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Overview of coverage planning Link budget Propagation model Scale estimation Coverage enhancing technology The common coverage issues Q&A
1. Overview of coverage planning
1. What is the purpose of coverage planning? 2. What is the work content of coverage planning? 3. What is the input of coverage planning? 4. What is the output of coverage planning?
1. What is the target of coverage planning?
Do the link budget and radius estimation for the targeted coverage area so as to get to know the site scale and site deployment which satisfy the KPI. Besides, if a digital map is available, an adjustment can be done to the sites
according to the results of coverage simulation.
It is a must to have a three dimensional digital map (Planet/EET) which covers the whole targeted coverage area. Degree of accuracy: For urban areas: not lower than 20m; For rural areas: not lower than 50m.
2. What is the work content of coverage planning?
Clarify the input
Coverag e plannin g
Site deployment Scale estimation
Propagation model calibration
3. What is the input of coverage planning?
The size and range of the target coverage area
•Which cities and major roads will be covered? •What are the categories of scenarios according to the radio environment? •What is the coverage range of each scenario?
KPI The coverage KPI
The coverage requirements of each scenario: •Coverage level •Coverage probability
The parameters of the propagation model
•Carry out a test and calibrate the parameters of the propagation model. •No test is carried out, and the parameters of the standard propagation model are adopted.
•The equipment types, which will be adopted for the bidding, depends on the market strategy. •The biggest site configuration depends on the frequency bands and the frequency resources. •Is a Planet three-dimensional digital map available? The coverage simulation can not do without the map. •What about the application of the different kinds of coverage enhancing technologies? ……
4. What is the output of coverage planning?
The balanced budget of uplink/downlink power
2. Link budget
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Why is link budget needed? What is path link balance? How can we judge a link is limited? What is the result if a link is limited? What is link gain and link loss? What is slow fading? What is fast fading? What is coverage probability? What is margin? What kind of margin should be considered for the link budget? What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the slow fading margin which is frequently used? What is design signal level and acceptance level? What are the categories of combiner loss which are frequently come across in link budget? What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the power of the set-top unit of ZTE series equipment? What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the antenna and feeder loss of ZTE series equipment? What is TMA? How to choose the a suitable type of antenna? How is the uplink/downlink budget calculated? How to avoid the unbalanced link in network planning?
1. Why is link budget needed?
The purpose of doing the uplink/downlink budget is to estimate the uplink/downlink coverage ability of the system and to get the allowed maximum path loss of a balanced link through an analysis of the factors which influence the uplink/downlink signals during the transmission. The link budget is used to see how the uplink/downlink borders of a cell is covered.
2. What is link balance?
Strictly speaking, link balance means that the difference of the path loss of the uplink radio link and that of the downlink radio link is “0”. Generally speaking, it is considered that there is a rough link balance if the allowed maximum path loss difference between the uplink and the downlink is no more than 2dB when the link budget is calculated.
Uplink coverage =
3. How can we judge a link is limited?
Uplink coverage < Downlink coverage，that is,
The allowed maximum uplink path loss < The allowed maximum downlink path loss
The part of invalid downlink coverage
Downlink coverage < Uplink coverage，that is,
The allowed maximum downlink path loss < The allowed maximum uplink path loss
Uplink coverage Downlink coverage The part of invalid uplink coverage
4. What is the result if a link is limited?
In areas with problems, the handset has signals but it can not originate a call; When the subscriber moves towards the borders of a cell (areas with weak signals), there may be unilateral conversations or call drops. When the subscriber moves from any other area towards the uplink limited area which is an area with problems, the success rate of inward handovers of the cell will be affected.
Areas with problems
In the areas with problems, the handset is in the coverage holes of the site, and it can not originate a call. When the subscriber moves towards the borders of a cell (areas with weak signals), there may be unilateral conversations or call drops. Areas with problems
5. What is link gain and link loss?
“Gain” means that a positive influence is exerted over the link, Gain=50-40=10dB and the signals are strengthened. Unit：dB Device 50dBm There are different categories of link gain: Antenna gain, 40dBm diversity gain …
“Loss” means that a negative influence is exerted over the link, and the signals are weakened. Loss=40-32=8dB Unit：dB There are different categories of link loss: Feeder loss, combiner loss, 40dBm Device 32dBm the loss caused by the penetration of buildings or cars, and body loss
6. What is slow fading?
When the signals are transmitted, they will be blocked by the buildings and the uneven land forms. In the areas where the signals are blocked, the shadow of electromagnetic waves will be formed. As a result, the signal strength will be weakened. This is called Shadow Fading, a kind of fading of signals, which is caused by the shadow effect. The signals go through a slow and random change within the range of dozens of wavelengths, so the statistical counting obeys the rules of lognormal distribution. Therefore, Shadow Fading is also called Slow Fading.
