# GSM Capacity Planning

ZTE university

Contents

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General introduction Capacity planning flow Planning site configuration Channel planning LAC planning Common problem about capacity planning

I General introduction
1. Purpose of capacity planning 2. Classifciation

3. What is Erlang
4. Busy hour and BHCA 5. Traffic model of speech service 6. What is GOS？ 7. Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour 8. Erlang B Table

1. Purpose of capacity planning

Principle of network planning and optimization: To construct a piece of wireless network with as much capacity and coverage as possible under a certain amount of cost, and make it adapt to capacity expansion and network development in the future, that is, CCCQ principle of optimality (C-Cost, C-Coverage, C-Capacity, Q-Quality) 。 GSM capacity planning aims to plan the network scale and configuration according to the predicted capacity requirements under certain cost and satifactory QoS.
Network capacity

Quality of service

Cost

Suggestions for Network scale and configuration

2. Classification
New network
The operator has no existent network in the area. It is necessary to figure out network scale (including BTS quantity, site configuration and channel configuration) according to the operator’s requirements on capacity and QoS.

Expansion

Predict the capacity growth in the future, and figure out how many sets of BTS and TRX are needed, and how to modify channel configuration.

Swap

Based on the capacity requirements, figure out the network scale and configuration for swap.

3. What is Erlang ?
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Erlang is an index to measure traffic. It indicates the traffic volume of a channel within the test time; To put it simply, traffic refers to the occupation time of a speech channel. If it has being occupied for an hour, then the traffic is 1 Erlang; If it has being occupied for half an hour, then the traffic is 0.5 Erlang; (Erlang is used as the unit to measure the traffic to honor the scientist Elang)

1 Erlang

A speech channel is being 100% occupied continuously for 1 hour

4. Busy hour and BHCA？

Busy hour: Traffic in the period of busy hour are the most heavy of a day;
Busy hour in the morning: It refers to the time with the most heavy traffic in the morning; For example: 10: 00—11: 00;

Busy hour at night: It refers to the time with the most heavy traffic in the morning; For example: 20: 00—21: 00;
Busy hour of the system: It refers to the time with the most heavy traffic according to the system statistics;

BHCA is an abbreviation for Busy Hour Call Attempt;

5. Traffic model of speech service

Traffic model of speech service is embodied by GOS and Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour

GOS
Traffic models of speech service

Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour

6. What is GOS？

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GOS is the abbreviation for Grade of Service, which can also be called call loss rate; GOS: when all of channels in the system are occupied, if there are more calls coming in, those calls will be blocked due to connection failure. Call loss rate is the probability of blocked calls, that is GOS.
Generally, GOS of TCH is planned as 2% or 5% in GSM system.

Call cannot be connected！

Normal！

7. Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour

Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour:

0     

1

 3600

 0 is traffic per subscriber on busy hour   is calls of each subscriber in a day is call duration   is coefficient of busy hours (traffic on busy hour to total traffic in a day)
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Example: Suppose each subscriber makes 10 calls averagely a day, and the call duration is 60S (1/60Erlang), and the coefficient of busy hours is 1/8: Traffic of each subscriber on busy hour: =[10 X (1/8) X 60]/3600=0.0208Erl/user
Generally, traffic of each subscriber on busy hour is planned as 0.015 ～0.03Erl/user Actually, traffic of each subscriber on busy hour is calculated based on the fomula of (total traffic/number of VLR subscribers)

8. Erlang B Table

Erlang-B Table gives relationship of number of TCHs, GOS and available Erlang. If any two of them are known, the third can also be figured out.

II Capacity Planning Flow
1. Capacity planning procedure
2. Step 1: Capacity forecast 3. Step 2: Analyze traffic distribution

4. Step 3: Site configuration
5. Step 4: Decide quantity of BTSs 6. Is final network scale determined by coverage

or capacity？

1. Capacity planning procedure

Capacity planning
1 2 3 4 5

Capacity forecast

Analyze traffic distribution

Site configuration

Ascertain quantity of BTSs

Determine site distribution

2. Step 1: capacity forecast
Capacity planning
1 2 3 4 5

Capacity forecast

Analyze traffic distribution

Site configuration

Ascertain quantity of BTSs

Determine site distribution

Area division

Divide areas to be planned Capacity forecast for speech/data service in each area

Capacity forecast

Traffic model

Traffic model of speech/data service in each area

3. Step 2: Analyze traffic distribution
Capacity planning
1 2 3 4 5

Capacity forecast

Analyze traffic distribution

Site configuration

Ascertain quantity of BTSs

Determine site distribution

Area division Traffic distribution

Divide areas to be planned

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Traffic distribution forecast for each area

