E

mL

A = A = =

A

A

= =

=

=

x = L

x

X=0

X=L

Energy

Applications of uncertainty principle

Physical Origin of the Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg (Bohr) Microscope

The measurement itself introduces

the uncertainty

When we look at an object we see it

via the photons that are detected by

the microscope

These are the photons that are scattered

within an angle 2 and collected by a

lens of diameter D

Momentum of electron is changed

Consider single photon, this will

introduce the minimum uncertainty

u sin 2

max

ph ph

p p = A

u sin 2

ph ph electron

p p p = A = A

u

u u u

u

h

p

h

p p

h

p

electron

ph electron

ph

2

sin , small for

sin

2

sin 2

= A

~

= = A

=

As a consequence of

momentum conservation

Physical Origin of the Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg (Bohr) Microscope

Trying to locate electron we

introduce the uncertainty of

the momentum

~(D/2)/L, L ~ D/2 is

distance to lens

Uncertainty in electron

position for small is

To reduce uncertainty in the

momentum, we can either

increase the wavelength or

reduce the angle

But this leads to increased

uncertainty in the position,

since

u h

p

electron

2

= A

electron

x

2sin 2

A = =

u u

Physical Origin of the Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg (Bohr) Microscope

electron

electron

electron

electron

2h

p

h

p

x

2 x

( p )( x) h

( p )( x)

A = u

A =

`

A

u =

A )

A A =

A A >

Physical Origin of the Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg (Bohr) Microscope

26

To see more clearly into the nature of uncertainty, we consider

electrons passing through a slit:

We apply the condition of

minima from single slit

diffraction,

and postulate that is the de

Broglie wavelength.

Momentum

uncertainty in the

y component

P

x

=h/

Experimental illustration of Uncertainty Principle: Single slit

diffraction.

y y

x

y

y

sin =

for small sin tan

p p

tan

p h /

p

p h

h /

u

e

u u ~ u

A A

u = =

A

= A e=

e

Since the electron can pass the slit

through anywhere over the width ,

the uncertainty in the y position of the

electron is Ay=.

p y h A A ~

sin n e u =

27

which is in agreement with the uncertainty principle. If we try to

improve the accuracy of the position by decreasing the width of the slit,

the diffraction pattern will be widened. This means that the

uncertainty in momentum will increase.

The uncertainty principle is applicable to all material particles,

from electrons to large bodies occurring in mechanics. In case of large

bodies, however , the uncertainties are negligibly small compared to

the ordinary experimental errors.

y

p y h A A ~

28

2

2

and : packet ave Gaussian w a For

> A A > A A t E x p

. 1 then , and Given ~ A A A = A ~ A A x p k p x k

. 1 then , and Given ~ A A A = A ~ A A t E E t e e

Particle is highly localized in space only if its momentum is undefined.

Particles energy is accurate only if measured for a long time.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Example: Assume the position of an object is known so

precisely that the uncertainty in the position is only

Ay=1.510

-11

m. Determine the minimum uncertainty in

the momentum of the object and find the corresponding

minimum uncertainty in the speed if the object in an

electron.

Ap

y

=h/(4tAy)=(6.6310

-34

Js)/(4t 1.510

-11

m)

Ap

y

=3.510

-24

kg m/s small

Av

y

=Ap

y

/m=(3.510

-24

kg m/s)/(9.110

-31

kg)

Av

y

=3.910

6

m/s large

29

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