In English, it is called Slow Fading，or Log-normal Fading，or Shadow Fading.
7. What is fast fading?
When the signals are transmitted, they will be reflected and scattered many times due to the surrounding environment (for example, buildings, trees, and so on). In this way, the multi-path interference is formed, so the amplitude and phase of a signal may have a dramatic change with the pass of time. The overlaying of the multi-path signals forms a vector and a possible serious valley point of fading, which result in a dramatic fluctuation of the intensity of the field and a short-term fading. The fast fading is a kind of deep fading of signals, which is caused by the multi-path effect of signal transmission. The statistical counting principles of probability density of fast fading obeys a Rayleigh distribution. Therefore, Fast Fading is also called Rayleigh Fading.
In English it is called Fast Fading, or Rayleigh Fading.
8. What is coverage probability?
Coverage probability refers to how large the probability is that the received signal of the terminal is larger than the threshold at the coverage borders of the cell (or within the coverage areas).
The edge coverage probability：The percentage of the cell borders whose received signal is larger than the threshold.
The area coverage probability：The percentage of the areas whose received signal is larger than the threshold.
The test is carried out along the paths of the covered areas of a cell. The area coverage probability refers to the percentage of samples, of which the level is at least 90dBm.
The threshold level of the cell borders
The test is carried out along the covered cell borders. The edge coverage probability refers to the percentage of samples, of which the level is at least - 90dBm.
The threshold level of the cell borders：-90dBm
Under the same conditions, the area coverage probability is larger than the edge coverage probability. The two can be mutually transformed according to some rules in math.
9. What is margin?
When the radio signals are transmitted, they will have an attenuation caused by different kinds factors of the radio environment, for example, shadow effect, multi-path effect, and so on. Therefore, the influence caused by these factors should be taken into consideration when the design of radio network starts. At the stage of network planning, some power can be reserved to resist the possible attenuation. The reserved power is called margin.
10. What kind of margin should be considered for the link budget?--1
Slow Fading margin 1 In order to ensure that the site can cover the cell borders with a certain probability, the site must reserve some transmission power so as to overcome Shadow Fading. So the reserved margin is called Shadow Fading margin or Slow Fading margin.
Fast Fading margin 2
The multi-path effect of the transmission of radio signals will result in the fast fading of signals, so the quality of signals will be affected. For GSM system, it resists Fast Fading by making use of a series of technologies, including interleaving coding, frequency hopping, diversity reception, adaptive equalization, and so on. Besides, at the stage of network planning, some design margin should be reserved to resist Fast Fading. This is called Fast Fading margin. Usually, it is 3dB.
Jamming margin 3
GSM is a kind of interference limited system. The received power should not only resist the noises but also resist the co-channel/adjacent channel interferences which are caused by the frequency reuse so as to ensure the quality of the signals. The power reserved to resist the interference is called interference margin. Usually it is 3dB.
10. What kind of margin should be considered for the link budget?--2
Body loss 4
Body loss refers to the kind of loss which is caused by signal blocking and absorption when the handset is held quite close to the human body. Usually, for voice service, it is 3dB;and for data service, it is 0dB.
Loss caused by the penetration of a building 5
Loss caused by the penetration of a building refers to the attenuation which occurs when the radio waves penetrate the exterior structures of a building. It is equal to the difference value when the median value of the field strength outside the building and that inside the building are compared. The value related of this kind of loss is closely related to the materials and thickness of the building.
Classification of different areas
Typical penetration loss value
Loss caused by the penetration of a car 6
Loss caused by the penetration of a car refers to the attenuation which occurs when the radio waves penetrate the car. It is equal to the difference value when the median value of the field strength of the signals outside the car and that inside the car are compared. Usually, it is 6～8dB.
