This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Definition: • The science of detecting and identifying the presence of drugs and poisons in body fluids, tissues, and organs.
Controlled Substances Act
• Federal Law established 5 schedules of classification of controlled substances based on
– Drug’s potential for abuse – Potential to physical and psychological dependence – Medical Value • Note: Federal law also controls materials that are used in making drugs and those that are manufactured to resemble drugs
have some medical value with restrictions Ex: PCP. Most Opiates. LSD. Marijuana • Schedule II: • Drugs with high potential for abuse and addiction. Cocaine. Some Barbiturates .Drug Schedules • Schedule I: • Drugs with high potential for abuse and addiction. Amphetamines. NO medical value Ex: Heroin. Ecstasy.
Steroids • Schedule IV: • Drugs with low potential for abuse and addiction. currently acceptable for medical use Ex: Tranquilizers like Valium. Librium . Xanax.Drug Schedules • Schedule III: • Drugs with less potential for abuse and addiction. Codeine. currently acceptable for medical use Ex: Some Barbiturates.
Drug Schedules • Schedule V: • Drugs with low potential abuse. lowest potential dependency • Ex: Some Opiates with Non-Narcotic Ingredients . medical use.
but metabolites of desired chemicals (ex.Role of the Toxicologist • Must identify one of thousands of drugs and poisons • Must find nanogram to microgram quantities dissipated throughout the entire body • Not always looking for exact chemicals. heroin morphine within seconds) .
Toxicology Procedures • 10mL of blood in airtight container – Add anticoagulant – Add preservative • 2 consecutive urine samples – Some drugs take a while to show up in urine (1-3 days) • Vitreous humor • Hair samples .
immunoassay • Confirmation– determines exact identity – GC/Mass Spec Note: TLC—thin layer chromatography . TLC. GC.Toxicology Procedures • Screening– quick test to narrow down possibilities – color tests.
morphine.Color Tests • Marquis Test: – Turns purple in the presence of Heroin. opium – Turns orange-brown in presence of Amphetamines • Scott Test: Three solutions – Blue then pink then back to blue in the presence of Cocaine • Duquenois-Levine: – Test for marijuana –turns purple .
More Analytical Tests • Microcrystalline Tests: Identifies drug by using chemicals that reacts to produce characteristic crystals • Chromatography: TLC. HPLC and gas – separate drugs/tentative ID • Mass Spectrometry: chemical ―fingerprint‖ no two drugs fragment the same .
Why? • Think of all the people that you have ―heard‖ do drugs.000 annual traffic deaths are alcohol related and send over 2 million people to the hospital .000 out of 44. • US drug manufacturers produce enough barbiturates and tranquilizers each year to give every person in the US 40 pills • (that’s about 12 billion pills) • 18.
by breath. and kidneys—turned into carbon dioxide and water . alcohol is: – Oxidized. perspiration.Toxicology of Alcohol • Alcohol is absorbed through the stomach and intestine • Once absorbed.in liver by alcohol dehydrogenase—turned into acidic acid – Excreted.
Factors that Affect Alcohol Absorption • Time of consumption • Type of alcoholic beverage • Presence of food in stomach .
Toxicology of Alcohol • Alcohol intoxication depends on – Amount of alcohol consumed – Time of consumption – Body weight – Rate of alcohol absorption .
Fate of Alcohol • Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream • Distributed through-out the body’s water • And finally eliminated by oxidation and excretion .
Fate of Alcohol Con’t Note: A. normally excreted in breath and urine . Oxidation is the combination of oxygen and alcohol to produce new products by the liver B. Elimination is removing alcohol from the body in an unchanged state.
Alcohol in the Circulatory System • Measuring the quantity of alcohol in the blood system determines the degree to which someone is drunk • Two methods of making this measurement – Measurement of alcohol content in blood – Measurement of alcohol in breath .
Circulation and Alcohol .
Circulation and Alcohol .