Population distribution Income level Vehicles Telephones Traffic statistics of OMC

4. Step 3: Site configuration
Capacity planning
1 2 2 3 4 5

Capacity forecast

Analyze traffic distribution

Site configuration

Ascertain quantity of BTSs

Determine site distribution

Max. site configuration Subscriber distribution Equipment capacity

Figure out max. configuration of the site based on selected multiplexing mode and available frequency resources Decide site configuration based on wireless environment and subscriber distribution
Configuration capacity of wireless products

5. Decide quantity of BTSs

Figure out quantity of BTSs based on capacity:

Network scale

Coverage planning Traffic distribution Site configuration and quantity

Capacity of a single site

Site configuration

Start

Frequency multiplexing Frequency resource

Channel planning Data service Max. site configuration

Capacity of a single cell ERL B table Traffic model

6. Is final network scale determined by coverage or capacity？
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Capacity planning is the preliminary stage to decide quantity of BTSs and site configuration based on coverage planning. Network planning is a process to determine quantity of BTSs and site configuration after constant improvements based on coverage and capacity.
For example:
Coverage planning shows 120 sets of BTSs are needed, but capacity planning shows 100 sets are needed. Then, it can be concluded the final number is 120.

Capacity planning

Network scale

Coverage planning

III Planning site Configuration
1. Frequency resources available for GSM system
2. Frequency multiplexing methods of GSM system 3. Max. site configuration

5. Max. site configuration under different ways of frequency multiplexing

1. Frequency resources available for GSM system

Frequency resources for GSM system:
Number of duplex channels
124 174

GSM system
GSM900 EGSM900

890 ~ 915 880 ~ 915

935 ~ 960 925 ~ 960 2 ×25 2 ×35

Duplex internal/ MHz
45 45

GSM1800 GSM1900

1710 ~ 1785 1850~1910

1805 ~ 1880 1930~1990

2 ×75 2 ×60

95 80

374 299

2. Frequency multiplexing methods of GSM system
2*3 3*3 Common multiplexing GSM Frequency multiplexing 4*3 5*3 Commonly used！
Site Hopping

RF hopping
Frequency hopping Baseband FH

1*1

Commo nly used ！ 1*3
Sector Hopping

3. Max. site configuration

Max. site configuration of GSM system is determined by frequency resources and frequency multiplexing.
Frequency resources Frequency multiplexing

Max. site configuration of GSM

Case: With 7.2MHz GSM900 frequency resources available, the operator asks to use 4*3 multiplexing for BCCH, and use 1*1 RF hopping for TCH. What is the maximum site configuration in this case ？

7.2MHz frequency resource provides 36 frequency points. For BCCH using 4*3 multiplexing, it needs 12 frequency points. Excluding 1 frequency point reserved for isolation, the rest 23 (36-12-1) frequency points are for TCH, which uses 1*1 RF hopping. The load of frequency hopping is no bigger than 50%. MAlist={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23}; MAIO planning is as follows:
Cell 1 MAIO = { 1, 7, 13, 19 }; Cell 2 MAIO = { 3, 9, 15, 21 }; Cell 3 MAIO = { 5, 11, 17, 23 };

Hence, max. site configuration of TCH is S444, and it is S555 if taking BCCHS111 into consideration.

Load of frequency hopping: number of TRXs for frequency hopping/number of FH points configured for the site If load of frequency hopping is <=50% or exceeds 50%, it may cause severe intra-frequency interference and inter-frequency interference.

Suppose:
① Available bandwidth is10M ② 4*3 multiplexing for BCCH ③ 1*3 frequency hopping for TCH ④ 1 frequency point reserved for isolation between BCCH and TCH.

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Number of available frequency points =10M/0.2M=50 BCCH needs 12 frequency points Number of available frequency points for TCH=50-12-1=37 Number of FH (frequency hopping) points configured in 3cells are 12, 12 and 13 respectively Number of TRXs for FH=37*50%=18, maximum TCH configuration is S6/6/6 The max. site configuration is S777, taking BCCH into consideration.