Suburban areas and rural areas
11. What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the slow fading margin which is frequently used?
Area Type Area Coverage Probability 75% Dense Urban Sigma=10dB 85% 90% 95% 75% Medium Urban Sigma=8dB 85% 90% 95% Edge Coverage Probability 54% 69% 80% 88% 50% 66% 75% 86% 1 5 7.7 11.7 0 3.2 5.5 8.7 Slow Fading Margin (dB)
Suburban/Rural /Road Sigma=6dB 85% 90% 95%
60% 71% 84%
1.6 3.4 5.9
12. What is design signal level and acceptance level?
The lowest level required SSmin_req
It refers to the lowest level required for making calls in real situations (outdoor/indoor/in a car). On basis of the receiver sensitivity, it takes the following factors into consideration: Fast Fading margin, interference margin, body loss, loss caused by the penetration of a building which is relevant to a indoor subscriber or loss caused by the penetration of a car which is relevant to a subscriber inside a car.
Design level SSdesign In order to ensure a certain probability, it is necessary to consider the Shadow Fading margin on basis of the lowest level required or the acceptance level. Then, the level value is called design level. In other words, at the network planning stage, it is a must to consider the possible influence exerted by Shadow Fading over the signal coverage. The purpose is to ensure the network coverage probability.
Acceptance level SSacceptance Usually, in the bidding documents or the contract, the client will mention the DT coverage KPI, including the requirements for level value and coverage probability which DT should meet. Then, the required level value which DT should reach is called the acceptance level by us. However, if the client does not have any requirements for the acceptance level, we should make a suggestion. Usually, it is considered that SSacceptance should be equal to SSmin_req (SSacceptance = SSmin_req).
13. What are the categories of combiner loss which are frequently come across in link budget?
V2 series combiner loss
900M(d B) 4.4 3.5 1 900M(d B) 4.4 3.5 5.3
1800M(d B) 4.6 3.5 1 1800M(d B) 4.6 3.5 5.5
CDU CEU ECDU Combiner
V3 series combiner loss
CDU CEU CEN
SDR series combiner loss
ECU 3.5 the COM 3.5 For RU02 and RU02A, loss is 3dB when it is S3~S4. Other radio frequency processing units do not have a combiner inside.
14. What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the power of the set-top unit of ZTE series equipment?
Transmiss ion power
The power of the set-top unit is closely related to the configuration of carrier frequencies of the cell, the combiner selected, and whether there is a new antenna or not. The power of the set-top unit of GSM equipment with the modulation mode of 8PSK is about 2dB lower than that of GSM equipment with the GMSK modulation mode. M8202 does not have a Combiner (either inside or outside). The power of the set-top unit is always 30w(GMSK). The power of the set-top unit of GSM equipment with the modulation mode of 8PSK is about 2dB lower than that of GSM equipment with the GMSK modulation mode. M8206 has a combiner outside, that is, ECU. If combining is needed, it is necessary to take into account the loss of ECU (3.5dB). The power of the set-top unit is 13w. The power of the set-top unit of GSM equipment with the modulation mode of 8PSK is about 2dB lower than that of GSM equipment with the GMSK modulation mode.
V3 series equip ment
14. What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the power of the set-top unit of ZTE series equipment? - SDR Equipment
GSM single mode configur ation
GSM 1 2
•Now multi-carrier RU/RRU follows the principle of equipartition of carrier power！
GMSK (W) GMSK (W) GMSK (W) 80 40 •If the BS model configuration for dual-carrier RU02/RU02A is S3~S4, the loss for internal combiner is 3dB.
4 5 6
15 12 10
20 16 13.33
G/U dualmode configur ation
GSM carrier number 1 2 3 4 1 2
UMTS carrier number 1 1 1 1 2 2
RU60/R8860 GSM UMTS (W) GMSK (W) 40 20 13.33 10 20 10 20 20 20 20 20 20
The output power of set-top unit of GSM with 8PSK modulation is about 2dB lower than that of GSM with GMSK modulation.
For UMTS, the output power of set-top unit per carrier must be 20W.
15. What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the antenna and feeder loss of ZTE series equipment? – The Typical Antenna and Feeder Connection
If the feeder loss is more than 3dB, it is suggested that a heavier feeder line should be used.
•Increase the downlink insertion loss of the tower amplifier (downlink). •Add one T connector and two other connectors (uplink/downlink). •Add some 1/2 soft jumper cable (uplink/downlink).