Circulation Definitions • Artery—a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart • Vein—a blood vessel that transports blood toward the heart • Capillary—a tiny blood vessel—walls exchange materials between blood and tissues • Alveoli—small sacs in lungs—exchange vapors between breath and blood .
• Evidence has shown that the ratio of alcohol to alveoli air is approx. 2100 to 1—This is a basis for relating breath to blood-alcohol concentration. it will be passed from the blood into the alveoli where it will be passed on to the mouth and nose during the act of breathing. .Circulation Con’t • Note: If alcohol is present.
Analysis of BAC • Breath Tests • Field Sobriety Tests • Blood Tests .
• One instrument used for breath tests is called The Breathalyzer.Breath Tests • A breath test reflects the alcohol concentration in the pulmonary artery. • The Breathalyzer is a device for collecting and measuring the alcohol content of alveolar breath. .
The Breathalyzer .
. • Since the amount of alcohol in 2100 milliliters of breath approximates the amount of alcohol in 1 milliliter of blood—the Breathalyzer in essence measures the alcohol concentration present in 1/40 of a milliliter of blood.The Breathalyzer Con’t • The Breathalyzer traps 1/40 of 2100 milliliters of alveolar breath.
Breathalyzer Con’t • Once the alveolar breath is trapped it is allowed to undergo a chemical reaction: • 2K2Cr2O7 + 3C2H5OH + 8H2SO4 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 2K2SO4 + 3CH3COOH + 11H2O Potassium dichromate Ethyl alcohol Sulfuric acid Chromium sulfate Potassium sulfate Acetic acid Dihydrogen oxide • The Breathalyzer indirectly determines the quantity of alcohol consumed by measuring the absorption of light by potassium chromate before and after its reaction with alcohol. using the principle of spectrophotometry .
Other Breath Tests • Infrared breath-testing instrument • Fuel cell • Note: These instruments are used more recently because they don’t depend upon chemical reagents and are entirely automated. .
Infrared-Breath Test • Uses the principle that infrared light is absorbed when shined on alcohol • Essentially. • The decrease in light intensity is proportional to the concentration of alcohol present in the captured breath . the infrared light passes through a chamber where it will interact with the alcohol and cause the light density to decrease.
Fuel Cell—Breath Test • A fuel cell converts a fuel and an oxidant into an electrical current. generating a current that is proportional to the quantity of alcohol present in the breath. • In this test. • Alcohol is converted. the breath alcohol is the fuel and atmospheric oxygen acts as the oxidant. .
Infrared and Fuel Cell Breath Tests • Infrared Breath Test uses infrared wavelengths to test for alcohol or other interferences in the breath • Fuel Cell Test converts fuel (alcohol) and oxygen into a measurable electric current .
Field Sobriety Testing • Two reasons for the field sobriety test: 1. . Used as a preliminary test to ascertain the degree of the suspect’s physical impairment 2. To see whether or not an evidential test is justified.
.Field Sobriety Testing Methods • Field sobriety testing consists of a series of psychophysical tests and a preliminary breath test (typically done with a handheld fuel cell tester) • These tests are preliminary and nonevidential in nature—they only serve to establish probable cause requiring a more thorough breath or blood test.
Field Sobriety Tests • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus – Involuntary eye jerk as eye moves horizontally • Walk and Turn (divided attention tasks) • One-Leg Stand .
Parts of the brain affected by Alcohol • Alcohol 1st affects the forebrain and moves backward • Last affected is medulla oblongata .
Ireland. or Japan (0.15% BAC • 1965: intoxicated = 0.08% BAC At least we don’t live in France.10% BAC • 2003: intoxicated = 0.05%) or especially Sweden (0. Germany.02%)! .Alcohol and the Law • 1939-1964: intoxicated = 0.
com/wheel/drinkwheel.Alcohol and the Law • Try the drink wheel: http://www.intox.asp .
The End .