Hydraulics is the study and understanding of the behavior of liquids at rest and in motion. We are concerned with water, and we have the following four characteristics of our application:

1. How much water do we have (Pool Capacity)? 2. How fast do we want to move the water (Turnover Rate)? 3. How much resistance will this water meet while moving

through the system (Friction Loss)?
4. How will we overcome this resistance (Pump/Filter Sizing)?

Following are step – by – step instructions to answer these four questions. determine the proper size pump or filter for virtually any aftermarket installation. to 1. Each step is a calculation based on the following example: 5. (clean).00 m by 10. .S.50m deep . filter gauge reads 10 P. 0. pump. and ultimately.I.P.90m.00 m rectangular pool. With an existing 1 H.

1.Surface Area Area = (A+B)x L x .45 Area = R x R x 3.1416 Area = L x W _____________m 2 (surface area ) Surface Area: 5. Pool Capacity To determine total gallons. multiply the square meter by average depth to determine the approximate cube of the pool: . = 50.00m. we must first calculate the surface area of the pool in square meter: A.00 m 2 Next. X 10.00m.

00m3 x 264. C. Cube ___________m2 + __________ m = _________ m3 (surface area) (average depth) (cube) Cube : 50.20m. Average Depth ( __________m + _________ m ) ÷ 2 = __________m (depth – shallow end) (depth . = 60.50m.deep end) (average depth) Average Depth : (0.90m + 1.) ÷ 2 = 1.2 x 1. Pool Capacity ________m³ x 264.00m3 D.850 gallons .171gals = 15.B.00m.20 m.171 gallons /m3 = ________ gallons Pool Capacity: 60.

an eight (8) to ten (10) hour rate is quite common: A.Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Hour (GPH) ____________ gallons ÷ _________________ hours = ____________GPH (pool capacity) (desired turnover time) (turnover rate – gallons per hour) Turnover rate : 15. However.Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Minutes (GPM) ______________ gallons/ hour ÷ 60 minutes = ______________ GPM (turnover rate (turnover rate gallons per hour) gallons per minute) Turnover rate : 1.585 gallons per hour ÷ 60 = 26 GPM .585 gallons per hour B. to meet reasonably clean.850 gallons ÷ 10 hours = 1.Once the pool’s capacity has been calculated. The recommended minimum standards for swimming pools are not less than the flow rate to provide one (1) full turnover of the pool every twelve (12) hours . safe water standards. the next step is to determine how fast the water must be circulated in Gallons Per Minute (GPM).

a vacuum reading will not be available: therefore. Therefore. see A on the next page.creates resistance. or Head Loss. see C on the next page. The sum of all the resistance is called Total Dynamic Head. see B on the next page. what follows is a simplified “rule – of – thumb” means of determining Total Dynamic Head. We will need to add the resistance from the vacuum (suction) side of the pump. . we are unable to determine the total amount of pipe and fittings in an existing installation… it’s underground. Friction Loss Everything that the water must pass through within the recirculating system plumbing and equipment . (measured in inches of mercury with a vacuum gauge : one (1) inch of mercury = 1. Often. (measured in pounds per square inch – as of head ). to determine Total Dynamic Head. the table below provides Common Head Loss Factors for today’s high – efficiency pumps.3.13 feet of water): to the resistance on the pressure side of pump. Typically. and is measured in Feet of Head.

S. X 2.P.I. one (1) 2” valve and full – rated pumps. of water (existing 1 H. = ____________ft. Pump – 13. not to exceed 40’ long.5 ft.P. of water 1 ½ H. Pump – 4.P. minimal fittings.P. of head .31 ft.13 ft. of head ( filter. Pump – 10 to 12. of head/ P.5 ft.5 to 5. mercury x 1.P. of water 1 H. of water 2 H. Pump – 7 to 9 ft. of water (vacuum reading) (total resistance – vacuum) Or COMMON HEAD LOSS FACTORS Vacuum (At Pump) – Assumes 2” suction line.S.S. of water Total Resistance (Vacuum): 9 ft. Friction Loss ( Pressure) _______________ P. x 2. pump) B.I.5 to 16 ft.A.I.clean) (total resistance – pressure) Total Resistance (Pressure): 10 P.31 = 23 ft. ¾ H. Friction Loss (Vacuum) ______________ in. of water = ____________ ft.

) Size and (PVC) Return Line 1½” 2” 2½” 50 GPM 85 GPM 125 GPM 65 GPM 105 GPM 150 GPM .C.e. of water + __________ft. of head (total resistance – vacuum) resistance to flow) (total resistance./ sec. suction line (8ft. Total Dynamic Head ____________ ft. Pipesec.). of head = 32 ft. of head = ________ft..pressure) (total Total Resistance to flow : 9 ft. of head NOTE: the table below provides a maximum flow (GPM) through 1 ½ “ and 2” PVC pipe without exceeding the maximum standards for velocity (ft. i. of water + 23 ft./ return Suction line (10 Line ft./ sec).

of head Pool capacity: 15.850 gallons Turnover rate: 26 GPM Friction loss: 32 ft. To re cap.Re Cap We now have all of the information necessary to select the proper size pump and / or filter. which will see as our road map to sizing: Pool Capacity ___________ gallons Turnover Rate ___________ gallons per minute (GPM) Friction Loss ____________ ft. enter the final calculations from the previous three sections in the spaces below. of head .