Connector T connector Lightning arrester TMA insertion loss
0.05 0.3 0.2 0.5
dB/each dB/each dB/each dB
The table here shows the typical KPI of Hansen. It is just for your reference. For a specific project, the table should be filled in according to the actual configuration of feeder line KPI.
Feeder Type 1/2” 7/8”
900 11.2 3.88 2.77 2.29
1800 16.6 5.75 4.16 3.47
Unit dB/100m dB/100m dB/100m dB/100m
What factors should be taken into consideration to decide the antenna and feeder loss of ZTE series equipment? – Typical Antenna and Feeder Connection
Installation near an antenna RRU and BBU is connected by fiber； RRU and antenna is connected by 1/2” jumper. 1. 2. RRU is installed on the platform of a tower (a platform under the antenna) The installation position keeps a distance from both BBU and the antenna. ，or installed at the roof and it is lower than the antenna ； RRU and BBU is connected by fiber； RRU and the antenna is connected in a normal way. The length of main feeder line is the distance between RRU and the antenna.
Height of Height of RRU on antenna platform (m) (m) 50 50 50 50 50 0 10 20 30 50 Length of 7/8 main feeder line (m) 50 40 30 20 0 Length of ½ jumper (m) 4 4 4 4 2 Connector + 900M(d 1800M( B) dB) lightning arrester 6+1 6+1 6+1 6+1 2 2.89 2.5 2.11 1.73 0.32 4.04 3.46 2.89 2.31 0.43
2m ½” loss for softer jumper 2 connector loss 2×2m ½” softer jumper loss Main feeder line loss between RRU and the antenna 6 connectors loss 1 feeder line lightning arrester loss
The table here is only for reference, in practice please calculate according to specific conditions!
16. What is TMA?
TMA—Tower Mounted Amplifier Tower Amplifier is the short form for Tower Mounted Amplifier. Actually, an amplifier which has low noises and high linearity (low noise amplifier) is installed at the front end of the receiving system of the site, a place, which is close to the receiving antenna. It is used to amplify the uplink signals, to improve the noise figure of the receiving system of the site, and to improve the uplink coverage capability.
Q：Usually, the KPI designed for the uplink gain is 12dB. Does it follow
that 12dB uplink gain should be taken into consideration when the link
budget is calculated? A：No. Since TMA is actually a low noise amplifier. On the one hand the valid uplink signals are amplified, on the other hand, different kinds
of noises and interferences are also amplified. The actual uplink gain
generated by TMA is usually 2 ～ 3dB.
17. How to choose the a suitable type of antenna?
Area Antenna Antenna gain height（m） （dBi） 20～25 35～30 35～40 Horizontal beamwidth of the antenna 65 65 65、90 Vertical beamwidth of the antenna 8～14 8～14 7～10 Polarization categories Electrical downtilt
Dense urban Urban areas Suburban areas
15.5~17 15.5~17 17~18
Dualpolarization Dualpolarization Dualpolarization
0～10 degree electrical downtilt 2～6 degree electrical downtilt 2～4 degree electrical downtilt or without electrical downtilt The electrical downtilt is optional.
Dualpolarization , vertical polarization Dualpolarization , vertical polarization
Highways or long and narrow valleys
The electrical downtilt is optional.
a single frequency antenna is used by a co-sited dual-band base station, the antenna selected for the 1800M base station should be 1～2dB higher in antenna gain than that selected for the 900M base station. Usually, the antenna of a 1800M base station is higher than that of a 900M base station by 3 ～5m.
a dual-band antenna is selected, the installation space can be saved. However, the separate adjustment made for the two networks will not be so flexible. It should be checked whether the antenna parameters of the two frequency bands can both meet the relevant requirements.
dense urban areas, an antenna with a lower antenna gain can be chosen if necessary.