5. Max. site configuration under different ways of frequency multiplexing
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Case: With 7.2MHz GSM900 frequency resources available, what is the maximum site configuration under different ways of frequency multiplexing ？

I No frequency hopping, use 4*3 multiplexing for BCCH, and 3*3 multiplexing for TCH ① 12 (4*3) frequency points for BCCH; ② 24 (36-12) frequency points for TCH; For multiplexing of 3*3, 24/9=2, remaining 6; In this case, max. site configuration for TCH is S332 ③ The max. site configuration is S443, taking BCCH into consideration. II Use 4*3 multiplexing for BCCH, and 1*1 FH hopping for TCH; reserve one frequency point for isolation between BCCH and TCH; load of frequency hopping is 50%

① 12 (4*3) frequency points for BCCH;
② Number of available TCH frequency points is 23 (36-12-1), int(23*50%) =11; in this case, the max. site configuration of TCH is S443. ③ The max. site configuration is S554, taking BCCH into consideration.

IV Channel Planning
1. Configuring BCCH/CCCH (Combined)
2. Configuring BCCH/CCCH (Non Combined) 3. Planning SDCCH

4. Planning PDCH
5. How to figure out number of TCHs？ 6. Points of attention in HR planning

1. Configuring BCCH/CCCH (Combined)

BCCH is broadcast control channel. Each cell must be configured with 1 BCCH, which can be at TS0, TS2, TS4 or TS6 of C0. Generally, it is configured over the first TS0 of the first C0.

CCCH is common control channel, including AGCH, PCH and RACH. Those channels are for all mobile stations in a cell. Each cell must be configured with 1 CCCH, which can be over at TS0, TS2, TS4, TS6 of C0. Generally, it is configured over the first TS0 of the first C0.

Combined:

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

f sbbbbc c c c f sc f c ccc ccc f s t f t t t t t t t f st f t t t t t t t f ss f ss s s s s s Uplink
1. 2. 3. 4.

f sr r r r r r r r r fr rrr rr r rrr fr r r r tt t t t t ft t rrt t t t t t t t r r s ss s s s s 0 50

2. Configuring BCCH/CCCH (Non Combined)
Non Combined:

51 TDMA frames = 235ms

f c c c c c c c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f c ccc c c c f sbb bb c c c c f sc Uplink frr r r rr rr r r frr rrrr rrrr frr r rr rr rr r fr rrr r rrr rrrrrr rrrrrrr

BCCH/CCCH needs 1 physical chanel！

3. Planning SDCCH
Services over SDCCH Location update IMSI attached/detached Call setup SMS Fax/supplementary service

Traffic per subscriber for different service:
Numberofserviceexecutions  numberofsubscrbers  duration (mE/user) 3.6

Traffic 

Configuration without HR enabled
TRX Configuring SDCCH when there is no CBCH General cells 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 Intra-cells SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 Boundary cells SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8

TRX

Configuring SDCCH when there is CBCH General cells Intra-cells SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 Boundary cells SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8

1 2 3

SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8

4
5 6 7 8

2*SDCCH/8
2*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8

2*SDCCH/8
2*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8

2*SDCCH/8
3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 4*SDCCH/8

4. Planning PDCH

PDCH must be planned based on traffic model of data services (GPRS/EDGE). The traffic model includes such factors as subscribers of data services, average subscriber rate on busy hour and coding method. Based on the model, figure out the average bearing rate in the IP layer of each PDCH channel, and thus number of PDCH channels in a cell.
Parameter Number of speech subscriber in each cell Subscriber penetration rate of data service Probability of subscribers activating data service at the same time Number of data service subscribers on busy hour in each cell Average data service rate per subscriber on busy hour Average data service rate per cell on busy hour Effective rate of i-coding in the IP layer Proportion of i-coding Average bearing rate over each PDCH in the IP layer Number of PDCHs requrired for each cell Option A B C D=A*B*C E F=D*E/1000 G H I=SUMi(G*H) i=CS1～CS4, MCS1～MCS9 J=F/I kbps bps kbps kbps Unit

5. How to figure out number of TCHs？

TCH Calculation formula : Number of TCHs= number of TRXs * 8 BCCH/CCCH – SDCCH - PDCH
For a swap project, if the existent network capacity can be obtained through the OMCR, number of TCHs can be figured out by checking the ErlangB table according to subscribers of speech service, subscriber distribution and traffic model.
Number of channels BCCH/ CCCH Number of SDCCHs Number of PDCHs Number of TCHs Capacity GOS=2% (Erlang)

Number of TRXs

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4

5 13 20 27 35 41 49 56

1.66 7.4 13.18 19.27 26.43 31.92 39.33 45.87

6. Points of attention in HR planning

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Proportion of HR can be understood in two angles of views :
Proportion of HR =Number of FRs converted into HR/total number of FRs before conversion to HR Proportion of HR =Number of HRs after conversion/number of HRs and FRs (this meaning is generally accepted)

Points of attention in HR planning: Keeping a certain proportion (60%) of HR to meet the increasing signaling load, but it is also necessary to increase number of SDCCHs accordingly.