See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward pumps. 30ft. Total Resistance to Flow (Feet of Head ) 20 ft.4. Feet of Head (resistance). A . 50ft. Full Rated SP2600X5 SP2605X 7 SP2607X SP2607 55 67 85 45 58 76 29 47 65 31 50 27 - . proper selection is of utmost importance. 40ft. Performance Data – Pump Pump Output (GPM) vs. Pump Sizing Since the one and only function of the pump is to overcome the total resistance to the flow of the system. Max Rated Model No. A pump’s performance data is to provide in GPM (output) vs. 70ft. Model No. 60ft.

reducing the everyday maintenance required by the . 800 21. One additional factor to consider in filter sizing is the bathers load.400 31. 2 2. 2.040 21.e. Filtering Sizing A filter.200 hours).14 ft.75 ft.64 ft.000 26. Busier pools require larger filters. sand or cartridge. See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward filters .960 47. 000 gallons in 10 S244T rate. larger filters provide longer cycles.4. 2 2 35 GPM 44 GPM 52 GPM 98 GPM 16.handle 62 pools GPM up 29.20 ft. B. 26 VS.760 37. 3.200 58. 35 2 GPM turnover will to 21. Also.800 Select S180T (minimum) to adequately filter pool(i.120 24. as well as Turnover Rate ( Pool Capacity in Gallons).E. Model Effectiv Design Number e Flow Filtratio Rate n Area Turnover (in Gallons) 8 Hours 10 Hours S180T S210T S220T S310T 1.2 4. has a Design Flow Rate (in Gallons Per Minute – GPM).91 ft. be it D.

then select the proper size component to meet the needs of the installation. choose the desired pump and / or filter model . It is important to remember that your Turnover Rate calculation is keyed directly to a specific Total Dynamic Head calculation (i. based upon your calculations.your resistance will increase or decrease .e . Feet of Head).Summary Using the information in the re-cap section above.GPM vs.If you increase or decrease your GPM for any reason.



The reasons for filtration. Cartridge and Diatomaceous Earth (D.). Much of the material suspended in the water.sparkling water are obvious. but it is also necessary for health and safety reasons.E. derived from the plants and animal sources which provides food for bacteria and algae. It is these materials that must be removed if a pool or spa is to be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. Clear water not only looks beautiful. The three most popular types of filtration currently in use in residential pools and spas are High–Rate remove insoluble matter such as dirt and algae. Each method of filtration is explained below. .The important of proper swimming pool or spa filtration cannot be overstated. and to help produce clear.

2. because it has sharp edges that serve to separate particles. filtered water to pass through. it will remove finer particles. water always flows from top to bottom. Initially . and then. a clean sand bed will remove larger particles.The oldest and most popular method of filtration is sand. . Sand filters share two things in common: 1. When in the filtration mode . They operate on the basis of “depth” filtration. High – rate sand filters use a special filter sand.55mm (also known as pool – grade #20 silica sand). normally . as the bed starts to load up. They all have some sort of lateral or underdrain with slots to hold back sand while allowing clean. dirt is driven through the sand bed and trapped in the minute spaces between the particles of sand. 45 to . allowing filtration to take place.


dirt is screened out at the surface of the cartridge element. The cartridge element can be removed and cleaned by pressure washing inside and out using a garden hose. When water passes through a cartridge filter. When clean.Cartridge filtration has been available for a relatively long time. but only recently has begun to enjoy rapid growth and acceptance. with finer particles being filtered out as the pores of the element become clogged by the larger debris. . the element will trap larger particles.


E filtration to be the finest.E.but particles.are trapped the first pass through the media. Similar to sand filters.E powder. when a D. it is cleaned either by backwashing the .as small as one to three microns.that. dust.looks like a tiny sponges. It is this “filter cake” that strains dirt.Many pool professionals consider D.E. algae and some forms of bacteria from the water.Clear water can pass through these openings. Diatomaceous earth is a porous powder with microscopic openings. because it is capable of removing smaller particles than either sand or cartridge.when magnified. filter becomes dirty. filters have internal elements that become coated with D. All D.



clean water.Most pool owner complaints are directly related to water chemistry or improper sizing of filters and pumps rather than equipment failures.Whatever method of filtration is selected. it is important to remember that filtration alone does not keep water looking its best. . Proper water chemistry must also be maintained for safe.


Apply chlorine preferably in the evening by hand broadcasting it direct into the water. . CHLORINE : Chlorine is used as disinfectant or water purifier.0 readings) to ensure that there is sufficient amount to adequately disinfect the water.6 – 1.1. Chlorine level must be maintained at reasonable limits (0. but not in excessive amounts which will irritate bathers.

.2 – 7. Ph – Muriatic Acid: Too much acid (low pH) causes irritation to the eyes and mucous membrane. The pH readings must be between 7.6 for comfortable swimming.2. algae prosper and the pool gives off an unpleasant chlorine odor. Apply acid one pint at a time by directly pouring it around the pool.

0 and pH at 7.6 – 1.6 is all that is required to prevent the spread of algae and thus keep the pool sanitary and attractive. .In short.2 – 7. regular chlorine dosages to maintain chlorine readings at 0.

clean the pool floor and brush sides thoroughly every morning. Apply chemicals in the evening and run the filter at least 4 to 6 hours daily. .WHAT TO DO: Maintenance is a matter of good housekeeping. That’s all there is to it. Vacuum.

00 20. daily Amount of Acid (pH) 3 pints or 1 ½ qts.000. So always use the test-kit before adding the qts. that the above table is only a guide.00 8 – 10 oz. daily 5 – 7 oz. 5 pints or 2 ½ qts. daily 4 – 6 oz. 7 – 9 oz.000. daily test – kit will tell you when to put chlorine acid to the 40. Your water chemicals.000. daily or 9 – 10 pints or 5 pool.00 Amount of Chlorine 3 – 4 oz.00 8 – 9 pints or 4 ½ qts.000. daily 7 – 8 pints or 4 4 quartz = 1 gallon qts. 35.000. . Remember.00 8 pints =6 – 8 oz.Pool Gallonage 15. 30. 6 pints or 3 qts.00 25.000.