18. How is the uplink/downlink budget calculated?
Parameter Transmission power of the carrier frequency Combiner loss Output power of the set-top unit of BTS Feeder line connector loss Antenna gain of BTS Antenna gain of MS A B C=A-B D E F G H I J K L M=G+H+I+J+K N=M+L O Symbol Unit dBm dB dBm dB dBi dBi dBm dB dB dB dB dB dBm dBm dB
Parameter Transmission power of MS Antenna gain of MS Antenna gain of BTS Diversity gain Feeder line connector loss The contribution to sensitivity made by TMA Receiver sensitivity of BTS Fast fading margin Interference margin Body loss Loss caused by the penetration of a building or a car A B C D E F G H I J K Symbol Unit dBm dBi dBi dB dB dB dBm dB dB dB dB
Receiver sensitivity of MS
Fast fading margin Interference margin Body loss Loss caused by the penetration of a building or a car Slow fading margin The minimum level required (DL) Design level (DL) Downlink enhancing technology
Slow fading margin
The minimum level required (UL) Design level (UL) Uplink enhancing technology
Choose the maximum path loss allowed for the link which is limited, that is, Min (P uplink, P downlink) The maximum uplink The maximum as the maximum path loss allowed for the whole link! P=A+B+C+D-E+F-N dB path loss allowed downlink path loss P=C-D+E+F-N+O dB allowed
19. How to avoid the unbalanced link in network planning?
The maximum uplink path loss allowed < The maximum downlink path loss allowed, difference value > 2dBUplink limited Increase the uplink coverage or decrease the invalid downlink coverage Link balance
Solution: Add TMA, adopt 4 antennae to do the diversity reception, lower
the transmission power of the carrier frequency and so on.
The maximum downlink path loss allowed < The maximum uplink
path loss allowed, difference value > 2dB Downlink limited Increase the downlink coverage Link balance Solution: Increase the transmission power of the set-top unit of BTS, increase the number of antenna and feeder, DPCT technology, DDT technology and so on.
3. Propagation model
1. What is propagation model? 2. What are the categories of propagation model? 3. What are the frequently-used propagation models? 4. Why is propagation model calibration necessary? 5. How to evaluate whether a propagation model is suitable or not? 6. How to get a propagation model before the calibration is done?
1. What is propagation model?
A propagation model is a kind of mathematical model which describes and reflects the features of the transmission environment of the radio signals and the rules for the changes of the signals. Actually, a propagation model represents a typical model of the transmission environment which has some specific features. At the planning stage, the propagation model can be used in the following two ways.
Estimation of the cell radius
2. What are the categories of propagation model?
The propagation model is based on the statistical analysis of a large quantity of testing data.
The propagation model is obtained through the simulation of the multipath transmission traces of the radio waves. The simulation is based on the geometrical information of the clutter and the buildings which appear on the transmission path. Large Excellent 1m~5m The information of the buildings must be included. <1km VOLCANO
Amount of calculation Computational accuracy Requirements for the accuracy of the digital map The requirements for the clutter of the digital map Application range Frequently-used models
Small Average 20m~50m The information of the buildings is not included. >1km OKUMURA-HATA COST231
3. What are the frequently-used propagation models?
•0.5G~1.5GHz（For 900M） •Macro cell model •It is suitable for 900M sites where the simulation and scale estimation will be done for a large quantity of sites in a wide range.
•0.5G~2GHz •Micro cell model •It is suitable for a specific area where the simulation will be done for a small quantity of sites.
The frequently-used propagation models
•1.5G~2GHz (For 1800M) •Macro cell model •It is suitable for 1800M sites where the simulation and scale estimation will be done for a large quantity of sites in a wide range.
•0.5G~2GHz (For 900/ 1800M) •Macro cell model •It is suitable for the sites where the simulation and scale estimation will be done for a large quantity of sites in a wide range. •At present, this model is adopted by AIRCOM/CNP.
4. Why is propagation model calibration necessary?
The radio transmission environment differs for each place due to the various land forms, geographic features, distribution of buildings, coverage of vegetation, and so on. For example, cities in plain areas VS cities in areas with hills, cities where there is a dense distribution of high buildings VS cities where most of the buildings have 1～2 storeys, cites in desert areas VS cities in areas where there is a wide coverage of vegetation … … Actually, propagation model calibration is necessary for each city. The purpose is to get the parameters of the propagation model which is consistent with the actual situation. If the same set of parameters is applied to every scenario, it is quite possible that the planning scheme differs greatly from the actual situation. Here are the consequences: 1. The network coverage which has been established is not good enough to meet the coverage KPI. 2. It is a large waste of resources if there are too many sites. Besides, severe interferences may appear if there is a dense distribution of sites.
5. How to evaluate whether a propagation model is suitable or not?
Before the calibration: The Mean Error is not 0, the standard deviation Std Dev is large. Figure: The intersection point of the red line and the vertical axis is not 0.0; the slope of the red line is not 0.
