Assessment of Learning in the Cognitive Domain
Learning and achievement in the cognitive domain are usually measured in school through the use of paper – and – pencil tests (Oliva, 1988). Teachers have to measure students’ achievement in all the levels of the cognitive domain. Thus, they need to cognizant with the procedures in the development of the different types of paper – and – pencil tests. This chapter is focused on acquainting prospective teachers with methods and techniques of measuring learning in the cognitive domain.

application. analysis. synthesis. The most commonly assessed.Behaviors Measured and Assessed in the Cognitive Domain There are three domains of behavior measured and assessed in schools. comprehension. is the cognitive domain. The cognitive domain deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development into six hierarchical levels. namely: knowledge. however. . and evaluation.

• Comprehension Level -behaviors associated with the clarification and articulation of the main idea of what students are learning.• Knowledge Level -behaviors related to recognizing and remembering facts. and other important data on any topic or subject. concepts. .

cause – effect relationship. and conclusions. assumptions. such as looking for motives. .• Application Level . which require students to apply what they have learned to other situations or cases in their lives.behaviors that have something to do with problem – solving and expression. hypotheses. • Analysis Level -behaviors that require students to think critically. differences and similarities.

object.• Synthesis Level: -behaviors that call for creative thinking. . such as combining elements in new ways. or idea or giving opinion on an issue. creating original solutions to a problem and building models. • Evaluation Level: -behaviors that necessitate judging the value or worth of a person. planning original experiments.

teachers have to answer the following questions (Airisian.Preparing for Assessment of Cognitive Learning Prior to the construction of paper – and – pencil test to be use in the measurement of cognitive learning. 1994) .

is that testing emphasis should parallel teaching emphasis. Identification of the information. The basic rule to remember. . Knowledge of what shall be tested will enable a teacher to develop an appropriate test for the purpose. and behaviors to be tested is the first important decision that a teacher has to take. however.What Should Be Tested. skills.

if he decides to use observation of students’ performance of the targeted skill.How to Gather Information About What to Test. Decisions on how to gather information about what to test depends on the objective or the nature or behavior to be tested. Should he decide to use a paper – and – pencil test. A teacher has to decide whether he should give a paper and pencil test or simply gather information through observation. . then he has to develop appropriate devices to use in recording his observations.

The answer to the aforementioned question depends on the following factors: age and attention span of the students. and type of questions to be used. .How Long the Test Should Be.

providing learners with good instruction 2. providing students information about the test. . To prepare students for teaching. 1. familiarizing students with question formats 4. Airisian (1994) recommends the following measures.How Best to Prepare Students for Testing. reviewing students before testing 3. scheduling the test 5.

Assessing Cognitive Learning Teacher use two types of tests in assessing student learning in the cognitive domain: objective test and essay test (Reyes. On the other hand. An objective test is a kind of test wherein there is only one answer to each item. 2000). . an essay test is one wherein the test taker has the freedom to respond to a question based on how he feels it should be answered.

Types of Objective Tests There are generally two types of objective tests: supply type and selection type (Carey. the student constructs his / her own answer to each question. the student chooses the right answer to each item in the selection type of objective test. In the supply type. 1995). Conversely. .

Supply types of Objective Tests • Completion Drawing Type – an incomplete drawing is presented which the student has to complete. • Completion Statement Type – an incomplete sentence is presented and the student has to complete it by filling in the blank .

• Identification Type – a brief description is presented and the student has to identify what it is. .• Correction Type – a sentence with underlined word or phrase is presented. which the student has to replace to make it right.

.• Simple Recall Type – a direct question is presented for the student to answer using a word or phrase. • Short Explanation Type – similar to an essay test but requires a short answer.

Selection Types of Objective Test • Arrangement Type – Terms or objects are to be arranged by the students in a specified order. • Matching Type – A list of numbered items are related to a list of lettered choices .

problem or unfinished sentence followed by several responses. agree – disagree. Variations on the true – false include yes – no.• Multiple Choice Type – this type contains a question. • Alternative Response Type – A test wherein there are only two possible answers to the question. and right – wrong. . The true – false format is a form of alternative response type.

data matrix.• Key List Test – A test wherein the student has to examine paired concepts based on a specified set of criteria (Olivia. interpret. According to Airisian (1994) and Mitchell (1992). 1998). the students have to analyze. passage of a poem. like a map. . In responding to the questions in an interpretive exercise. interpretive exercise provides students some information or data followed by a series of questions on that information. or apply the material provided. • Interpretive Exercise – It is a form of a multiple choice type of test that can assess higher cognitive behaviors. excerpt of a story. table or cartoon.

using his or her own words. There are two forms of the essay test: brief or restricted. and ideas. and extended. .Essay Test -This type of test presents a problem or question and the student is to compose a response in paragraph form.

• Brief or Restricted Essay Test – This form of the essay test requires a limited amount of writing or requires that a given problem be solved in a few sentences. . It gives students more freedom to express ideas and opinions and use synthesizing skills to change knowledge into a creative idea. • Extended Essay Test – This form of the essay test requires a student to present his answer in several paragraphs or pages of writing.

• According to Reyes (2000) and Gay (1985). all levels of cognitive behaviors can be measured with the use of the essay test as shown below. . Nevertheless. the essay test is appropriate to use when learning outcomes cannot be adequately measured by objective test items.

• Knowledge Level – Explain how Siddharta Guatama became Buddha. • Comprehension Level – What does it mean when a person had crossed the Rubicon? • Application Level – Cite three instances showing the application of the Law of Supply and Demand. .

• Analysis Level – Analyze the annual budget of your college as to categories of funds. • Synthesis Level – Discuss the significance of the People’s Power Revolution in the restoration of democracy in the Philippines. . • Evaluation Level – Are you in favor of the political platform of the People’s Reform Party? Justify your answer. major expenditures. sources of funds. and needs of your college.

.Choosing the type of test depends on the teacher’s purpose and the amount of time to be spent for the test. As a general rule. teachers must create specific tests that will allow students to demonstrate targeted learning competencies.

Thank You Reported by : Group 3 .

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