V LAC Planning
1. What is LAC？
2. What is BS-AG-BLK-RES？ 3. Difference between TMSI paging and IMSI paging

4. LAC planning procedure from the angle of Um
5. Impact of too small/big LAC divisions 6. Principles of selecting boundaries of LA

1. What is LAC？

LAC (Location Area Code) is a unit for paging scope. The paging message of MS is sent to all of the cells in the LAC where the MS is . The GSM network is divided into many different LACs. An LAC may has one set of BSC or more, and all of them belong to one MSC; while one set BSC/MSC may cover multiple LACs.

Principle of LAC planning: to minimize location updates while controlling paging load.

2. What is BS-AG-BLK-RES？

This parameter defines number of message blocks specially reserved for AGCH in each BCCH multi-frame.
★ For cells where CCCH and SDCCH are shared, value span of BS-AG-BLK-RES is 0~2; For cells where CCCH and SDCCH are shared, value span of BS-AG-BLK-RES is 0~7; if there is CBCH, then the value span is 1~7.

CCCH_CONF 1

BS_AG_BLK_RES 0 1 2

Blocks reserved for AGCH in each BCCH in each BCCH multi-frame 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Blocks reserved for PCH in each BCCH multi-frame 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Others

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3. Difference between TMSI paging and IMSI paging

Three configurations of BTS paging blocks :
a) 2 IMSI paging b) 2 TMSI and 1 IMSI paging c) 4 TMSI paging

Compared to IMSI paging, TMSI paging can help to improve paging capacity of the system;  For large-capacity paging network, using TMSI paging can increase connection-through rate, and the connecting time can also be shortened.
Three configuration of paging blocks

4. LAC planning procedure from the angle of Um
Paging blocks per second
(1 frame =4.615ms, 1 multi-frame =51 frame =0.2354s)  For non-combined BCCH: number of paging blocks per second=(9-AGB) /0.2354  For combined BCCH: number of paging blocks per second =(3-AGB) /0.2354 For non-combined BCCH, ZTE’s configuration is AGB=2, number of paging blocks per second＝29.7 paging blocks/second
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X
Paging messages in each paging block Paging times sent per second Paging times supported per hour Traffic in each location area TRX quantity supported by each location area
If using IMSI paging: X＝2 paging times/paging block If using TMSI paging : X = 4 paging times/paging block

For non-combined BCCH, in case of AGB =2:  If using IMSI paging: P= 59.47 paging times/second;  If using TMSI paging: P=118.95 paging times/second; Conversion from second to hour

For existent network: collect paging messages sent by BSC;  For new network: calculate the traffic based on the traffic model; For example: T*30%/(1/60) *1.25 = P*50%(T is traffic , P means paging times) If using IMSI paging and non-BCCH, AGB=2, P= 59.47, -T=4757.6 Erl Processing ability of BTS:  V3: at most 39 paging blocks in the BTS, that is 39*3600=140400 paging messages/hour, which is about140, 000/hour;  SDR: no limitation as above; From the angle of the Abis interface, LAPD can support up to 400, 000 paging messages per hour; so processing ability of BSC to 400, 000 paging messages per hou, which shows the limitation is generally over the Um interface.

5. Impact of too small/big LAC divisions
LAC division is too small LAC division is too big

Big paging scope

Cause the secondary call

Waste channel resources, and also increase load of MSC and HLR

It will take an MS about 10s to update LA

Paging messages get lost, and thus impact paging success rate

Increase paging load of the system, thus impact paging success rate

Balance between channel resources and paging capacity of the system

6. Principles of selecting boundaries of LA
Boundaries of LA should not be at the areas where the traffic is heavy, eg. downtown of a city.

Principles of selecting boundaries of LA
Boundaries of several neighbor LAs cannot can cross each othe at a small place It is necessary to take future capacity expansion into consideration when design paging capacity and traffic capacity.

VI Common problems about capacity planning
1. Problems if lack of network capacity
2. Ways to increase network capacity

1.Problems if lack of network capacity

A call cannot be connected ~
“Sorry, network is busy”

Subscribers change an operator, which is not good for brand image and operating profit！

Short messages cannot be sent successfully
“Failed to sent the message ！

Lack of network capacity
Deteriorate KPI indices ！ Decrease perceptibility of subscribers Cannot access Internet by GPRS/EDGE

2. Ways to increase network capacity
Break of cellular cells Add TRXs/sites Add cellular equipment Extend frequency band More compact multiplexing of frequency HR ......