After the calibration: The Mean Error tends to be 0, the standard deviation Std Dev<=8dB. This means the model is quite consistent with the actual situation. (For dense urban areas, std dev<=10dB is also acceptable. ); Figure: The intersection point of the red line and the vertical axis is 0.0; the slope of the red line is 0.
Horizontal ordinate: The logarithm of the distance between the testing place and the base station is represented by logd. Vertical ordinate: The Mean Error which is calculated by comparing the actual level of the testing place and the predicted level of that place is represented by Error. Dense dots: Testing places The red line: It shows a kind of tendency about what the Mean Error is likely to be when the overall actual testing values of the testing place are compared with the predicted values.
6. How to get a propagation model before the calibration is done?
If it is not possible to carry out the propagation model test or calibration of the target city due to the problems of resources or time and the like, it is acceptable to choose a propagation model from the model library by following some certain rules. This model can be regarded as an alternative choice, which should be similar to the actual radio environment of the target city. However, there may be some differences between the alternative choice and the actual situation. As to the rules for choosing the model, they can be set up according to the experience of the engineers or by using some customized automatic tool. Actually, this kind of tool will be applied to the Road Map of CNP.
1. The digital map of the city for which the planning will be done. 2. In the propagation model library, there are a certain amount of parameter sets related to the propagation models, which are reliable and accurate. 3. A tool used for choosing a model automatically
It should be noticed that the model, which is selected by using the tool, can only be regarded as the most suitable model from the existing model library. However, it does not mean that it is completely matched with the actual environment.
4. Estimation of the coverage scale
1. How to estimate the coverage radius of a single site? 2. What’s the influence of downtilt over the coverage? 3. How to calculate the site distance at the preplanning stage? 4. How to estimate the coverage area of a single site? 5. How to estimate the scale of coverage?
1. How to estimate the coverage radius of a single site?
1 Link budget Get the maximum path loss allowed for a whole link, that is, PL.
Propagation model calibration Get the value of each parameter of the propagation model Calculate “d” of the propagation model formula in a reverse way Get the maximum coverage radius of the site
Choose a universal propagation model: PL=k1+k2*lgd+k3*Hm+k4*lgHm+k5*lgHb+k6*lgHb*Lgd+k7*diffraction+ clutter Loss Here, PL means the maximum path loss allowed for the whole link, which is calculated in the link budget. k1～k7 and Clutter Loss are the parameters which are obtained after the propagation model calibration. (As to the estimation of the radius, only k1 ～ k6 will be involved in the calculation.) Hm is the height of MS. Hb is the effective height of BTS antenna. d refers to the distance between the base station and MS (km). When d of the model above is calculated in a reverse way, the following formula can be obtained. d=10^((PL-K1-K3*Hm-k4*lgHm-k5*lgHb)/(k2+k6*lgHb)) Here d is actually the estimated coverage radius R of the base station.
2. What’s the influence of downtilt over the coverage?
When the maximum path loss allowed is calculated in the link budget, the influence exerted by the downtilt is not taken into consideration. If the influence exerted by the downtilt over the coverage is to be taken into consideration, the radius should be estimated according to the following formula.
DT: Downtilt (mechanical downtilt + electrical downtilt) H: The antenna height of BTS Atan：Inverse tangent trigonometric function VB: Vertical 3dB beamwidth of the antenna DF: The distance to the farthest place which the upward 3dB beamwidth can cover. It is the predicted coverage radius when the downtilt DT is taken into consideration. DN: The distance to the nearest place which the downward 3dB beamwidth can cover D: The distance covered by the main lobe right ahead
3. How to calculate the site distance at the pre-planning stage?
Three-sector directional sites Omni sites
The distance between two threesector directional sites is 1.5R. R represents the radius of the directional cell. If two-sector directional sites are used for the coverage of a long and narrow road, the distance between the sites should be 2R. R represents the radius of the directional cell.
The distance between two omni sites is 1.73R. R represents the radius of the omni cell.
4. How to estimate the coverage area of a single site?
A three-sector directional site
An omni site
Cell radius R
The coverage area of a single cell The coverage area of a single site
5. How to estimate the scale of coverage?
According to the radio environment, the target city A is divided into two parts, that is, the mean urban area MU and the suburban area SU. The two areas are represented by two polygons separately.
