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# I.

Pressure Concepts
Depth: Measured Depth (MD). True Vertical Depth (TVD).

I.Pressure Concepts
Force: ((Force = Mass X Acceleration)) DENISTY: ((= Mass (or Weight) Per Unit Volume))

Pressure

((Is an Expression of Force Per Unit Area)) Hydrostatic Pressure. Frictional Pressure. Annulus Pressure. Well Bore Pressure. Differential Pressure. Bottom Hole Pressure.

Pressure Concepts
Balance: ((Refer to the Relation Between the Formation Pressure and the Hydrostatic Head)) Balanced. Under Balanced. Overbalanced.

II.ROCK PROPERTIES
Porosity. Saturation. Permeability. Overburden. Formation pore pressure. Compaction. Matrix stress.

1. Porosity
Matrix Pores Porosity= Pore Space Volume Bulk Volume.

Porosity Generations
Primary porosity:
HPP

40%.
5%.

## At 10000, shale porosity

reaches

Secondary porosity:
Those ones created after initial deposition. Either by dissolving or fracturing.

2. Saturation
Is that fraction of pore volume that is filled with a given fluid. A 20% sw = 20% of the pores are filled w/ water & 80% w/ other fluid which may be oil or gas.

3. PERMEAPLITY
Is a measure of the ease with which a fluid will flow through a formation. Q= k*a* (p1 p2)/v*l. K = QVL/A(P1-P2) in millidarcies. The larger the porosity the higher the permeabilty.

4. Overburden
Overburden load:
Is the combined weight of the formation matrix and the fluids overlying a formation.

Overburden pressure:
Is the pressure exerted by the overburden load upon underlying formations.

Compaction
It is PRINCIPALY a process of mechanical rearrangement

## Factors Affecting Compaction Rate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rate of deposition. Tectonic forcess. Formation permeability. Lithology. Diagenesis. Osmosis.

Overburden
Overburden pressure

Matrix Stress

Matrix Stress

## Is the resistance of the formation matrix to compaction expressed in psi or psi/ft.

Overburden Gradient
This is an expression of the pressure unit per unit depth. e.g. psi/ft. ppg..

5.Formation Pressure
((Is the Fluid Pressure Found Within the Pore Spaces of the Formation))
Can Be Expressed As an Average Vertical Pressure or Equivalent Mud Weight. E.G. psi, ppg, G/cc

Normal Pressure

Matrix Pores
Expelled fluid

Normal Pressure
Formation pressure in magnitude to the hydrostatic pressure of a column of pore fluid that reaches from the surface to the vertical depth of the formation.

equal

Abnormal Pressure

Matrix Pores

Abnormal Pressure
Formation pressure than the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure of a column of pore fluid that reaches from the surface to the vertical depth of the formation.

greater

## 1.Concept of Continuous Deposition

This concept assumes that the compaction rate of any formation is the same as for all formations of a given type. This mean that shales for example deposited at different times and buried to different depths are considered to have compacted at the same rate as long as the formation pore pressure remained normal.

2. Pressure Seal
((A zone of low permeability acts to trap the pore fluids within a formation.)).
May be either physical or chemical. Restrict the vertical an lateral movement of pressure. e.g. evaporates, faults ..

3.Equilibrium.

S = Mv + P
S= overburden. Mv= Vertical matrix stress. P= formation pore pressure.

Equilibrium
Overburden pressure

Matrix Stress

## Pore Fluid Pressure

4.Transition Zone
This is an argillaceous sequence of gradual pore pressure increase above a permeable high pressure formation.

## Causes of Abnormal Pressure

Rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation. Thermal expansion. Tectonic movement. Reservoir altitude. Clay digenesis. Repress ring of shallow reservoirs.

## Signs of Abnormal pressure

Normalized drilling rate (Drilling models). Change in rotary torque. Change in drag. Shale density. Gas analysis. Flow line temperature. Size and shape of cuttings. Open hole logs.

## Normalized Drilling Rate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Weight on bit. Rotary speed. Bit diameter. Bit type. Rock type. Mud properties. Differential pressure. Hydraulics.

d Exponent

R/60N= (12W/10^6D)^d
-Log(R/60N)=d*log (12W/106D) -d= Log(R/60N)/ log (12W/10^6D) R=rop (ft/hr). N= rpm. W=wob (ib) D= bit diameter (in).

Corrected d exponent
Dc = d*(n/mw)
N= normal pp
Mw= mud weight

Factors Affecting dc
1. 2. 3. 4. Bit wear Lithologic change Drastic changes in drilling parameters. Bit types.

## Flow Line Temperature

Formation fluids tend to act as thermal barriers or insulators which impede the normal flow of heat from the earths core to the surface.

## Size and shape of cuttings

A cutting drilled near balanced conditions will be larger and more angular in shape than one which is drilled under conditions of greater overbalance.

## Pore Pressure Calculations

1.Depth of seal
FP=Sf-[(Se-n)/(TVDe/TVDf)]
FP= fm pressure Sf= overburden at wanted depth Se= overburden at depth of seal. N= normal pp. TVDe= depth of seal TVDf= fm depth

## Pore Pressure Calculations

2. Eaton equation
FP=Sf-(Sf-n)*(DCo/DCn)^m
FP= fm pressure Sf= overburden at wanted depth N= normal pp. DCo= observed dxc DCn= normal dxc
1000 1500

2000

TVD (m)

## 2500 Top Overpressure 3000

NCT 3500

0.1

10

Dc Exponent

Resistivity
1000
1000

Sonic
1500 re s pons e in cas ing

1500

2000

2000

Cycle Sk ipping

TVD (m)

TVD (m)

2500

3000

NCT 3500
NCT 3500

0.1

10
100

RILD (ohm.m)

Sonic (usec/m)

1000

## III- FRACTURE PRESSURE

Is the pressure needed to make a fracture in a formation.
The orientation of the produced fracture depend on the orientation of the principal stress of the fracture point.

Principal Stresses
At any point in the formation there exists a stress regime consisting of three perpendicular stresses Sig1 maximum, sig2 intermediate, sig3 minimum.

Fracture development
The fracture is developed perpendicular to the minimum stress

Poisson Ratio

The ratio of transverse strain to axial strain V=change in breads/original breads change in length/original length

Fracture pressure

Fr={V/(1-V)}*(S-P)+P

## Leak off Test

Application of pressure to a formation to determine its fracture pressure, without fracturing the formation. Frp= MWt + LOP TVDt*.052