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Problem Solving Tools

Common techniques used


Histogram Flow Charts Check Sheet Scatter diagram Brainstorming Pareto analysis Cause-and-effect diagram

CEC/FPASL/13-01

Histogram Contraceptive failures frequency


40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Oral Condoms IDU,s Injectable Implants

CEC/FPASL/13-01

Floor Chart- problem solving in a process


Identify the process

Is there another step

Yes

Identify a step in the process

No

Remove the step

Is the step necessar y Yes

Keep the step

No

Can it be improved

No

are the changes feasible Yes CEC/FPASL/13-01 4

Documents improved

Check sheet- complaints by field officers


Type of Complain
Delivery delay, non availability at the required time In ability to maintain minimum stock levels. Personnel problems lack of man power

Region 1

Region2

Region 3

Total

///// ///// ///// 15 ///// ///// /// 13 ///// ///// // 12

///// ///// // 12 ///// //// 9 //// //// /// 13

/// 3 ///// // 7 ///// ///// / 11

30

29

26

Over a period of one year

CEC/FPASL/13-01

Scatter Diagrams
Show correlation between two variables Independent &dependant variable Able to show non linear relationships between two variables

CEC/FPASL/13-01

Brain Storming
Define and agree the objective. Brainstorm ideas and suggestions having agreed a time limit. Categorize/condense/combine/refine. Assess/analyze effects or results. Prioritize options/rank list as appropriate. Agree action and timescale. Control and monitor follow-up.

CEC/FPASL/13-01

Brain storming
Some tips for successful brainstorming Never criticize or evaluate an idea when it is first presented, and record all ideas Appoint a good facilitator to ensure that everyone participates Ensure that questions that need to be asked are actually addressed; Keep the setting informal; Encourage offbeat and unconventional ideas; Combine and build on ideas, and move quickly from one member to the next
CEC/FPASL/13-01 8

Brain Storming
Categorize/condense/combine/refine.
Assess/analyze effects or results. Prioritize options/rank list as appropriate. Agree action and timescale. Control and monitor follow-up.
CEC/FPASL/13-01 9

Parato Chart
Vilfred Parato 80-20 Principle (Natural Phenomena) Series of bars, heights indicate the frequency or impact of the problem Bars are arranged in a descending order Bars on the left is relatively more significant than those on the right.

CEC/FPASL/13-01

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Analysis of contraceptive failures

Item/category Oral

Frequency of occurrence 40

Percentage 43

Cumulative percent 43

Condoms IDUs Injectables

22 15 9

23 16 10 8

66 82 92 100

Implants/others 8

CEC/FPASL/13-01

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Contraceptive failures
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
ID Us Or al s ct a ble s nd om pla n ts

120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Frequency Cum. Per

Co

Inj e

CEC/FPASL/13-01

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Cause & Effect -Fish Bone Diagram.


Define the problem- Problem statement Categorize 4-5 causes
Equipment People Process Management Policies Money

Creative thinking by the team Draw the fishbone diagram Brain storming session Determine the root causes.
CEC/FPASL/13-01 13

Cause & Effect Ishikawa-Fishbone diagram

Equipment

People

Process

Problem

Management

Policies

CEC/FPASL/13-01

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