MU Cell radius km The size of the coverage area of a single cell km2 The size of the coverage area of a single site km2 The size of the polygon km2 The number of BTSs (Num) The total number of BTSs of the city A 0.5 0.1625 0.4875 4 8 13 SU 1 0.65 1.95 10 5 Notes R The estimated radius R 0.65R2 1.95R2 The size of the polygon S Num=S/(1.95R2) =Num(MU)+Num(SU)
5. Coverage enhancing technologies
1. How many coverage enhancing technologies are there? 2. What is bypass? 3. What is DPCT? 4. What is DDT? 5. What is FWDR? 6. What is IRC?
1. How many coverage enhancing technologies are there?
Uplink coverage enhancing
TMA FWDR IRC
Downlink coverage enhancing
Bypass DPCT DDT
DPCT and DDT can not be used at the same time.
2. What is bypass?
If a cell is configured with no more than 2 carrier frequencies, the TX interface of a carrier frequency can be connected to the ETX interface of a CDU, then, it can be connected to a Duplexer directly without the use of a combiner.
When the link budget is calculated, only 1dB duplexer loss is considered, and the power of the settop unit is increased.
ANT(RX/TX) CDU Duplexer LNA
R R R R E E X X X X R R 1 2 3 4 X X 1 2
ANT(RX/TX) CDU Duplexer LNA
R R R R E E X X X X R R 1 2 3 4 X X 1 2
3. What is DPCT?
Dual Power Combining Transmission DPCT means that two transmitters send the same bursts at the same time, which are combined in the form of one carrier frequency through a combiner so as to increase the output power. From a physical perspective, DPCT can help to increase the power, so it is especially suitable for areas which need a wide coverage.
The two signals have the same phase and amplitude, and they are combined within a carrier frequency module. Theoretically speaking, 3dB downlink gain can be obtained if one PA is combined with another. However, if the internal loss is taken into consideration, the actual gain of DPCT is 2.5dB.
4. What is DDT?
Delay Diversity Transmission DDT means that two carrier frequencies send the same signals at a slightly different time. The signals are sent out by different antennae so as to get some time/space diversity gain. In this way, the downlink coverage is enhanced. DDT is suitable for some complicated radio transmission environment. At BSC side, the main/auxiliary TRX can be regarded as one TRX, and the parameters which the auxiliary TRX is configured with are the same as those which the main TRX is configured with. The quantity of signs inserted between them can be configured at OMCR. The downlink gain which can be generated by DDT is 2~3dB.
Phase adiust algorithm
Phase adiust algorithm
5. What is FWDR?
Four Way Diversity Receiving FWDR means that 4 single antennae or 2 dual-polarized antennae are used to make a single carrier frequency have four-way received signals. Then, these signals are combined as a one-way signal through the merging algorithm so as to enhance the diversity gain. Compared to the two way diversity gain, FWDR can generate an extra 2～ 3dB gain for the uplink receiver sensitivity. Under the multi-path loss condition, the dense urban areas which have a complicated transmission environment can have a higher gain.
6. What is IRC?
IRC: Interference Rejection Combining
If the interferences of the diversity reception signals from two different ways are relevant to each other, the relevance computing will be done for the noises of each diversity branch to check the relevancy between the interferences and to combine the signals accordingly. The purpose is to complete the interference rejection and to improve the quality of the received uplink signals. With IRC, C/I can get about 3～5dB gain in dense urban areas where the radio environment is complicated.
If the interferences received from different antennae are not relevant to each other, the performance of IRC is similar to
that of MRC. However, if the interferences are relevant to each other, IRC is much more stronger than MRC in terms of the interference rejection ability. MRC: Maximum Ratio Combining If the interferences of the diversity reception signals on two different ways are not relevant to each other, weighting and combining should be done to the signals from M different ways.
6. The frequently asked questions about coverage planning Q&A
1. What is a blind zone under a tower? 2. How to solve the problem if there is a blind zone under the tower? 3. What is weak coverage? 4. How to solve the problem of weak coverage? 5. What is overshooting? 6. How to solve the overshooting problem? 7. When is it called that there is not a serving cell? 8. What measures can be taken to solve the problem that there is not a serving cell?
1. What is a blind zone under a tower?
A blind zone under a tower refers to a part of the user zone which needs to be covered, an area which is covered by the first null or the second null under the vertical antenna radiation pattern. Compared to any other area which is either near or far, the signal strength of the blind zone under a tower may have greater attenuation (20～30dB), and a weak coverage area is formed. As a result, there may be a large number of subscriber complaints, and the KPIs of call drop rate and the like may be affected. The location of the blind zone under a tower is related to the antenna radiation pattern, the antenna height, and the transmission environment.
Null: It refers to the deep fading point between the central lobe and the side lobe, or between two side lobes.
-80dBm -70dBm -90dBm
A blind zone under a tower
2. How to solve the problem if there is a blind zone under the tower?
Choose a null fill antenna; Choose an electrical downtilt antenna; Adjust the antenna downtilt appropriately so as to avoid the blind zone under a tower in a dense user zone.
Null fill: The shaped-beam should be used to complete the first lower null fill of the side lobe of the vertical pattern of the antenna so as to reduce the deep fading of the null.
An antenna without a null fill
An antenna with a null fill
3. What is weak coverage?
Weak coverage means that the signal level is too low to keep a good call quality. It is usually believed that the coverage will be Concept weak if the signal level is lower than -90dBm. If the coverage is weak, there will be many problems, for example, subscriber complaints, high call drop rate, and so on. For example, the power of the set-top unit of the base station is too small; the site planning is not reasonable; the antenna height is too low according to its original design; the inclination is too large; there is some blocking because of the land forms or the buildings.
A weak coverage area
A weak coverage area
4. How to solve the problem of weak coverage?
the network planning stage, more attention will be given to the possible weak coverage areas. The following factors should be taken into full consideration: The site location, the antenna type, and the reasonableness of the designed engineering parameters. Increase the power of the set-top unit of the base station. Check the decreased power problems caused by the equipment failures. In the weak coverage areas, some base stations or repeaters should be added.
5. What is overshooting?
Overshooting means that the actual coverage range of a cell exceeds the range which has been designed beforehand and an overlapping area is formed by this cell and another cell which is far from it. Overshooting may result in frequent handovers, an increase of interferences, the islanding effects, and so on. Here are the possible causes: The transmission power of the base station is too large; the antenna lobe is too large; the antenna is too high; the inclination is too small; there is an uneven land form; and so on.
B A C Cell A is an overshooting area.
6. How to solve the overshooting problem?
should be cautious when the site location is selected for a highland or a mountain slope. It should be ensured that the antenna type and the engineering parameters of the antenna should be reasonably selected or designed at the network planning stage. The coverage area of the overshooting area should be controlled through the adjustment of engineering parameters and the transmission power of the base station. If it is not possible to control the coverage at that time, it is suggested that some neighbor cells should be added to the overshooting cell.
Control the coverage area of A.
B A C A C
Enhance the neighbor cell relations between A and C.
7. When is it called that there is not a serving cell?
For 2 or more cells, the signal strength of one cell is quite close to that of another cell, it is not found that the signal strength of any cell has a big advantage over other cells. The handset has frequent cell reselections when it is at an idle state, or there are “ping-pong handovers” during the calls. The problems mentioned here are caused by the fact that there is not a serving cell.
There are frequent cell reselections when the handset is at an idle state. In the cells at the borders of LAC, the location update occurs frequently due to the frequent cell reselections. As a result, there will be an unnecessary increase of signaling load or congestion. Besides, there will be “ping-pong handovers” during the calls, and the voice quality will deteriorate. The transmission rate of the data service will be affected. Because of the fluctuations of signals, there will be more subscriber complaints. There are interferences, C/I is not satisfactory, and the voice quality deteriorates.
engineering parameters of the antenna are not designed in a reasonable way. The transmission power of the carrier frequencies is too large or too small. The configuration of the parameters is not reasonable ……
For the 3 cells in this area, the signal level of each cell is almost the same, so there is not an obvious serving cell.
8. What measures can be taken to solve the problem that there is not a serving cell?
Adjust the antenna directional angle or the antenna downtilt so as to ensure that there is a serving cell of the coverage area, which has relatively strong and stable signals. Adjust the transmission power of the carrier frequencies of the relevant cells so as to ensure that there is a serving cell of the coverage area, which has relatively strong and stable signals. When the serving cell of the area is made clear, it is suggested that the cell reselection parameters should be adjusted so as to ensure that the subscribers can reside in the serving cell as long as possible. In this way, it is possible to relieve the frequent cell reselections. When the serving cell of the area is made clear, it is suggested that the handover parameters of the cells should
be adjusted so as to reduce or eliminate the “ping-pong handovers” during the calls.
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